[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effects of exercise on dynamic aspects of sleep have not been studied. We hypothesized exercise altered dynamic sleep morphology differently for healthy controls relative to chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients. Sixteen controls (38 ± 9 years) and 17 CFS patients (41 ± 8 years) underwent polysomnography on baseline nights and nights after maximal exercise testing. We calculated transition probabilities and rates (as a measure of relative and temporal transition frequency, respectively) between sleep stages and cumulative duration distributions (as a measure of continuity) of each sleep stage and sleep as a whole. After exercise, controls showed a significantly greater probability of transition from N1 to N2 and a lower rate of transition from N1 to wake than at baseline; CFS showed a significantly greater probability of transition from N2 to N3 and a lower rate of transition from N2 to N1. These findings suggest improved quality of sleep after exercise. After exercise, controls had improved sleep continuity, whereas CFS had less continuous N1 and more continuous rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. However, CFS had a significantly greater probability and rate of transition from REM to wake than controls. Probability of transition from REM to wake correlated significantly with increases in subjective fatigue, pain, and sleepiness overnight in CFS - suggesting these transitions may relate to patient complaints of unrefreshing sleep. Thus, exercise promoted transitions to deeper sleep stages and inhibited transitions to lighter sleep stages for controls and CFS, but CFS also reported increased fatigue and continued to have REM sleep disruption. This dissociation suggests possible mechanistic pathways for the underlying pathology of CFS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Information processing difficulties are common in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). It has been shown that the time it takes to process a complex cognitive task, rather than error rate, may be the critical variable underlying CFS patients' cognitive complaints. The Attention Network Task (ANT) developed by Fan and colleagues may be of clinical utility to assess cognitive function in CFS, because it allows for simultaneous assessment of mental response speed, also called information processing speed, and error rate under three conditions challenging the attention system. Comparison of data from two groups of CFS patients (those with and without comorbid major depressive disorder; n = 19 and 22, respectively) to controls (n = 29) consistently showed that error rates did not differ among groups across conditions, but speed of information processing did. Processing time was prolonged in both CFS groups and most significantly affected in response to the most complex task conditions. For simpler tasks, processing time was only prolonged in CFS participants with depression. The data suggest that the ANT may be a task that could be used clinically to assess information processing deficits in individuals with CFS.
Journal of Neuropsychology 09/2013; · 3.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A major hypothesis for the cause of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is immune dysregulation, thought to reflect upregulated pro-inflammatory cytokines leading to the symptoms characteristic of this illness. Because symptoms worsen with physical exertion or sleep loss, we hypothesized we could use these stressors to magnify underlying potential pathogenic abnormalities in the cytokine systems. We conducted repeated blood sampling for cytokines from healthy subjects and CFS patients during a post-exercise and total sleep deprivation night, and assayed for protein in serum, message in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), and function in resting and stimulated PBLs. We found that these environmental manipulations did not produce clinically significant upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These data do not support an important role for immune dysregulation in the genesis or stress-induced worsening of this illness.
Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI 09/2013; · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined whether alterations in heart rate dynamics during sleep in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) differed from controls and/or correlated with changes of sleepiness before and after a night in the sleep laboratory. We compared beat-to-beat RR intervals (RRI) during nocturnal sleep, sleep structure, and subjective scores on visual analog scale for sleepiness in 18 CFS patients with 19 healthy controls aged 25-55 after excluding subjects with sleep disorders. A short-term fractal scaling exponent (α1) of RRI dynamics, analyzed by the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method, was assessed after stratifying patients into those who reported more or less sleepiness after the night's sleep (a.m. sleepier or a.m. less sleepy, respectively). Patients in the a.m. sleepier group showed significantly (p<0.05) higher fractal scaling index α1 during non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep (Stages 1, 2, and 3 sleep) than healthy controls, although standard polysomnographic measures did not differ between the groups. The fractal scaling index α1 during non-REM sleep was significantly (p<0.05) lower than that during awake periods after sleep onset for healthy controls and patients in the a.m. less sleepy group, but did not differ between sleep stages for patients in the a.m. sleepier group. For patients, changes in self-reported sleepiness before and after the night correlated positively with the fractal scaling index α1 during non-REM sleep (p<0.05). These results suggest that RRI dynamics or autonomic nervous system activity during non-REM sleep might be associated with disrupted sleep in patients with CFS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have been able to reduce substantially patient pool heterogeneity by identifying phenotypic markers that allow the researcher to stratify chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients into subgroups. To date, we have shown that stratifying based on the presence or absence of comorbid psychiatric diagnosis leads to a group with evidence of neurological dysfunction across a number of spheres. We have also found that stratifying based on the presence or absence of comorbid fibromyalgia leads to information that would not have been found on analyzing the entire, unstratified patient group. Objective evidence of orthostatic intolerance (OI) may be another important variable for stratification and may define a group with episodic cerebral hypoxia leading to symptoms. We hope that this review will encourage other researchers to collect data on discrete phenotypes in CFS to allow this work to continue more broadly. Finding subgroups of CFS suggests different underlying pathophysiological processes responsible for the symptoms seen. Understanding those processes is the first step toward developing discrete treatments for each.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM) are medically unexplained syndromes that can and often do co-occur. For this reason, some have posited that the two are part of the same somatic syndrome-examples of symptom amplification. This hypothesis would suggest that few differences exist between the two syndromes. To evaluate this interpretation, we have searched the literature for articles comparing CFS to FM, reviewing only those articles which report differences between the two. This review presents data showing differences across a number of parameters-implying that the underlying pathophysiology in CFS may differ from that of FM. We hope that our review encourages other groups to look for additional differences between CFS and FM. By continuing to preserve the unique illness definitions of the two syndromes, clinicians will be able to better identify, understand and provide treatment for these individuals.
QJM: monthly journal of the Association of Physicians 08/2012; · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complex illness, which is often misdiagnosed as a psychiatric illness. In two previous reports, using (1)H MRSI, we found significantly higher levels of ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate in patients with CFS relative to those with generalized anxiety disorder and healthy volunteers (HV), but not relative to those with major depressive disorder (MDD). In this third independent cross-sectional neuroimaging study, we investigated a pathophysiological model which postulated that elevations of CSF lactate in patients with CFS might be caused by increased oxidative stress, cerebral hypoperfusion and/or secondary mitochondrial dysfunction. Fifteen patients with CFS, 15 with MDD and 13 HVs were studied using the following modalities: (i) (1)H MRSI to measure CSF lactate; (ii) single-voxel (1)H MRS to measure levels of cortical glutathione (GSH) as a marker of antioxidant capacity; (iii) arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF); and (iv) (31)P MRSI to measure brain high-energy phosphates as objective indices of mitochondrial dysfunction. We found elevated ventricular lactate and decreased GSH in patients with CFS and MDD relative to HVs. GSH did not differ significantly between the two patient groups. In addition, we found lower rCBF in the left anterior cingulate cortex and the right lingual gyrus in patients with CFS relative to HVs, but rCBF did not differ between those with CFS and MDD. We found no differences between the three groups in terms of any high-energy phosphate metabolites. In exploratory correlation analyses, we found that levels of ventricular lactate and cortical GSH were inversely correlated, and significantly associated with several key indices of physical health and disability. Collectively, the results of this third independent study support a pathophysiological model of CFS in which increased oxidative stress may play a key role in CFS etiopathophysiology.
NMR in Biomedicine 01/2012; 25(9):1073-87. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM) are chronic multisymptom illnesses with substantial clinical and diagnostic overlap. We have previously shown that, when controlling for aerobic fitness and accounting for comorbid FM, CFS patients do not exhibit abnormal cardiorespiratory responses during maximal aerobic exercise compared with healthy controls, despite differences in pain and exertion.
The purpose of the present study was to examine cardiac and perceptual responses to steady-state submaximal exercise in CFS patients and healthy controls.
Twenty-one CFS patients (13 CFS with comorbid FM (CFS + FM)) and 14 controls completed 20 min of submaximal cycling exercise. Impedance cardiography was used to determine cardiac responses during exercise. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), RPE, and leg muscle pain were also measured. Data were analyzed using a doubly multivariate, repeated-measures MANOVA to model the exercise response.
There was a significant multivariate time-by-group interaction (P < 0.05). The CFS + FM group exhibited an exercise response characterized by higher stroke index, ventilatory equivalents for oxygen and carbon dioxide and RPE, lower SBP, and similar HR responses compared to controls.
The present results extend on our previous work with maximal exercise and show that CFS and CFS + FM differ in their responses to steady-state exercise. These results highlight the importance of accounting for comorbid conditions when conducting CFS research, particularly when examining psychophysiological responses to exercise.
Medicine and science in sports and exercise 12/2011; 44(6):1186-93. · 4.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent reports showed many patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) harbor a retrovirus, xenotropic murine leukemia-related virus (XMRV), in blood; other studies could not replicate this finding. A useful next step would be to examine cerebrospinal fluid, because in some patients CFS is thought to be a brain disorder. Finding a microbe in the central nervous system would have greater significance than in blood because of the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. We examined cerebrospinal fluid from 43 CFS patients using polymerase chain reaction techniques, but did not find XMRV or multiple other common viruses, suggesting that exploration of other causes or pathogenetic mechanisms is warranted.
Annals of Neurology 02/2011; 69(4):735-8. · 11.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic fatigue syndrome is diagnosed by a set of clinical criteria and therefore is probably heterogeneous. Earlier reports tested the hypothesis that the syndrome had a neurological substrate by doing studies of cerebral blood flow (CBF) but with discrepant results. One possible reason for the discrepancy was that relative CBF was assessed. We found reduced CBF in an earlier study of absolute CBF using xenon-CT. The purpose of this study was to use a second method of assessing CBF and to look within the study group for heterogeneity of responses.
Eleven CFS patients and 10 age matched healthy controls underwent neuroimaging using arterial spin labeling to determine their regional and global absolute CBF. A template was constructed based on the control data, and individual patient montages were compared on a case by case basis to determine if differences in regions of interest occurred.
The patients as a group had significantly lower global CBF than the controls. The reduction in CBF occurred across nearly every region assessed. Nine of the 11 patients showed these reductions compared to the average control data, while two patients showed actual increases relative to the controls.
The data extend our earlier observation that CFS patients as a group have broad decreases in CBF compared to healthy controls. However, as expected, the effect was not homogeneous in that 2 of the 11 patients studied showed actual increases in CBF relative to controls.
Journal of the neurological sciences 02/2011; 301(1-2):9-11. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurologic Post Treatment Lyme disease (nPTLS) and Chronic Fatigue (CFS) are syndromes of unknown etiology. They share features of fatigue and cognitive dysfunction, making it difficult to differentiate them. Unresolved is whether nPTLS is a subset of CFS.
Pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from nPTLS patients, CFS patients, and healthy volunteers were comprehensively analyzed using high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS), coupled with immunoaffinity depletion methods to reduce protein-masking by abundant proteins. Individual patient and healthy control CSF samples were analyzed directly employing a MS-based label-free quantitative proteomics approach. We found that both groups, and individuals within the groups, could be distinguished from each other and normals based on their specific CSF proteins (p<0.01). CFS (n = 43) had 2,783 non-redundant proteins, nPTLS (n = 25) contained 2,768 proteins, and healthy normals had 2,630 proteins. Preliminary pathway analysis demonstrated that the data could be useful for hypothesis generation on the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying these two related syndromes.
nPTLS and CFS have distinguishing CSF protein complements. Each condition has a number of CSF proteins that can be useful in providing candidates for future validation studies and insights on the respective mechanisms of pathogenesis. Distinguishing nPTLS and CFS permits more focused study of each condition, and can lead to novel diagnostics and therapeutic interventions.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(2):e17287. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM) are medically unexplained conditions that often have overlapping symptoms, including sleep-related complaints. However, differences between the 2 conditions have been reported, and we hypothesized that dynamic aspects of sleep would be different in the 2 groups of patients.
Subjects were 26 healthy control subjects, 14 patients with CFS but without FM (CFS alone), and 12 patients with CFS and FM (CFS+FM)-all women.
We studied transition probabilities and rates between sleep stages (waking, rapid eye movement [REM] sleep, stage 1 [S1], stage 2 [S2], and slow-wave sleep [SWS]) and duration distributions of each sleep stage. We found that the probability of transition from REM sleep to waking was significantly greater in subjects with CFS alone than in control subjects, which may be the specific sleep problem for people with CFS alone. Probabilities of (a) transitions from waking, REM sleep, and S1 to S2 and (b) those from SWS to waking and S1 were significantly greater in subjects with CFS+FM than in control subjects; in addition, rates of these transitions were also significantly increased in subjects with CFS+FM. Result (a) might indicate increased sleep pressure in subjects with CFS+FM whereas result (b) may be the specific sleep problem of subjects with CFS+FM. We also found that shorter durations of S2 sleep are specific to patients with CFS+FM, not to CFS alone.
These results suggest that CFS and FM may be different illnesses associated with different problems of sleep regulation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Neurologic Post Treatment Lyme disease (nPTLS) and Chronic Fatigue (CFS) are syndromes of unknown etiology. They share features of fatigue and cognitive dysfunction, making it difficult to differentiate them. Unresolved is whether nPTLS is a subset of CFS. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from nPTLS patients, CFS patients, and healthy volunteers were comprehensively analyzed using high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS), coupled with immunoaffinity depletion methods to reduce protein-masking by abundant proteins. Individual patient and healthy control CSF samples were analyzed directly employing a MS-based label-free quantitative proteomics approach. We found that both groups, and individuals within the groups, could be distinguished from each other and normals based on their specific CSF proteins (p<0.01). CFS (n = 43) had 2,783 non-redundant proteins, nPTLS (n = 25) contained 2,768 proteins, and healthy normals had 2,630 proteins. Preliminary pathway analysis demonstrated that the data could be useful for hypothesis generation on the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying these two related syndromes. CONCLUSIONS: nPTLS and CFS have distinguishing CSF protein complements. Each condition has a number of CSF proteins that can be useful in providing candidates for future validation studies and insights on the respective mechanisms of pathogenesis. Distinguishing nPTLS and CFS permits more focused study of each condition, and can lead to novel diagnostics and therapeutic interventions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated short-term memory capacity in three fatiguing illnesses: multiple sclerosis (MS); chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS); and depression (DEP) using a proactive interference (PI) and a Brown-Peterson distraction paradigm. There were no significant differences in build-up and release from PI relative to controls, although the CFS and MS groups recalled significantly fewer words overall. All three fatigue groups evidenced recall impairment after a brief distractor. Furthermore, brief distraction resulted in impaired immediate and delayed recall in the MS and CFS groups compared to controls. Results indicate that fatiguing illness groups, particularly MS and CFS, are vulnerable to limited disruption in short-term memory processing and this can affect recall.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The natural progression of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in adults is not well established. The aims of this longitudinal study were to (a) compare CFS Improvers and Non-Improvers; (b) determine whether an initial diagnosis of fibromyalgia (FM) was associated with CFS nonimprovement; and (c) determine whether this effect could be explained by the presence of nonspecific physical symptoms. Consecutive referrals to a tertiary clinic that satisfied case criteria for CFS were invited to enroll in a longitudinal study. After an initial on-site physical examination and psychiatric interview, a total of 94 female care-seekers completed biannual telephone surveys, including the Short Form-36 physical functioning (PF) scale, over a period of 2(1/2) years. There were very few differences between Improvers and Non-Improvers at baseline but at final assessment Improvers had less disability, less fatigue, lower levels of pain, fewer symptoms of depressed mood, and fewer nonspecific physical complaints. Participants with FM at baseline were 3.23 times (p < 0.05) more likely to become Non-Improvers than those without FM. Participants identified initially as Somatizers were 3.33 times (p < 0.05) more likely to become Non-Improvers. Patients with CFS who bear the added burden of FM are at greater risk of a negative outcome than patients with CFS alone. This effect could not be explained by the presence of multiple, nonspecific symptoms.
The Journal of nervous and mental disease 07/2010; 198(7):486-93. · 1.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Knowledge of the entire protein content, the proteome, of normal human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) would enable insights into neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Until now technologic hurdles and access to true normal samples hindered attaining this goal.
We applied immunoaffinity separation and high sensitivity and resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to examine CSF from healthy normal individuals. 2630 proteins in CSF from normal subjects were identified, of which 56% were CSF-specific, not found in the much larger set of 3654 proteins we have identified in plasma. We also examined CSF from groups of subjects previously examined by others as surrogates for normals where neurologic symptoms warranted a lumbar puncture but where clinical laboratory were reported as normal. We found statistically significant differences between their CSF proteins and our non-neurological normals. We also examined CSF from 10 volunteer subjects who had lumbar punctures at least 4 weeks apart and found that there was little variability in CSF proteins in an individual as compared to subject to subject.
Our results represent the most comprehensive characterization of true normal CSF to date. This normal CSF proteome establishes a comparative standard and basis for investigations into a variety of diseases with neurological and psychiatric features.
PLoS ONE 06/2010; 5(6):e10980. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome complain of unrefreshing sleep, and some have poor sleep indicative of sleep disruption. We hypothesized that some CFS patients had a disorder of arousal which interfered with normal sleep which would manifest itself by difficulty falling asleep after a night of sleep deprivation. To test this, we de-termined sleep latency after a night of sleep deprivation. Methods: Patients and healthy controls, previously habituated to sleeping in a sleep lab, returned for a normal night of sleep and for a night of sleep deprivation followed by determination of latency to fall asleep. Patients also had indwelling catheters to allow repeated sampling of plasma for cortisol, a hormone whose levels might reflect arousal. Results: Five of 15 patients showed delays in falling asleep, relative to the healthy controls. Sleep latency following sleep deprivation correlated inversely with sleep efficiency on the normal sleep night. No significant difference was found in cortisol patterns across time for patients and controls on the sleep deprivation night. However, the slope of the curve was shifted up significantly for patients but not for controls on the normal sleep night. Conclusion: A subgroup of patients has difficulty falling asleep after a night of sleep deprivation. These patients may have a disorder of arousal that interferes with their having normal sleep. CFS patients as a group show a shift upwards in the temporal pattern of cortisol during the night – a possible measure of their being stressed while sleeping.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some think chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM) are variants of the same illness process. This would imply that CFS patients with and without comorbid FM have similar biological underpinnings. To test this, we compared serotonergic-based responses, plasma prolactin (PRL), and self-reported measures of fatigue to intravenous infusion of tryptophan among patients with CFS alone, CFS + FM, and healthy controls.
Men and women with CFS alone or CFS + FM and healthy subjects, none with current major depressive disorder (MDD), were given 120 mg of L-tryptophan per kg lean body mass intravenously (i.v.). Before and after tryptophan infusion, blood samples were collected, and plasma PRL, tryptophan, and kynurenine concentrations were determined.
Women with CFS alone, but not CFS + FM, showed upregulated plasma PRL responses compared with controls. There were no differences among groups of men. Plasma tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations did not differ among groups.
These results indicate that women with CFS alone have upregulated serotonergic tone that is not seen in those with comorbid FM. The lack of effect in men suggests a mechanism that might explain, in part, the increased prevalence of CFS in women. The data support the interpretation that CFS in women is a different illness from FM.
Journal of Women's Health 04/2010; 19(5):951-8. · 1.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are consistent with cytokine dysregulation. This has led to the hypothesis of immune dysregulation as the cause of this illness. To further test this hypothesis, we did repeated blood sampling for cytokines while patients and matched healthy controls slept in the sleep lab. Because no one method for assaying cytokines is acknowledged to be better than another, we assayed for protein in serum, message in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), and function in resting and stimulated PBLs. We found no evidence of proinflammatory cytokine upregulation. Instead, in line with some of our earlier studies, we did find some evidence to support a role for an increase in interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Although the changes were small, they may contribute to the common complaint in CFS patients of disrupted sleep.