Catherine Pairault

Unité Inserm U1077, Caen, Lower Normandy, France

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Publications (26)85.37 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Cadmium (Cd) is a common environmental pollutant and a major constituent of tobacco smoke. Adverse effects of this heavy metal on reproductive function have been identified in adults; however, no studies have examined its effects on human reproductive organs during development. Using our previously developed organ culture system, we investigated the effects of cadmium chloride on human gonads at the beginning of fetal life, a critical stage in the development of reproductive function. Human fetal gonads were recovered during the first trimester (711 weeks postconception) and cultured with or without Cd. We used different concentrations of Cd and compared results with those obtained with mouse fetal gonads at similar stages. Cd, at concentrations as low as 1 microM, significantly decreased the germ cell density in human fetal ovaries. This correlated with an increase in germ cell apoptosis, but there was no effect on proliferation. Similarly, in the human fetal testis, Cd (1 microM) reduced germ cell number without affecting testosterone secretion. In mouse fetal gonads, Cd increased only female germ cell apoptosis. This is the first experimental demonstration that Cd, at low concentrations, alters the survival of male and female germ cells in humans. Considering data demonstrating extensive human exposure, we believe that current environmental levels of Cd could be deleterious to early gametogenesis.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 03/2010; 118(3):331-7. · 7.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have described an increasing frequency of male reproductive disorders, which may have a common origin in fetal life and which are hypothesized to be caused by endocrine disruptors. Phthalate esters represent a class of environmental endocrine-active chemicals known to disrupt development of the male reproductive tract by decreasing testosterone production in the fetal rat. Using the organ culture system we developed previously, we investigated the effects on the development of human fetal testis of one phthalate--mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP)--an industrial chemical found in many products, which has been incriminated as a disruptor of male reproductive function. Human fetal testes were recovered during the first trimester (7-12 weeks) of gestation, a critical period for testicular differentiation, and cultured for 3 days with or without MEHP in basal conditions or stimulated with luteinizing hormone (LH). Whatever the dose, MEHP treatment had no effect on basal or LH-stimulated testosterone produced by the human fetal testis in vitro, although testosterone production can be modulated in our culture system. MEHP (10(-4) M) did not affect proliferation or apoptosis of Sertoli cells, but it reduced the mRNA expression of anti-Müllerian hormone. MEHP (10(-4) M) reduced the number of germ cells by increasing their apoptosis, measured by the detection of caspase-3-positive germ cells, without modification of their proliferation. This is the first experimental demonstration that phthalates alter the development of the germ cell lineage in humans. However, in contrast to results observed in the rat, phthalates did not affect steroidogenesis.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 02/2009; 117(1):32-7. · 7.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are great concerns about the increasing incidence of abnormalities in male reproductive function. Human sperm counts have markedly dropped and the rate of testicular cancer has clearly augmented over the past four decades. Moreover, the prevalence rates of cryptorchidism and hypospadias are also probably increasing. It has been hypothesized that all these adverse trends in male reproduction result from abnormalities in the development of the testis during foetal and neonatal life. Furthermore, many recent epidemiological, clinical and experimental data suggest that these male reproductive disorders could be due to the effects of xenobiotics termed endocrine disruptors, which are becoming more and more concentrated and prevalent in our environment. Among these endocrine disruptors, we chose to focus this review on the phthalates for different reasons: 1) they are widespread in the environment; 2) their concentrations in many human biological fluids have been measured; 3) the experimental data using rodent models suggesting a reprotoxicity are numerous and are the most convincing; 4) their deleterious effects on the in vivo and in vitro development and function of the rat foetal testis have been largely studied; 5) some epidemiological data in humans suggest a reprotoxic effect at environmental concentrations at least during neonatal life. However, the direct effects of phthalates on human foetal testis have never been explored. Thus, as we did for the rat in the 1990s, we recently developed and validated an organ culture system which allows maintenance of the development of the different cell types of human foetal testis. In this system, addition of 10-4 M MEHP (mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate), the most produced phthalate, had no effect on basal or LH-stimulated production of testosterone, but it reduced the number of germ cells by increasing their apoptosis, without modification of their proliferation. This is the first experimental demonstration that phthalates alter the development of the foetal testis in humans. Using our organotypic culture system, we and others are currently investigating the effect of MEHP in the mouse and the rat, and it will be interesting to compare the results between these species to analyse the relevance of toxicological tests based on rodent models.
    Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 01/2009; 47(5):S67-74. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The two major functions of the testis, steroidogenesis and gametogenesis, take place during fetal life. These two functions have been extensively studied in rodents and adult humans. However, their onset during fetal life is poorly documented in humans. In the first part of this work we presented both our experimental data and some data of literature concerning the development of the human fetal testis. In the second part of this article, using the organ culture system we previously developed, we have investigated the regulations or perturbations of fetal testis development both in rodent and human models. Our findings provide important insight into the potential role of exposure to environmental pollutants (physical factors, in particular ionizing radiation, cadmium and endocrine disruptors such as phthalates) during fetal testicular development and their potential deleterious effects on male fertility in adulthood. Our results highlight the specificity of the human model compared with rodent models.
    Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 01/2009; 47(5):S19-24. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two major functions are assumed by the testis: the production of male gametes (that is, spermatozoa) and the production of steroid hormones. Both two functions are established during fetal life and are essential to the adult fertility and the masculinization of the internal tract and genitalia. For many years, our laboratory has been interested in the ontogeny of those two functions in rodents and, since 2003, in collaboration with gynecology and obstetrics service of professor R. Frydman in Antoine-Béclère hospital, we have studied them in human. The first aim of this work was to improve the global knowledge of the human fetal testis development by using both our experimental data and the literature. Then, we focused on the different defects that can occur during the fetal testis development. Indeed, male reproductive abnormalities have been steadily increasing since the last decades and are thought to be related to the concomitant increase of the concentration of contaminants and particularly of endocrine disruptors in the environment. Thus, we decided to study the effect of endocrine disruptors on human fetal testis and, more particularly, the effect of phthalates, by using an organ culture system developed for human. In contrast to the data obtained in rat, mono (ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP), an active metabolite of the most widespread phthalate in the environment, does not disturb the steroidogenic function. On the other hand, it has a negative effect on the male germ cells number. This study is the first experimental demonstration of a negative effect of phthalates directly on human fetal testis.
    Gynécologie Obstétrique & Fertilité 10/2008; 36(9):898-907. · 0.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two major functions are assumed by the testis: the production of male gametes (that is, spermatozoa) and the production of steroid hormones. Both two functions are established during fetal life and are essential to the adult fertility and the masculinization of the internal tract and genitalia. For many years, our laboratory has been interested in the ontogeny of those two functions in rodents and, since 2003, in collaboration with gynecology and obstetrics service of professor R. Frydman in Antoine-Béclère hospital, we have studied them in human. The first aim of this work was to improve the global knowledge of the human fetal testis development by using both our experimental data and the literature. Then, we focused on the different defects that can occur during the fetal testis development. Indeed, male reproductive abnormalities have been steadily increasing since the last decades and are thought to be related to the concomitant increase of the concentration of contaminants and particularly of endocrine disruptors in the environment. Thus, we decided to study the effect of endocrine disruptors on human fetal testis and, more particularly, the effect of phthalates, by using an organ culture system developed for human. In contrast to the data obtained in rat, mono (ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP), an active metabolite of the most widespread phthalate in the environment, does not disturb the steroidogenic function. On the other hand, it has a negative effect on the male germ cells number. This study is the first experimental demonstration of a negative effect of phthalates directly on human fetal testis.
    Gynecologie Obstetrique & Fertilite - GYNECOL OBSTET FERTIL. 01/2008; 36(9):898-907.
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    ABSTRACT: Germ cells formed during human fetal life are essential for fertility of the adult, and several studies have described an increasing frequency of male reproductive disorders, which may have a common origin in fetal life and which are hypothesized to be caused by endocrine disruptors. However, factors inducing a genotoxic stress may also be implicated. We investigated the effect of gamma-irradiation on the functions of human fetal testis during the first trimester of gestation by using an organ culture system. Then we focused on the role of the p53 pathway in the observed effects. Germ cells were highly sensitive to irradiation even at doses as low as 0.1 and 0.2 Gy. Indeed, for these doses, one third of germ cells died by apoptosis. Other germ cells were blocked in their cycle, but no repair seemed to occur, and longer culture with the highest dose used showed that they were destined to die. Sertoli cells were less affected, although their proliferation and the level of anti-Müllerian hormone were reduced. Irradiation had no effect on testosterone secretion or on the expression of steroidogenic enzymes by Leydig cells. After irradiation, p53 phosphorylated on serine 15 was detected from 1-24 h in all cell types. This activation of p53 was accompanied by an increase in mRNA levels of proapoptotic factors Bax and Puma, whereas that of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 remained unchanged. P21, which is responsible for cell cycle arrest, was also up-regulated 6, 30, and 72 h after irradiation. Finally, when we added pifithrin-alpha, a specific inhibitor of p53 functions, a significant decrease in irradiation-induced apoptosis in both germ and Sertoli cells was observed, indicating the involvement of the p53 pathway in irradiation-induced apoptosis. This study demonstrated here for the first time the great sensitivity of human fetal germ cells to genotoxic stress caused by ionizing radiation.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 08/2007; 92(7):2632-9. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In mammals, the pool of primordial follicles at birth is determinant for female fertility. Exposure to IR during oogonia proliferation and the diplotene stages of ovarian development induced the virtual disappearance of primordial follicles in the postnatal ovary, while half the follicular reserve remained present after irradiation during the zygotene/pachytene stages. This sensitivity difference was correlated with the level of caspase-2 expression evaluated by immunohistochemistry. At the diplotene stage, Western blot and caspase activity analysis revealed that caspase-2 was activated 2 h after irradiation and a significant increase in the number of oocytes expressing cleaved caspase-9 and -3 occurred 6 h after treatment. Inhibition of caspase-2 activity prevented the cleavage of caspase-9 and partially prevented the loss of oocytes in response to irradiation. Taken together, our results show that caspase-2-dependent activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway is one of the mechanisms involved in the genotoxic stress-induced depletion of the primordial follicle pool.
    Cell Death and Differentiation 05/2007; 14(4):671-81. · 8.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Resume Le potentiel reproducteur de l’adulte dépend, en partie, de la mise en place de la lignée germinale pendant la vie fœtale et néonatale. Une hypothèse récente assez largement partagée suggère que l’augmentation des altérations de la reproduction masculine observée au cours des dernières décennies, comme la diminution de la production spermatique et l’augmentation de l’incidence des cancers testiculaires, résulterait de modifications du développement de la lignée germinale pendant la vie fœtale et néonatale en réponse à l’augmentation de la pollution environnementale. Cependant peu d’outils sont disponibles pour étudier le développement de la lignée germinale fœtale et néonatale. Nous décrivons ici un système de culture organotypique dans lequel le testicule se développe sur un filtre flottant à la surface d’un milieu synthétique ne contenant ni sérum ni facteurs biologiques. Chez le rat et la souris, nous avons comparé le développement des cellules de Sertoli et des cellules germinates dans ce système avec leur développement observéin vivo. Ces cellules se développent normalement chez le rat sur une période de deux semaines. Moins de cellules sont produites qu’in vivo mais les fonctions de chaque cellule sont comparables. Des résultats similaires ont été observés chez la souris, mais la durée de maintienin vitro est plus courte que chez le rat et ce sont les stades fœtaux les plus jeunes qui donnent les meilleurs résultats. En utilisant ce modèle, nous avons pu étudier le développement de la lignée germinale de testicules prélevés immédiatement avant la naissance sur des fœtus invalidés pour p63, un gène requis pour la survie postnatale, et montrer que p63 est impliqué dans le contrôle de l’apoptose néonatale de la lignée germinale. Enfin, nous avons étendu ce modèle de culture à l’espèce humaine (6 à 12 semaines de grossesse) et montré que l’on peut maintenir l’architecture testiculaire et les cellules germinates pendant 4 jours avec une efficacité supérieure pour les stades jeunes (moins de 8 semaines). En conclusion, ce modèle est potentiellement très intéressant pour étudier l’effet de facteurs physiologiques ou toxiques sur la mise en place de la lignée germinale chez le mâle.
    Andrologie 01/2007; 17(1):25-41.
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    Biochimie 01/2007; 89(1):179-179. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to environmental pollutants (EP) is associated with a wide range of toxic effects, in particular in testis development. Uranium is a potential pollutant of nuclear industry and over the last few years, its environmental concentrations have increased. In animals, the current procedures for evaluating the potential developmental toxicity of uranium are based on in vivo studies. These methods do not allow to know the direct effects on testicular cells and are obviously excluded for human experiments. Consequently, we have developed an in vitro culture system of the whole testis. In the present study we characterized and validated this organ culture system in both mouse fetal testes and human fetal testes recovered during the first trimester (6-12 weeks) of gestation. We compared the histological aspect, the number of germ cells and the testosterone production, before and after culture. Testicular architecture and intercellular communications were preserved, and organ culture appears as a powerful method for studying the early development of testicular gametogenesis and steroidogenesis in both species. Thus by using this method we will be able to investigate the effects of uranium on mouse and human developing testis. The mouse model will allow us to determine the dose range of interest without restriction of material.
    Biochimie 12/2006; 88(11):1831-5. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In human, the chronology of the testicular development has been extensively studied, but the factors implicated in the onset and the regulation of gametogenesis and steroidogenesis remain hardly known. To identify these factors, we developed an organ culture system for human fetal testes recovered during the first trimester (6-12 wk) of gestation. We first aimed at investigating the characteristics of this system by comparing the in vivo and in vitro gametogenesis and steroidogenesis. Second, we used organ culture to investigate the effect on the human testicular functions of retinoic acid (RA), previously described as a regulator of gonadal development in rodents. Organ culture proved to be an efficient tool for studying the early development of the testicular functions. Indeed, this system was able to maintain satisfactory development of the germ cells and Leydig cells in the absence of any added factor. For older fetuses, the number of germ cells decreased in culture and the LH was necessary to maintain the steroidogenic activity. The addition of 10(-6) m RA decreased the total number of germ cells in the fetal testis at all studied stages. This resulted from an increase in apoptosis, which slightly exceeded the increase of proliferation. However, RA had a stimulatory effect on the steroidogenic function for the youngest fetuses over a short period of time by increasing the expression of P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage, 17 alpha-hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase, and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. Thus, RA appears as a potential regulator of both gametogenesis and steroidogenesis in human fetal testis. Our organ culture is an interesting tool for studying the effects of various factors on the development of human fetal testis, in particular the effect of hormone-disrupting chemicals.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 08/2006; 91(7):2696-703. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The key role of the fetal testis in the masculinization of genital organs has been known for a long time. More recently, the observed increases in male reproductive disorders has been postulated to be the result of changes in fetal and neonatal testis development in response to increasing environmental pollution. However, few tools are available for studying fetal testis development and the effects of physiological or toxic substances. We have developed an organ culture system in which rat fetal testis is grown on a filter floating on a synthetic medium containing no serum, hormones or biological factors. In this study, we have compared the long-term morpho-functional development of the various testicular cell types in this system with that observed in vivo and have extended this system to the mouse. Rat Leydig, Sertoli and germ cells and macrophages develop normally over a period of 1-2 weeks in this system. Fewer cells are produced than in vivo but the level of differentiated function is similar. Germ cells, which are difficult to culture in vitro, resume mitosis after a quiescent period, at the same time as in vivo. Similar results have been obtained with mouse fetuses, except that Leydig cells dedifferentiate in vitro if the testis is explanted after 13.5 days post conception. Testicular architecture and intercellular communication are sufficiently preserved for the development of the main fetal and neonatal testicular cell types in vitro with no added factors. Our floating-filter organotypic culture system in synthetic medium therefore allows the morpho-functional development of somatic and germ cells in fetal testis explants taken at all developmental stages in rat and at early stages in mouse. This method is potentially useful for studies of the effects of various factors, and of xenobiotics, in particular.
    Cell and Tissue Research 07/2006; 324(3):507-21. · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have suggested that excessive exposure to estrogens during fetal/neonatal life can lead to reproductive disorders and sperm abnormalities in adulthood. However, it is unknown whether endogenous concentrations of estrogens affect the establishment of the male fetal germ cell lineage. We addressed this question by studying the testicular development of mice in which the estrogen receptor (ER) beta or the ERalpha gene was inactivated. The homozygous inactivation of ERbeta (ERbeta-/-) increased the number of gonocytes by 50% in 2- and 6-d-old neonates. The numbers of Sertoli and Leydig cells and the level of testicular testosterone production were unaffected, suggesting that estrogens act directly on the gonocytes. The increase in the number of gonocytes did not occur during fetal life but instead occurred just after birth, when gonocytes resumed mitosis and apoptosis. It seems to result from a decrease in the apoptosis rate evaluated by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method and cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemical detection. Last, mice heterozygous for the ERbeta gene inactivation behaved similarly to their ERbeta-/- littermates in terms of the number of gonocytes, apoptosis, and mitosis, suggesting that these cells are highly sensitive to the binding of estrogens to ERbeta. ERalpha inactivation had no effect on the number of neonatal gonocytes and Sertoli cells. In conclusion, this study provides the first demonstration that endogenous estrogens can physiologically inhibit germ cell growth in the male. This finding may have important implications concerning the potential action of environmental estrogens.
    Endocrinology 08/2004; 145(7):3395-403. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Retinoic acid (RA) was recently shown to modify testosterone secretion of the fetal testis in vitro. We characterized this effect by culturing rat testes explanted at various ages, from Fetal Day 14.5 to Postnatal Day 3. In basal medium, RA inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, both basal and acute LH-stimulated testosterone secretion by testes explanted on Fetal Days 14.5, 15.5, and 16.5. It had no effect on testes from older animals. The negative effect of RA did not result from a diminution in the number of Leydig cells but from a decrease in P450c17 mRNA levels and in LH-stimulated cAMP production. However, the RA-induced decrease in P450C17 mRNA levels was also observed with neonatal testes, suggesting that this enzymatic step is no longer rate limiting at this developmental stage. To study the physiological relevance of RA effects, we used fetuses and neonates issued from mothers fed a vitamin A-deficient (VAD) diet, resulting in a threefold decrease of plasma retinol concentration. On Fetal Day 18.5 and on Posnatal Day 3, testosterone secretion by the testis ex vivo was significantly increased in VAD animals. This shows that the endogenous retinol inhibits differentiation and/or function of fetal Leydig cells before Fetal Day 18.5 and is required for the normal regression of fetal Leydig cell function that occurs after Fetal Day 18.5. In conclusion, our results show that retinoids play a negative role on the steroidogenic activity during the differentiation of rat fetal Leydig cells.
    Biology of Reproduction 07/2004; 70(6):1814-21. · 4.03 Impact Factor
  • Annales D Endocrinologie - ANN ENDOCRINOL. 01/2004; 65(4):346-347.
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    ABSTRACT: The foetal testis originates from a proliferation of the mesonephric and the coelomic epithelia which are colonized by the primordial germ cells. In the foetal testis, the development and functions of the three main cell type precursors (Leydig, Sertoli and germ cells) do not depend upon gonadotropins. Numerous intra- and extra-testicular factors are candidates for the control of its development and functions. To study the potential involvement of these factors, we developed an organotypic culture system. In absence of any growth factors or hormone, this system allows a development of the three main cell types which mimics that observed in vivo. The effects of different regulators (gonadotropin-releasing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, transforming growth factor-beta, insulin-like growth factor-I, anti-Mullerian hormone, retinoic acid, oestrogens) were tested in this system. Whether or not some of the effects observed in vitro have a physiological relevance was evaluated using appropriate transgenic mice. It is concluded that the foetal testis cannot be considered as an adult mini-testis since it has a specific physiology which largely differs from that of the immature or adult testis.
    Andrologia 03/2003; 35(1):79-83. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The foetal testis originates from a proliferation of the mesonephric and the coelomic epithelia which are colonized by the primordial germ cells. In the foetal testis, the development and functions of the three main cell type precursors (Leydig, Sertoli and germ cells) do not depend upon gonadotropins. Numerous intra- and extra-testicular factors are candidates for the control of its development and functions. To study the potential involvement of these factors, we developed an organotypic culture system. In absence of any growth factors or hormone, this system allows a development of the three main cell types which mimics that observed in vivo. The effects of different regulators (gonadotropin-releasing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, transforming growth factor-β, insulin-like growth factor-I, anti-Mullerian hormone, retinoic acid, oestrogens) were tested in this system. Whether or not some of the effects observed in vitro have a physiological relevance was evaluated using appropriate transgenic mice. It is concluded that the foetal testis cannot be considered as an adult mini-testis since it has a specific physiology which largely differs from that of the immature or adult testis.
    Andrologia 01/2003; 35(1):79 - 83. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In addition to playing a fundamental role in very diverse processes such as vision and the growth and differentiation of numerous types of cell, vitamin A (retinol) and its principal biologically active derivative, retinoic acid, are clearly involved in the regulation of testicular functions in rodents. An excess of vitamin A leads to testicular lesions and spermatogenetic disorders, and a deficiency induces early cessation of spermatogenesis and adversely affects testosterone secretion. Furthermore, mice mutant for retinoic acid alpha receptors and retinoid X beta receptors are sterile. Retinoids appear to exert an action on the three main testicular types of cell (Sertoli, germinal and Leydig cells), as they act on the signalling pathways and Sertoli cell metabolism, and modify numerous factors secreted in Sertoli cells. Retinoids also appear to be necessary for the proliferation and differentiation of A spermatogonia, and for spermiogenesis. In addition, vitamin A deficiency leads to atrophy of the accessory sex organs after decreased testosterone production. Recent studies have shown that retinoids already affect these three types of cell in fetuses. Curiously, the effects of retinoids on fetal and adult testis seem opposed.
    Reproduction (Cambridge, England) 09/2002; 124(2):173-80. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Addition of 5×10−2 U/ml recombinant luteinizing hormone (LH) to testes from fetuses at 16.5 day post conception (dpc) cultured for 5 days increased the number of Leydig cells by 34% and the acute LH-stimulated testosterone production by 600%. To determine whether these positive effects of LH in vitro are physiologically relevant in vivo, fetuses were decapitated on days 16.5 pc (before the onset of LH expression in the hypophysis) or 18.5 pc (before the surge of LH in the fetal plasma) and removed at 21.5 dpc. The number of fetal Leydig cells per testis and the acute LH-stimulated testosterone production by the testes ex vivo were unaltered by decapitation. Since, in all groups, the number of Leydig cells doubled between 16.5 and 18.5 dpc and between 18.5 and 21.5 dpc, these results suggest that neither the appearance of new fully differentiated fetal Leydig cells nor the maintenance of differentiated functions in existing fetal Leydig cells depend on LH during late fetal life, although this hormone is present in the plasma. Decapitation reduced the testosterone concentrations in the plasma (−56%) and in the testis in vivo (−67%) and the basal testosterone secretion of the testis ex vivo (−70%). This suggests that LH is required to maintain the physiological activity of the Leydig cell during late fetal life. However, the decrease of the in vivo testosterone production after decapitation was not sufficient to impair the growth of the Wolffian ducts and the lengthening of the anogenital distance. In conclusion, during late fetal life in the rat, Leydig cells are LH-independent for their functional differentiation and LH-dependent for their activity.
    Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 03/2001; · 4.04 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

609 Citations
85.37 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 2007–2009
    • Paris Diderot University
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2006–2008
    • Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission
      Gif, Île-de-France, France
    • Cea Leti
      Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2004–2006
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France