[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe the case of a twenty-year-old woman with subacute encephalopathy, who subsequently developed hearing loss and ophtalmopathy. The clinical triad and typical findings on magnetic resonance imaging and cerebrospinal fluid analysis led to the diagnosis of Susac syndrome. Brain positron emission tomography showed abnormalities which are comparable with other types of central nervous system vasculitis, and distinct from those found in multiple sclerosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Different clinical presentations of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) have been described. Fatigue is generally considered to be a secondary sign and is not mentioned as a warning sign for the diagnosis. We present a patient with CIDP in whom fatigue remained the only symptom, hereby stressing the importance of adding this disease to the differential diagnosis of fatigue. Immunomodulatory treatment did not change the clinical course of the patient, but electrodiagnostic features improved substantially.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accurate prediction of biophase pharmacokinetics (PK) is essential to optimize pharmacotherapy in epilepsy. Here, we characterized the PK of the active metabolite of oxcarbazepine, 10,11-dihydro-10-hydroxy-carbamazepine (MHD) in plasma and in the hippocampus. Simultaneously, the impact of acute seizures and efflux transport mechanisms on brain distribution was quantified.
Rats received subtherapeutic and anticonvulsant doses of MHD in non-epileptic conditions and during focal pilocarpine-induced limbic seizures. To evaluate the effect of efflux transport blockade, a separate group received subtherapeutic doses combined with intrahippocampal perfusion of verapamil. Free plasma and extracellular hippocampal MHD concentrations were determined using microdialysis and liquid chromatography techniques. An integrated PK model describing simultaneously the PK of MHD in plasma and brain was developed using nonlinear mixed effects modelling. A bootstrap procedure and a visual predictive check were performed to assess model performance.
A compartmental model with combined zero- and first-order absorption, including lag time and biophase distribution best described the PK of MHD. A distributional process appeared to underlie the increased brain MHD concentrations observed following seizure activity and efflux transport inhibition, as reflected by changes in the volume of distribution of the biophase compartment. In contrast, no changes were observed in plasma PK.
Simultaneous PK modelling of plasma and brain concentrations has not been used previously in the evaluation of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Characterisation of biophase PK is critical to assess the impact of efflux transport mechanisms and acute seizures on brain disposition and, consequently, on AED effects.
British Journal of Pharmacology 11/2008; 155(7):1127-38. DOI:10.1038/bjp.2008.366 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The neurobiological relationships between epilepsy and depression are receiving increased experimental attention. A key role for limbic monoamines in depression has been established and we recently showed the importance of hippocampal monoamines in limbic seizure control. We here studied whether anticonvulsant compounds are antidepressant and can elevate hippocampal dopamine (DA) or serotonin (5-HT) levels determined by in vivo microdialysis in rats. We used assessment of seizure severity in the focal pilocarpine model, antidepressant-like activity within the rat forced swim and the mouse tail suspension tests, and locomotor activity in an open field as behavioural tests. We studied the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine, the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor citalopram and the selective DA reuptake blocker GBR-12909. These compounds with combined antidepressant-anticonvulsant properties all directly enhanced extracellular hippocampal DA or 5-HT levels. Since glutamate-mediated hyperexcitability in temporal lobe regions seems to be involved in disturbed emotional behaviour, we next investigated possible antidepressant effects and hippocampal DA or 5-HT modulations exerted by selective ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor ligands with anticonvulsant properties. Combined anticonvulsant-antidepressant activities of the NMDA antagonist MK-801 and the mGluR group I antagonists (AIDA, MPEP) were also associated with locally elicited increases in hippocampal DA and/or 5-HT levels. This study highlights that the hippocampus is an important site of action of combined anticonvulsant-antidepressant and monoamine enhancing effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating neurologic disorder caused by a polyomavirus, called JC virus. PML affects mainly immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of PML as first manifestation of sarcoidosis in a previously healthy man. Treatment with cidofovir, resulted in a neurological and radiological stabilization. To our knowledge the association of PML and sarcoidosis without previous immunosuppressive treatment has only been described in a few cases, none of them were treated with cidofovir.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increases in hippocampal extracellular neurotransmitter levels have consistently been observed during temporal lobe seizures in humans, but animal studies on this subject have yielded conflicting results. Our aim was to better characterise the relationship between seizure activity and changes in hippocampal glutamate, GABA, dopamine and serotonin by comparing three limbic seizure models which differ only in the pharmacological mechanism used to induce seizures. Seizures were evoked in freely moving rats by intrahippocampal microperfusion, via a microdialysis probe, of the muscarinic receptor agonist pilocarpine (10mM), GABA(A) receptor antagonist picrotoxin (100microM) or group I metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist (R,S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) (1mM). Seizure-related behavioural changes were scored and hippocampal extracellular glutamate, GABA, dopamine and serotonin concentrations were monitored. Seizures were of comparable severity in all groups. During seizures, hippocampal glutamate, GABA and dopamine concentrations increased in all groups. Glutamate increases were significantly higher in the picrotoxin group. Hippocampal serotonin concentration increased following pilocarpine and picrotoxin, but not DHPG. Our results suggest a direct relationship between seizure activity and increased hippocampal extracellular concentrations of glutamate, GABA and dopamine, but not serotonin. The fact that picrotoxin induces seizures by disinhibition, rather than direct excitation, may account for the larger glutamate increases in this group.
Epilepsy Research 02/2008; 78(1):50-9. DOI:10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2007.10.007 · 2.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a case of lower limb sensory disturbances and weakness in a patient originating from Mali. MRI showed a diffuse myelopathy of the cervical and thoracic spinal cord. Serological evaluation of blood and cerebrospinal fluid pointed towards schistosomiasis as the cause. Histological confirmation was made on bladder-biopsy. Treatment with praziquantel and steroids brought marked clinical improvement. This case illustrates the need to keep in mind more exotic causes of myelopathy in those patients coming from endemic regions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potent anticonvulsant properties of neuropeptide Y (NPY) are generally attributed to a Y2 receptor-mediated inhibition of glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Independent studies have shown that NPY increases brain dopamine content, possibly via interaction with sigma 1 receptors. Recently, we showed that increased extracellular hippocampal dopamine attenuates pilocarpine-induced limbic seizures via activation of hippocampal D2 receptors. Our aim in this study was to elucidate the role of increased hippocampal dopamine in the mechanism of the anticonvulsant action of NPY and to investigate the involvement of Y2 and sigma 1 receptors in this process. Limbic seizures were evoked in freely moving rats by intrahippocampal administration of pilocarpine via a microdialysis probe. NPY was administered intracerebroventricularly, intrahippocampally via the microdialysis probe, or coadministered intrahippocampally with the D2 receptor antagonist remoxipride, the Y2 receptor antagonist BIIE0246 or the sigma 1 receptor antagonist BD1047. Changes in hippocampal extracellular dopamine were monitored, and behavioural changes indicative of seizure activity were scored. Intracerebroventricular (10 nmol/3 microL) and intrahippocampal (20-50 microm) NPY administration increased hippocampal dopamine and attenuated pilocarpine-induced seizures. Hippocampal D2 receptor blockade (4 microm remoxipride) reversed the anticonvulsant effect of NPY. Y2 receptor blockade (1 microm BIIE0246) reversed the anticonvulsant effect of NPY but did not prevent NPY-induced increases in hippocampal dopamine. Sigma 1 receptor blockade (10 microm BD1047) abolished NPY-induced increases in hippocampal dopamine and reversed the anticonvulsant effect of NPY. Our results indicate that NPY-induced increases in hippocampal dopamine are mediated via sigma 1 receptors and contribute to the anticonvulsant effect of NPY via increased activation of hippocampal D2 receptors. This novel mechanism of anticonvulsant action of NPY is separate from, and may be complementary to, the well established Y2 receptor-mediated inhibition of hippocampal excitability.
European Journal of Neuroscience 01/2008; 26(11):3079-92. DOI:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2007.05911.x · 3.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the effects of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid.H2O (NMDA) on the dopamine, glutamate and GABA release in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) by using in vivo microdialysis in rats. NMDA (100 micromol/L) perfused through the microdialysis probe evoked an increase in extracellular dopamine in the STN of the intact rat of about 170%. This coincided with significant increases in both extracellular glutamate (350%) and GABA (250%). The effect of NMDA perfusion on neurotransmitter release at the level of the STN was completely abolished by co-perfusion of the selective NMDA-receptor antagonist MK-801 (10 micromol/L), whereas subthalamic perfusion of MK-801 alone had no effect on extracellular neurotransmitter concentrations. Furthermore, NMDA induced increases in glutamate were abolished by both SCH23390 (8 micromol/L), a selective D1 antagonist, and remoxipride (4 micromol/L), a selective D2 antagonist. The NMDA induced increase in GABA was abolished by remoxipride but not by SCH23390. Perfusion of the STN with SCH23390 or remoxipride alone had no effect on extracellular neurotransmitter concentrations. The observed effects in intact animals depend on the nigral dopaminergic innervation, as dopamine denervation, by means of 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning of the substantia nigra, clearly abolished the effects of NMDA on neurotransmitter release at the level of the STN. Our work points to a complex interaction between dopamine, glutamate and GABA with a crucial role for dopamine at the level of the STN.
Journal of Neurochemistry 12/2007; 103(3):1063-74. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2007.04847.x · 4.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Locally administered angiotensin IV causes a dose-dependent increase of the dopamine levels in the striatum of the rat. The aminopeptidases insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) and/or aminopeptidase N (AP-N) are proposed to be involved in this effect since both enzymes are inhibited by angiotensin IV. In agreement with this hypothesis we demonstrate that by using the AP-N selective inhibitor 7B, about 60% of the aminopeptidase activity in striatal membranes could be attributed to AP-N (pK(i)=9.20). Higher concentrations of 7B are capable of inhibiting IRAP as well (pK(i)=7.26). Interestingly, in vivo, inhibition of IRAP or AP-N activity does not appear to be involved in the angiotensin IV-mediated effect in the striatum since 7B itself is not capable to induce dopamine release such as observed with angiotensin IV. However, 7B at a concentration selective for inhibition of AP-N (100 nM) potentiates the angiotensin IV-mediated increase of dopamine, suggesting that inhibition of AP-N lengthens the half-life of angiotensin IV. On the other hand, inhibition of both AP-N and IRAP by perfusion of 500 nM 7B completely abolishes the effect of angiotensin IV. We therefore hypothesize that the effect of angiotensin IV on dopamine release in the striatum is mediated via activation of IRAP and/or AP-N, possibly acting as receptors for angiotensin IV.
Brain Research 03/2007; 1131(1):97-105. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2006.11.010 · 2.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A substantial amount of experimental evidence implicates neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Over the past 20 years, remarkable progress has been made in unraveling the mechanisms and receptors involved in the anticonvulsant effect of this abundantly expressed neuropeptide. Activation of Y(2) and/or Y(5) receptors and blockade of Y(1) receptors in the central nervous system suppresses seizures in a variety of animal seizure models. Orally available, brain penetrating Y(2) and/or Y(5) agonists, and possibly Y(1) antagonists, may therefore constitute a novel class of antiepileptic drugs, which could greatly benefit patients with medically refractory epilepsy. Significant progress has been made in identifying non-peptidergic Y(1) antagonists that fulfill these criteria, but suitable Y(2) and/or Y(5) agonists have proven to be more elusive. Innovative oral and parental drug delivery strategies which are currently under development may offer a means of using the more readily available peptidergic NPY receptor ligands in a clinical setting. Finally, gene therapy, antisense probes or RNA interference strategies which alter the expression of NPY or its receptors in specific brain regions may also be of use in the treatment of epilepsy, but will probably benefit a smaller subgroup of epilepsy patients, since they typically require an invasive procedure.
Current topics in medicinal chemistry 02/2007; 7(17):1660-74. DOI:10.2174/156802607782340975 · 3.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The monoamines dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and serotonin and their major metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene glycol, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were measured in the CNS of the rat during development from fetal day 18 to young adult. The catecholamines, serotonin, and their major metabolites remained low during fetal life. Concentrations measured in total brain started to increase around birth till the end of the fourth week of life after which steady-state levels were measured. Our results suggest that although monoamine systems are already morphologically well developed during late gestational life, they probably become a significant functional system only around birth and early postnatal life.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The concentrations of the acidic dopamine (DA) catabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylacetic acid (DOPAC) measured in human CSF are supposed to reflect the “turnover” of DA in the brain. The notion of “turnover” is, however, not synonymous with impulse nerve activity in the dopaminergic systems. Significant amounts of DOPAC and HVA could, indeed, be demonstrated in brain structures wherein dopaminergic inner-vation has not been documented. It must also be noted that DA is not only a neurotransmitter itself, but also a precursor of norepinephrine and epinephrine. Furthermore, in lumbar CSF, levels of biogenic amine catabolites partially reflect metabolism in the spinal cord and may have limited relevance to neurotransmission in the brain. To elucidate these points further, we determined the concentrations of DOPAC and HVA in 22 areas of six human brains and eight levels of six human spinal cords. The data were correlated with the concentration of DA. Quantitative determinations were done using HPLC with electrochemical detection, after solvent and ion-pair extraction. In this study, significant amounts of both DOPAC and HVA were demonstrated in brain structures not previously associated with dopaminergic innervation. The relatively lower DA concentration in these structures suggests that in these regions, the DOPAC and HVA concentrations are unrelated to dopaminergic neurotransmission. The possible role of capillary walls and glial cells in the catabolism of DA must be further evaluated. The demonstration of DOPAC and HVA in the spinal cord is another argument against the hypothesis that CSF levels of HVA and DOPAC reflect closely the activity of the dopaminergic systems in the brain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) is known to play a role in gating and control of seizures. Prompted by the observation that intrahippocampal topiramate (TPM) administration does not suppress limbic seizures in the focal pilocarpine model, we investigated the role of the SNR in the anticonvulsant mechanism of action of TPM.
Limbic seizures were evoked in freely moving rats by intrahippocampal administration of pilocarpine via a microdialysis probe. Changes in hippocampal extracellular (EC) glutamate and GABA concentrations were monitored. Effects of intraperitoneal (10-200 mg/kg), intrahippocampal (1-5 mM), and bilateral intranigral (100-300 nmol) TPM administration on pilocarpine-induced seizures and neurochemical changes were evaluated. Effects of TPM administration alone on hippocampal and nigral EC amino acid concentrations were also studied.
Systemic and intranigral, but not intrahippocampal TPM administration suppressed pilocarpine-induced seizures and neurochemical changes. Nigral GABA(A) receptor blockade by picrotoxin abolished the anticonvulsant effect of TPM in SNR. Systemic TPM administration increased hippocampal glutamate and decreased GABA. Intranigral TPM administration increased hippocampal glutamate, but not GABA. Intrahippocampal TPM increased hippocampal glutamate and GABA, but only at high concentrations.
In the focal pilocarpine model, TPM does not exert its anticonvulsant effect at the site of seizure initiation. We identified the SNR as a site of action of TPM, and showed that the nigral GABA-ergic system is central to TPM's anticonvulsant effect in SNR. Anticonvulsant effects and neurochemical changes in hippocampus following intranigral TPM administration suggest the existence of a nigro-hippocampal circuit, which may be involved in the control of limbic seizures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anti-convulsant properties of angiotensin IV (Ang IV), an inhibitor of insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) and somatostatin-14, a substrate of IRAP, were evaluated in the acute pilocarpine rat seizure model. Simultaneously, the neurochemical changes in the hippocampus were monitored using in vivo microdialysis. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered Ang IV or somatostatin-14 caused a significant increase in the hippocampal extracellular dopamine and serotonin levels and protected rats against pilocarpine-induced seizures. These effects of Ang IV were both blocked by concomitant i.c.v. administration of the somatostatin receptor-2 antagonist cyanamid 154806. These results reveal a possible role for dopamine and serotonin in the anti-convulsant effect of Ang IV and somatostatin-14. Our study suggests that the ability of Ang IV to inhibit pilocarpine-induced convulsions is dependent on somatostatin receptor-2 activation, and is possibly mediated via the inhibition of IRAP resulting in an elevated concentration of somatostatin-14 in the brain.
Journal of Neurochemistry 09/2006; 98(4):1100-13. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.03942.x · 4.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently showed that dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) exert anticonvulsant effects against limbic seizures in rats mediated by hippocampal D(2) and 5-HT(1A) receptor stimulation. For exogenously administered monoamines, anticonvulsant activity was only observed following 70--400% and 80--350% increases in baseline levels for dopamine and serotonin, respectively. The aim of the present microdialysis study was to investigate whether oxcarbazepine and its active metabolite, 10,11-dihydro-10-hydroxycarbamazepine (MHD) promote the release of hippocampal monoamines. Initially, concentration-response experiments were performed. Different concentrations of both compounds were perfused into the hippocampus via the microdialysis probe and tested for their effects on extracellular monoamine levels and anticonvulsant properties against pilocarpine-evoked seizures in rats. Anticonvulsant activity was always accompanied by significant increases in dopamine and serotonin levels. The anticonvulsant threshold concentrations for oxcarbazepine (100 microM) and 10,11-dihydro-10-hydroxycarbamazepine (250 microM) were associated with, respectively, 140 and 205% increases in hippocampal dopamine and 288 and 176% increases in serotonin concentrations. Co-perfusion of these anticonvulsant threshold concentrations for both compounds either with a selective D(2) or 5-HT(1A) antagonist abolished all anticonvulsant effects. This study shows that oxcarbazepine and 10,11-dihydro-10-hydroxycarbamazepine exert important monoamine promoting effects that, at least partly, contribute to the anticonvulsant mechanism of action of these compounds. The effects on dopamine and serotonin levels are therefore proposed as pharmacodynamic markers for the anticonvulsant activity of these compounds. These pharmacodynamic markers are here shown to be useful for the selection of anticonvulsant threshold concentrations of oxcarbazepine and 10,11-dihydro-10-hydroxycarbamazepine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously we showed that treatment with mild hypothermia (34 degrees C for 2 h) after a focal cerebral infarct was neuroprotective by reducing apoptosis in the penumbra (cortex), but not in the core (striatum) of the infarct. In this study we examined whether administration of N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) in combination with mild hypothermia could improve striatal neuroprotection in the endothelin-1 rat model. NAAG (10 mg/kg i.p.) was injected under normothermic (37 degrees C) or mild hypothermic conditions, either 40 min before or 20 min after the insult. NAAG reduced caspase 3 immunoreactivity in the striatum, irrespective of the time of administration and brain temperature. This neuroprotective effect could be explained, at least partially, by decreased nitric oxide synthase activity in the striatum and was blocked by the group II metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist, LY341495. Hypothermia applied together with NAAG reduced both cortical and striatal caspase 3 immunoreactivity, as well as the overall ischaemic damage in these areas. However, no pronounced improvement was seen in total damaged brain volume. Extracellular glutamate levels did not correlate with the observed protection, whatever treatment protocol was applied. We conclude that treatment with NAAG causes the same degree of neuroprotection as treatment with hypothermia. Combination of the two treatments, although reducing apoptosis, does not considerably improve ischaemic damage.
Journal of Neurochemistry 01/2006; 95(5):1287-97. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2005.03450.x · 4.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 115ANTICONVULSANT ACTION OF A SUBUNIT-SPECIFIC NMDA RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST IFENPRODIL IN IMMATURE RATS 1P.Mareš and 1A.Mikulecká ( Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of The Czech Republic, Czech Republic ) Purpose: To study possible anticonvulsant action of ifenprodil and its side effects on motor performance in immature rats. Method: Motor seizures were elicited by pentylenetetrazol (100 mg/kg s.c.) in 7-, 12-, 18- and 25-day-old rats. The incidence and latency of minimal clonic and generalised tonic–clonic seizures were evaluated. Motor performance was tested in 12-, 18- and 25-day-old rats using age specific tests; spontaneouos locomotion was measured in open field. Ifenprodil (10, 20 or 40 mg/kg i.p.) was administered 20 min before pentylenetetrazol injection or behavioural testing. Open field was tested once more one hour after ifenprodil administration. Results: Minimal clonic seizures could be elicited only in 18- and 25-day-old rats. Ifenprodil did not influence their incidence and latency. Specific anticonvulsant action (suppression of the tonic phase of generalised seizures) was found in 7-, 12- and 18-day-old rats. This effect decreased with age and it failed to appear in 25-day-old animals. Latency of generalised seizures was prolonged in 7-day-old but paradoxically shortened in older animals. Locomotor activity was transiently increased by ifenprodil only in 12-day-old rats; it remained uninfluenced in older animals. Motor performace was moderately compromised in the youngest group only. Motor activity was normalised one hour after the administration. Conclusion: Ifenprodil exhibits specific action against the tonic phase of generalised seizures in the first three postnatal weeks. Unwanted side effects on motor activitites were observed only in 12-day-old rats but not in older animals. Ifenprodil thus differs from other NMDA receptor antagonists. Supported by research projects LC554 and AV0Z5011009.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, we showed that treatment with resuscitative, post-ischaemic mild hypothermia (34 degrees C for 2 h) reduced apoptosis in the penumbra (cortex), but not in the core (striatum) of an endothelin-1 (Et-1)-induced focal cerebral infarct in the anaesthetized rat. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate by which pathways resuscitative mild hypothermia exerts its neuroprotective effect in this model. The amino acids glutamate, serine, glutamine, alanine, taurine, arginine and the NO-related compound citrulline were sampled from the striatum and cortex of the ischaemic hemisphere using in vivo microdialysis. The in vivo salicylate trapping method was applied for monitoring hydroxyl radical formation via 2,3 dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3 DHBA) detection. Caspase-3, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) immunoreactivity and the volume of ischaemic damage were determined 24 h after the insult. In both the striatum and the cortex, Et-1-induced increases in glutamate, taurine and alanine were refractory to mild hypothermia. However, mild hypothermia significantly attenuated the ischaemia-induced 2,3 DHBA levels and the nNOS immunoreactivity in the cortex, but not in the striatum. These observations were associated with a decreased caspase-3 immunoreactivity. These results suggest that mild hypothermia exerts its neuroprotective effect in the penumbra partially by reducing nNOS activity and thereby preventing oxidative stress. Furthermore, we confirm our previous findings that the neuroprotective effect of resuscitative hypothermia is not mediated by changes in ischaemia-induced amino acid release as they could not be associated with the ischaemia-induced damage in the Et-1 rat model.
European Journal of Neuroscience 10/2005; 22(6):1327-37. DOI:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2005.04331.x · 3.18 Impact Factor