Ana Flávia Furian

Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria da Boca do Monte, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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Publications (49)146.5 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Male mice received lycopene for 10days before a single oral administration of zearalenone (ZEA). After 48h testes and blood were collected. Mice treated with lycopene/ZEA exhibited amelioration of the hematological changes. Lycopene prevented the reduction in the number and motility of spermatozoa and testosterone levels, indicating a protective effect in the testicular damage induced by ZEA. Lycopene was also effective in protecting against the decrease in glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activities caused by ZEA in the testes. Exposure of animals to ZEA induced modification of antioxidant and inflammatory status with increase of reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and increase of the oxidized glutathione, interleukins 1β, 2, 6, 10, tumor necrosis factor-α and bilirubin levels. Lycopene prevented ZEA-induced changes in GSH levels and inhibited the processes of inflammation, reducing the damage induced by ZEA. Altogether, our results indicate that lycopene was able to prevent ZEA-induced damage in the mice. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
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    ABSTRACT: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of epilepsy with about one third of TLE patients being refractory to antiepileptic drugs. Knowledge about the mechanisms underlying seizure activity is fundamental to the discovery of new drug targets. Brain Na+,K+-ATPase activity contributes to the maintenance of the electrochemical gradients underlying neuronal resting and action potentials as well as the uptake and release of neurotransmitters. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that decreased Na+,K+-ATPase activity is associated with changes in the alpha subunit phosphorylation and/or redox state. Activity of Na+,K+-ATPase decreased in the hippocampus of C57BL/6 mice 60 days after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). In addition, the Michelis-Menten constant for ATP of α2/3 isoforms increased at the same time point. Nitration of the α subunit may underlie decreased Na+,K+-ATPase activity, however no changes in expression or phosphorylation state at Ser943 were found. Further studies are necessary define the potential of nitrated Na+,K+-ATPase as a new therapeutic target for seizure disorders.
    Epilepsy Research 09/2014; 108(10). DOI:10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2014.09.025 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp. It has been reported to be a potential cause of liver cancer in rats and esophageal cancer in humans. The underlying mechanisms of FB1 toxicity are thought to be related to the inhibition of ceramide synthase, causing an accumulation of sphingosine (SO) and sphinganine (SA), which in turn may cause tissue functional impairment and the development of oxidative stress. Therefore, in this study, we investigate the effects of an FB1-contaminated diet on markers of oxidative stress in chick liver. A total of 24 male broiler chicks (Cobb 500) were fed a standard control diet or a diet contaminated with FB1 (100 mg/kg) for 21 days, starting on postnatal day one. The feed and animals were weighed on days 0, 7, 14 and 21 to estimate the feed conversion ratio, and at 21 days, the liver weight and liver relative weight were determined. At the end of the experiment, samples of blood and liver were collected. The blood was used to quantify the SA/SO ratio, and the liver was used to determine the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST); ascorbic acid levels (Vit C), non-protein thiol (NPSH) levels and TBARS content were also determined. The FB1 diet increased the liver weight, liver relative weight, feed conversion and SA/SO ratio. Furthermore, hepatic TBARS levels, Vit C content and CAT activity were also increased. Conversely, the activities of SOD, GST and NPSH levels, in the liver were not altered by the mycotoxin-contaminated diet. In summary, we showed that subacute exposure of broiler chicks to FB1 induced liver oxidative stress concomitantly with SA/SO accumulation.
    Veterinary Microbiology 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.08.020 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin commonly found as a contaminant in cereals. ZEA toxicity targets mainly the reproductive system, and oxidative stress plays an etiological role in its toxic effects. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of lycopene, a potent carotenoid antioxidant, on markers of oxidative stress in liver, kidney and testes, and on reproductive, hematological and histopathological parameters after ZEA administration. Adult Swiss albino male mice received lycopene (20 mg/kg, p.o.) for ten days before a single oral administration of ZEA (40 mg/kg, p.o.), and 48 h thereafter tissues (liver, kidney, testes and blood) were collected for biochemical, hematological and histological analyses. Lycopene prevented ZEA-induced changes in hematological parameters (increased number of leukocytes, segmented neutrophils, sticks, eosinophils and monocytes and decreased number of red blood cells (RBC), number of lymphocytes and platelets). Moreover, lycopene prevented the reduction in the number and motility of spermatozoa and the testicular tissue damage induced by ZEA. In addition, lycopene prevented the decrease in glutathione-S-transferase activity in kidney and testes and increased glutathione-S-transferase activity per se in the liver, kidneys and testes as well as superoxide dismutase activity in the liver. In summary, lycopene was able to prevent ZEA-induced acute toxic effects in male mice, suggesting that this antioxidant carotenoid may represent a promising prophylactic strategy against ZEA toxicity.
    Experimental and toxicologic pathology: official journal of the Gesellschaft fur Toxikologische Pathologie 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.etp.2014.01.002 · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Together with pharmacoresistant seizures, the quality of life of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients is negatively impacted by behavioral comorbidities including but not limited to depression, anxiety and cognitive deficits. The pilocarpine model of TLE has been widely used to study characteristics of human TLE, including behavioral comorbidities. Since the outcomes of pilocarpine-induced TLE might vary depending on several experimental factors, we sought to investigate potential gender-related differences regarding selected behavioral alterations in C57BL6 mice. We found that epileptic mice, independent of gender, displayed increased anxiety-like behavior in the open-field test. In the object recognition test, epileptic mice, regardless of gender, showed a decreased recognition index at 24 (but not at 4) hours after training. On the other hand, no significant differences were found regarding mice learning and memory performance in the Barnes maze paradigm. Motor coordination and balance as assessed by the beam walk and rotarod tests were not impaired in epileptic mice of both genders. However, female mice, independent of epilepsy, performed the beam walk and rotarod tasks better than their male counterparts. We also found that only male epileptic mice displayed disturbed behavior in the forced swim test, but the mice of both genders displayed anhedonia-like behavior in the taste preference test. Lastly, we found that the extent of hilar cell loss is similar in both genders. In summary, both genders can be successfully employed to study behavioral comorbidities of TLE; however, taking the potential gender differences into account may help choose the more appropriated gender for a given task, which may be of value for the minimization of the number of animals used during the experiments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Physiology & Behavior 03/2014; 143. DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.02.058 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are evidences indicating the role of kinins in pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury, but little is known about their action on memory deficits. Our aim was to establish the role of bradykinin receptors B1 (B1R) and B2 (B2R) on the behavioral, biochemical, and histologic features elicited by moderate lateral fluid percussion injury (mLFPI) in mice. The role of kinin B1 and B2 receptors in brain damage, neuromotor, and cognitive deficits induced by mLFPI, was evaluated by means of subcutaneous injection of B2R antagonist (HOE-140; 1 or 10 nmol/kg) or B1R antagonist (des-Arg9-[Leu8]-bradykinin (DAL-Bk; 1 or 10 nmol/kg) 30 min and 24 h after brain injury. Brain damage was evaluated in the cortex, being considered as lesion volume, inflammatory, and oxidative damage. The open field and elevated plus maze tests were performed to exclude the nonspecific effects on object recognition memory test. Our data revealed that HOE-140 (10 nmol/kg) protected against memory impairment. This treatment attenuated the brain edema, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and nitric oxide metabolites content elicited by mLFPI. Accordingly, HOE-140 administration protected against the increase of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity, thiobarbituric-acid-reactive species, protein carbonylation generation, and Na(+) K(+) ATPase inhibition induced by trauma. Histologic analysis showed that HOE-140 reduced lesion volume when analyzed 7 days after brain injury. This study suggests the involvement of the B2 receptor in memory deficits and brain damage caused by mLFPI in mice.
    Psychopharmacology 11/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00213-013-3336-x · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating disease that commonly causes persistent mental disturbances and cognitive deficits. Although studies have indicated that overproduction of free radicals, especially superoxide (O2(-)) derived from Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is a common underlying mechanism of pathophysiology of TBI, little information is available regarding the role of apocynin, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, in neurological consequences of TBI. Therefore, the present study evaluated the therapeutic potential of apocynin for treatment of inflammatory and oxidative damage, in addition to determining its action on neuromotor and memory impairments caused by moderate fluid percussion injury in mice (mLFPI). Statistical analysis revealed that apocynin (5 mg/kg), when injected subcutaneously (s.c.) 30 min and 24 h after injury, had no effect on neuromotor deficit and brain edema, however it provided protection against mLFPI-induced object recognition memory impairment 7 days after neuronal injury. The same treatment protected against mLFPI-induced IL-1β, TNF-α, nitric oxide metabolite content (NOx) 3 and 24 hours after neuronal injury. Moreover, apocynin treatment reduced oxidative damage (protein carbonyl, lipoperoxidation) and was effective against mLFPI-induced Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity inhibition. The present results were accompanied by effective reduction in lesion volume when analyzed 7 days after neuronal injury. These data suggest that superoxide (O2(-)) derived from NADPH oxidase can contribute significantly to cognitive impairment, and that the post injury treatment with specific NADPH oxidase inhibitors, such as apocynin, may provide a new therapeutic approach to the control of neurological disabilities induced by TBI.
    Neurochemistry International 09/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.neuint.2013.09.012 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The methylmalonic acidemia is an inborn error of metabolism (IEM) characterized by methylmalonic acid (MMA) accumulation in body fluids and tissues, causing neurological dysfunction, mitochondrial failure and oxidative stress. Although neurological evidence demonstrate that infection and/or inflammation mediators facilitate metabolic crises in patients, the involvement of neuroinflammatory processes in the neuropathology of this organic acidemia is not yet established. In this experimental study, we used newborn Wistar rats to induce a model of chronic acidemia via subcutaneous injections of methylmalonate (MMA, from 5th to 28th day of life, twice a day, ranged from 0.72 to 1.67μmol/g as a function of animal age). In the following days (29th-31st) animal behavior was assessed in the object exploration test and elevated plus maze. It was performed differential cell and the number of neutrophils counting and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels in the blood, as well as levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) in the cerebral cortex were measured. Behavioral tests showed that animals injected chronically with MMA have a reduction in the recognition index (R.I.) when the objects were arranged in a new configuration space, but do not exhibit anxiety-like behaviors. The blood of MMA-treated animals showed a decrease in the number of polymorphonuclear and neutrophils, and an increase in mononuclear and other cell types, as well as an increase of IL-1β and TNF-α levels. Concomitantly, MMA increased levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, and expression of iNOS and 3-NT in the cerebral cortex of rats. The overall results indicate that chronic administration of MMA increased pro-inflammatory markers in the cerebral cortex, reduced immune system defenses in blood, and coincide with the behavioral changes found in young rats. This leads to speculate that, through mechanisms not yet elucidated, the neuroinflammatory processes during critical periods of development may contribute to the progression of cognitive impairment in patients with methylmalonic acidemia.
    Immunobiology 04/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.imbio.2013.04.008 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to investigate whether Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and phosphorylation state of the catalytic α subunit are altered by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. PTZ (30, 45 or 60g/kg, i.p.) was administered to adult male Swiss mice, and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and phosphorylation state were measured in the cerebral cortex 15min after PTZ administration. Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity significantly decreased after PTZ-induced seizures (60mg/kg). Immunoreactivity of phosphorylated Ser943 at α subunit was increased after PTZ-induced seizures. A significant positive correlation between Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and latency to myoclonic jerks and generalized seizures was found. Conversely, a strong negative correlation between Ser943 phosphorylation and latency to generalized seizures was detected. Given the role of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase as a major regulator of brain excitability, Ser943 at Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α subunit may represent a potentially valuable new target for drug development for seizure disorders.
    Epilepsy research 04/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2013.03.007 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: From a pharmacological point of view, organoseleniums are compounds with important and interesting antioxidant and biological activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of bis(4-methylbenzoyl) diselenide (BMD) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4) )-induced oxidative damage in mice. The animals received BMD (25 mg/kg p.o., for 3 days), and after 1 day, CCl(4) (1 mg/kg body weight) was administered by intraperitoneal route. One day after the CCl(4) exposure, the animals were euthanized for biochemical and histological analysis. Treatment with BMD (25 mg/kg p.o.) protected against aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase and lactate dehydrogenase activity increases induced by CCl(4) plasma exposure. Treatment with BMD (25 mg/kg) protected against increases in thiobarbituric reactive species and decreasing non-protein thiols and ascorbic acid levels in liver of mice. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activity inhibition in the liver caused by CCl(4) were protected by treatment with BMD (25 mg/kg). Glutathione S-transferase activity was inhibited by CCl(4) and remained unaltered even after treatment with BMD. Sections of liver from CCl(4) -exposed mice presented an intense infiltration of inflammatory cells and loss of the cellular architecture. BMD (25 mg/kg) attenuated CCl(4) -induced hepatic histological alterations. The results demonstrated the hepatoprotective effects of BMD in the mouse liver, possibly by modulating the antioxidant status. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Cell Biochemistry and Function 03/2013; 31(2). DOI:10.1002/cbf.2869 · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Statins are inhibitors of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, the rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis. Statins effectively prevent and reduce the risk of coronary artery disease through lowering serum cholesterol, and also exert anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects independently of changes in cholesterol levels. On the other hand, clinical and experimental evidence suggests that abrupt cessation of statin treatment (i.e. statin withdrawal) is associated with a deleterious rebound phenomenon. In fact, statin withdrawal increases the risk of thrombotic vascular events, causes impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation and facilitates experimental seizures. However, evidence for statin withdrawal-induced detrimental effects to the brain parenchyma is still lacking. In the present study adult male Wistar rats were treated with atorvastatin for seven days (10mg/kg/day) and neurochemical assays were performed in the cerebral cortex 30min (atorvastatin treatment) or 24h (atorvastatin withdrawal) after the last atorvastatin administration. We found that atorvastatin withdrawal decreased levels of nitric oxide and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activity, whereas increased NADPH oxidase activity and immunoreactivity for the protein nitration marker 3-nitrotyrosine in the cerebral cortex. Catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and xanthine oxidase activities were not altered by atorvastatin treatment or withdrawal, as well as protein carbonyl and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal immunoreactivity. Immunoprecipitation of mitochondrial SOD followed by analysis of 3-nitrotyrosine revealed increased levels of nitrated mitochondrial SOD, suggesting the mechanism underlying the atorvastatin withdrawal-induced decrease in enzyme activity. Altogether, our results indicate the atorvastatin withdrawal elicits oxidative/nitrosative damage in the rat cerebral cortex, and that changes in NADPH oxidase activity and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activities may underlie such harmful effects.
    Pharmacological Research 02/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.phrs.2013.02.003 · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Methylmalonic acidemias are inherited metabolic disorders characterized by methylmalonate (MMA) accumulation and neurological dysfunction, including seizures. Dietary fatty acids are known as an important energy source and reduce seizure activity in selected acute animal models. This study investigated whether chronic treatment with fish oil or with oleic acid attenuates MMA-induced seizures and whether maintenance of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity was involved in such an effect. Adult male Wistar rats were given fish oil (85mg/kg), oleic acid (85mg/kg) or vehicle (0.42% aqueous Cremophor EL™, 4mL/kg/body weight/day), p.o., for 75 days. On the 73th day a cannula was implanted in the right lateral ventricle with electrodes over the parietal cortex for EEG recording. On the 76th day the animals were injected with NaCl (2.5μmol/2.5μL, i.c.v.), or with MMA (2.5μmol/2.5μL, i.c.v.), and seizure activity was measured by electroencephagraphic (EEG) recording with concomitant behavior monitoring. The effect of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) on Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity of slices of cerebral cortex from NaCl-injected animals was determined. Fish oil increased the latency to MMA-induced tonic-clonic seizures, reduced the mean amplitude of ictal EEG recordings, and prevented PGE(2)-induced decrease of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in cortical slices in vitro. Oleic acid decreased mean amplitude of ictal EEG recordings. The results support that fish oil decreases MMA-induced seizures. The decreased sensitivity of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase to the inhibitory effect of PGE(2)in fish oil-treated animals may be related to the currently reported anticonvulsant activity.
    Epilepsy research 01/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2013.01.005 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Administration of the compound triterpene 3β, 6β, 16β-trihidroxilup-20(29)-ene (TTHL) resulted in antinociceptive activity in several pain models in mice. Because pain and epilepsy have common mechanisms, and several anticonvulsants are clinically used to treat painful disorders, we investigated the anticonvulsant potential of TTHL. Behavioral and electrographic recordings revealed that pretreatment with TTHL (30 mg/kg; i.g.) increased the latencies to the first clonic seizure to the tonic-clonic and reduced the duration of the generalized seizures induced by the GABA(A) receptor antagonist PTZ (80 mg/Kg; i.p.). The TTHL pretreatment also protected against PTZ-induced deleterious effects, as characterized by protein carbonylation, lipid peroxidation, [(3)H] glutamate uptake and the inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (subunits α(1)and α(2)/α(3)). Although TTHL did not exhibit DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activity per se and does not alter the binding of [(3)H]flunitrazepam to the benzodiazepinic site of the GABA(A) receptor, this compound was effective in preventing behavioral and EEG seizures, as well as the inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase induced by ouabain. These results suggest that the protection against PTZ-induced seizures elicited by TTHL is due to Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity maintenance. In fact, experiments in homogenates of the cerebral cortex revealed that PTZ (10 mM) reduced Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and that previous incubation with TTHL (10 μM) protected against this inhibition. Collectively, these data indicate that the protection exerted by TTHL in this model of convulsion is not related to antioxidant activity or GABAergic activity. However, these results demonstrated that the effective protection of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase elicited by this compound protects against the damage due to neuronal excitability and oxidation that is induced by PTZ.
    Neuropharmacology 12/2012; 67. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2012.10.022 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A growing body of evidence indicates that creatine (Cr) exerts beneficial effects on a variety of pathologies where energy metabolism and oxidative stress play an etiological role. However, the benefits of Cr treatment for epileptics are still shrouded in controversy. In the present study, we found that acute Cr treatment (300 mg/kg, p.o.) prevented the increase in electroencephalographic wave amplitude typically elicited by PTZ (30, 45 or 60 mg/kg, i.p.). Cr treatment also increased the latency periods of first myoclonic jerks, lengthened the latency periods of the generalized tonic-clonic seizures and reduced the time spent in the generalized tonic-clonic seizures induced by PTZ (60 mg/kg). Administration of PTZ (all doses) decreased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity as well as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate levels in the cerebral cortex, but Cr treatment prevented these effects. Cr administration also prevented increases in xanthine oxidase activity, adenosine monophosphate levels, adenosine levels, inosine levels and uric acid levels that normally occur after PTZ treatment (60 mg/kg, i.p.). We also showed that Cr treatment increased the total Cr (Cr + PCr) content, creatine kinase activity and the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ) in the cerebral cortex. In addition, Cr prevented PTZ-induced mitochondrial dysfunction characterized by decreasing ΔΨ, increasing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels and increasing protein carbonylation. These experimental findings reinforce the idea that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in models of epileptic seizures and suggest that buffering brain energy levels through Cr treatment may be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of this neurological disease.
    Amino Acids 10/2012; DOI:10.1007/s00726-012-1408-6 · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Achievements made over the past few years have demonstrated the important role of the creatine and phosphocreatine system in the buffering and transport of high-energy phosphates into the brain; however, the non-energetic processes elicited by this guanidine compound in the hippocampus are still poorly understood. In the present study we disclosed that the incubation of rat hippocampal slices with creatine (10mM) for 30 min increased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. In addition, intrahippocampal injection of creatine (5 nmol/site) also increased the above-mentioned activity. The incubation of hippocampal slices with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA; MK-801, 10 μM) and NMDA Receptor 2B (NR2B; ifenprodil, 3 μM) antagonists but not with the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPA)/kainate antagonist (DNQX, 10 μM) and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (NOS; l-NAME, 100 μM), blunted the effect of creatine on Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. Furthermore, the calcineurin inhibitor (cyclosporine A, 200 nM) as well as the Protein Kinase C (PMA, 100 nM) and Protein Kinase A (8-Br-cAMP, 30 μM) activators attenuated the creatine-induced increase of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. In addition, the incubation of hippocampal slices with creatine (10mM) for 30 min increased calcineurin activity. The results presented here suggest that creatine increases Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity via NMDA-calcineurin pathway, proposing an putative underlying non-energetic role of this guanidine compound. However, more studies are needed to assess the contribution of this putative alternative role in neurological diseases that present decreased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity.
    Brain research bulletin 06/2012; 88(6):553-9. DOI:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2012.06.007 · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although Creatine (Cr) and Phosphocreatine (PCr) systems play a key role in cellular energy and energy transport in neuronal cells, its implications for learning and memory are still controversial. Thus, we decided to investigate the involvement of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) in the spatial consolidation after an intrahippocampal injection of Cr. Statistical analysis revealed that Cr (2.5 nmol/hippocampus) (post-training) decreased the latency for escape and the mean number of errors on Barnes maze test. Post-training co-administration of the PKA inhibitor (H-89 25 ρmol/hippocampus) did not alter the facilitatory effect of Cr in this memory test. On the other hand, Cr-induced spatial retention was reverted by co-administration of the CaMKII inhibitor (STO-609 5 nmol/hippocampus). Neurochemical analysis revealed that intrahippocampal injection of Cr, when analyzed after 30 min rather than after 3 h, increased the levels of pCREB and pCaMKII but not pPKA levels. Statistical analysis also revealed that the post-training co-administration of STO-609 but not H-89 reversed the increase of pCREB levels induced by Cr. The results presented in this report suggest that intracellular CaMKII/CREB pathway plays a key role in the Cr-induced spatial retention. Thus, it is plausible to propose that Cr plays a putative role as a neuromodulator in the brain, and that at least some of its effects may be mediated by intracellular CaMKII/CREB pathway.
    Amino Acids 06/2012; DOI:10.1007/s00726-012-1329-4 · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Zearalenone (ZEA) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several species of Fusarium, commonly found in the soil in temperate and warm countries and is a frequent contaminant of cereal crops worldwide. Accordingly, it has been implicated in several mycotoxicosis in farm animals and in humans, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Therefore, the current study was aimed to investigate the effect of an acute dose of ZEA (40 mg/kg, p.o.) on reproductive and hematological parameters, as well as on markers of oxidative stress in liver, kidney and testes in mice. Adult Swiss albino male mice were exposed to a single oral administration of ZEA, and 48 h thereafter behavioral and biochemical tests were performed. No differences in locomotor or exploratory activity were observed in the open-field test. On the other hand, ZEA increased the number of leukocytes, segmented neutrophils, sticks, eosinophils, monocytes and decreased platelets and lymphocytes number. Moreover, ZEA drastically reduced the number and motility of live spermatozoa. Additionally, while levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), non-protein thiols (NPSH) and ascorbic acid in liver, kidney and testes were not altered by ZEA administration, superoxide dismutase activity increased in all tissues evaluated, catalase activity increased in the kidney, and glutathione-S-transferase activity decreased in kidney and testes. In summary, we showed that ZEA have acute toxic effects mainly in reproductive system of adult male Swiss albino mice and its effect probably is related to a reduced activity of GST and increased in SOD activity in testes.
    Toxicon 05/2012; 60(3):358-66. DOI:10.1016/j.toxicon.2012.04.353 · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polyamines, including spermidine, facilitate seizures by positively modulating N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAr). Although NMDAr antagonists decrease seizures, it remains to be determined whether traxoprodil, a selective antagonist at the NR2B subunit of the NMDAr, decreases seizures and whether spermidine facilitates pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. Adult male Wistar rats were injected in the lateral ventricle with 0.9% NaCl (1μl, i.c.v.), spermidine (0.02, 0.2 or 2nmol/site, i.c.v.) or traxoprodil (0.2, 2 or 20nmol, i.c.v.) and with PTZ (35 or 70mg/kg, i.p.). The effect of orally administered traxoprodil (60mg/kg, p.o.) on seizures was also investigated. Latencies to clonic and generalized seizures, as well the total time spent in seizures were recorded by behavioral and electrographic methods (EEG). Spermidine (2nmol/site; i.c.v.) facilitated the seizures induced by a sub-threshold dose of PTZ (35mg/kg; i.p.), but did not alter seizure activity induced by a convulsant dose of PTZ (70mg/kg; i.p.). Traxoprodil (20nmol i.c.v.) increased the latency to generalized tonic-clonic seizures induced by PTZ (70mg/kg; i.p.). Traxoprodil (60mg/kg, p.o.) increased the latency to clonic and generalized seizures, and decreased the total time spent in seizures. These results support the role for the NR2B subunit in PTZ-induced seizures.
    Epilepsy research 01/2012; 100(1-2):12-9. DOI:10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2012.01.002 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Achievements made over the last years have highlighted the important role of creatine in health and disease. However, its effects on hyperexcitable circuit and oxidative damage induced by traumatic brain injury (TBI) are not well understood. In the present study we revealed that severe TBI elicited by fluid percussion brain injury induced oxidative damage characterized by protein carbonylation, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) increase and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity inhibition 4 and 8 days after neuronal injury. Statistical analysis showed that after TBI creatine supplementation (300 mg/kg, p.o.) decreased the levels of protein carbonyl and TBARS but did not protect against TBI-induced Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity inhibition. Electroencephalography (EEG) analysis revealed that the injection of a subconvulsant dose of PTZ (35 mg/kg, i.p.), 4 but not 8 days after neuronal injury, decreased latency for the first clonic seizures and increased the time of spent generalized tonic-clonic seizures compared with the sham group. In addition, creatine supplementation had no effect on convulsive parameters induced by a subconvulsant dose of PTZ. Current experiments provide evidence that lipid and protein oxidation represents a separate pathway in the early post-traumatic seizures susceptibility. Furthermore, the lack of consistent anticonvulsant effect exerted by creatine in this early phase suggests that its apparent antioxidant effect does not protect against excitatory input generation induced by TBI.
    Brain research bulletin 10/2011; 87(2-3):180-6. DOI:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2011.10.010 · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the importance of brain trauma as risk factor for the development of epilepsy is well established, the mechanisms of epileptogenesis are not well understood. In the present study, we revealed that the injection of a subthreshold dose of PTZ (30 mg/Kg, i.p.) after 5 weeks of injury induced by Fluid Percussion Brain Injury (FPI) decreased latency for first clonic seizures, increased the time of spent generalized tonic-clonic seizures and electrocorticographic (EEG) wave amplitude. In addition, statistical analysis revealed that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (100mg/kg) supplementation during 5 weeks after neuronal injury protected against behavioral and electrographical seizure activity elicited by subthreshold dose of PTZ. The supplementation of this antioxidant compound also protected against the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity inhibition and concomitant increase in the levels of oxidative stress markers (protein carbonylation and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances-TBARS) in site and peri-contusional cortical tissue. In summary, the current experiments clearly showed that FPI model induces early posttraumatic seizures and suggest that an alteration in the lipid/protein oxidation, membrane fluidity, and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity may be correlated with neuronal excitability, a significant component of the secondary injury cascade that accompanies TBI.
    Journal of the neurological sciences 09/2011; 308(1-2):35-40. DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2011.06.030 · 2.32 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

574 Citations
146.50 Total Impact Points


  • 2003–2014
    • Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
      • • Centre of Natural and Exact Sciences (CCNE)
      • • Department of Health Sciences
      • • Department of Physiology and Pharmacology
      • • Department of Chemistry
      Santa Maria da Boca do Monte, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2011–2013
    • Universidade Federal do Pampa (Unipampa)
      Bajé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2008
    • Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil