Radek Marecek

Masaryk University, Brünn, South Moravian, Czech Republic

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Publications (60)132.33 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The resting brain exhibits continuous intrinsic activity, which is correlated between groups of regions forming resting state networks. Evaluating resting connectivity is a popular approach for studying brain diseases. Several hundred studies are now available that address integrity of resting connectivity in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), as well as preclinical at-risk subjects. Most studies focus on the default mode network, a system of specific brain areas showing strong connected resting activity that attenuates during goal-directed behavior. The extent of intrinsic brain activity tends to be strongly correlated with cognitive processes and is specifically disrupted in AD and MCI patients and at-risk subjects, with changes seeming to evolve during the transition between the disease stages. In this study, we review the current findings in default mode network and other resting state network studies in AD and MCI patients and at-risk subjects as assessed by resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging.
    Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports 10/2014; 14(10):491. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive tool for modulating cortical activity.
    Journal of the neurological sciences. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The default mode network (DMN) decreases its activity when switching from a resting state to a cognitive task condition, while activity of the network engaged in the given task increases. Visual processing is typically disturbed in Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). Objective: Using functional MRI, we studied the DMN effective connectivity patterns in PDD as compared with cognitively normal patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy controls (HC) when switching from baseline to a visual cognitive task condition. Methods: In all, 14 PDD, 18 PD, and 18 age-matched healthy controls participated in this functional MRI study. We used a psychophysiological interaction analysis with the precuneus (PCu) as a seed. The threshold was set at p(FWE) <0.05. Results: The healthy controls showed greater PCu connectivity with the bilateral middle temporal/middle occipital gyri at baseline than during the task condition. The correlation direction changed from positive to negative. Both PD and PDD showed disturbed DMN connectivity with the brain regions that are involved in bottom-up visual processing. In PD, we also found impaired integration of the areas engaged in the ventral attentional network, which might reflect specific attentional deficits observed during the early course of PD. In mild PDD, we detected increased engagement of areas involved in the dorsal attentional network, which corresponds to increased top-down control in this patient group as compared to the healthy controls. Conclusion: Our results show impaired dynamic interplay between large scale brain networks in PD that spread far beyond the motor system.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 08/2014; · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Changes in connectivity of the posterior node of the default mode network (DMN) were studied when switching from baseline to a cognitive task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. In all, 15 patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 18 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls (HC) participated in the study. Psychophysiological interactions analysis was used to assess the specific alterations in the DMN connectivity (deactivation-based) due to psychological effects from the complex visual scene encoding task. In HC, we observed task-induced connectivity decreases between the posterior cingulate and middle temporal and occipital visual cortices. These findings imply successful involvement of the ventral visual pathway during the visual processing in our HC cohort. In AD, involvement of the areas engaged in the ventral visual pathway was observed only in a small volume of the right middle temporal gyrus. Additional connectivity changes (decreases) in AD were present between the posterior cingulate and superior temporal gyrus when switching from baseline to task condition. These changes are probably related to both disturbed visual processing and the DMN connectivity in AD and reflect deficits and compensatory mechanisms within the large scale brain networks in this patient population. Studying the DMN connectivity using psychophysiological interactions analysis may provide a sensitive tool for exploring early changes in AD and their dynamics during the disease progression.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 05/2014; · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cortical changes associated with cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease (PD) are not fully explored and require investigations with established diagnostic classification criteria. We used MRI source-based morphometry to evaluate specific differences in grey matter volume patterns across 4 groups of subjects: healthy controls (HC), PD with normal cognition (PD-NC), PD with mild cognitive impairment (MCI-PD) and PD with dementia (PDD). We examined 151 consecutive subjects: 25 HC, 75 PD-NC, 29 MCI-PD, and 22 PDD at an Italian and Czech movement disorder centre. Operational diagnostic criteria were applied to classify MCI-PD and PDD. All structural MRI images were processed together in the Czech centre. The spatial independent component analysis was used to assess group differences of local grey matter volume. WE IDENTIFIED TWO INDEPENDENT PATTERNS OF GREY MATTER VOLUME DEVIATIONS: a) Reductions in the hippocampus and temporal lobes; b) Decreases in fronto-parietal regions and increases in the midbrain/cerebellum. Both patterns differentiated PDD from all other groups and correlated with visuospatial deficits and letter verbal fluency, respectively. Only the second pattern additionally differentiated PD-NC from HC. Grey matter changes in PDD involve areas associated with Alzheimer-like pathology while fronto-parietal abnormalities are possibly an early marker of PD cognitive decline. These findings are consistent with a non-linear cognitive progression in PD.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e85595. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A clear concept of epileptic zones remains of high clinical relevance in presurgical evaluation of refractory epilepsy patients and in resection planning. Recent advances in understanding how each of the epileptic zones is functionally organized strengthened the importance of the network concept. It has been shown that neuronal networks underlying the individual epileptic zone may involve multiple brain structures with complex interactions between them. The network concept has impact not only for better understanding of pathophysiology of partial epilepsy but also for clinical practice, particularly for epilepsy surgery. This review examines recent reports on the use of advanced imaging techniques which enable to map the epileptic zones and their structural and functional organization. Magnetic resonance postprocessing substantially improved the accuracy in detection of the epileptogenic lesions. The seizure-onset zone is primarily determined by electrophysiology but can also be localized using single photon emission computed tomography. The functional deficit zone is commonly assessed by a number of tests including methods of functional neuroimaging (positron emission tomography) which can delineate hypometabolic cortical areas and subcortical structures. Hemodynamic fluctuations associated with interictal epileptiform discharges can be detected by novel functional magnetic resonance technique which is nowadays widely used for the irritative zone localization. These techniques open new prospect for epilepsy surgery in patients who were previously considered as not suitable candidates of surgical treatment.
    International Review of Neurobiology 01/2014; 114C:245-278. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    Clinical EEG and neuroscience; 12/2013
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    Clinical EEG and neuroscience: official journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS) 12/2013; 44(4):E1-121. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the neural systems underpinning social cognition is a primary focus of contemporary social neuroscience. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study asked if brain activity reflecting socio-cognitive processes differs between individuals according to their social behavior; namely, between a group of drivers with frequent traffic offences and a group with none. Socio-cognitive processing was elicited by employing videos from a traffic awareness campaign, consisting of reckless and anti-social driving behavior ending in tragic consequences, and control videos with analogous driving themes but without such catastrophic endings. We investigated whether relative increases in brain function during the observation of these campaign stimuli compared with control videos differed between these two groups. To develop the results of our previous study we focused our analyses on superior temporal sulcus/gyrus (STS/STG). This revealed a bigger increase in brain activity within this region during the campaign stimuli in safe compared with dangerous drivers. Furthermore, by thematically coding drivers' verbal descriptions of the stimuli, we also demonstrate differences in STS reactivity according to drivers' scores on two indices of socio-cognitive processing: subjects' perceived consequences of actors' actions, and their affective evaluation of the clips. Our results demonstrate the influence of social behavior and socio-cognitive processing on STS reactivity to social stimuli, developing considerably our understanding of the role of this region in social cognition.
    NeuroImage 08/2013; · 6.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The cerebellum, basal ganglia (BG), and other cortical regions, such as supplementary motor area (SMA) have emerged as important structures dealing with various aspects of timing, yet the modulation of functional connectivity between them during motor timing tasks remains unexplored. METHODS: We used dynamic causal modeling to investigate the differences in effective connectivity (EC) between these regions and its modulation by behavioral outcome during a motor timing prediction task in a group of 16 patients with early Parkinson's disease (PD) and 17 healthy controls. Behavioral events (hits and errors) constituted the driving input connected to the cerebellum, and the modulation in connectivity was assessed relative to the hit condition (successful interception of target). RESULTS: The driving input elicited response in the target area, while modulatory input changed the specific connection strength. The neuroimaging data revealed similar structure of intrinsic connectivity in both groups with unidirectional connections from cerebellum to both sides of the BG, from BG to the SMA, and then from SMA to the cerebellum. However, the type of intrinsic connection was different between two groups. In the PD group, the connection between the SMA and cerebellum was inhibitory in comparison to the HC group, where the connection was activated. Furthermore, the modulation of connectivity by the performance in the task was different between the two groups, with decreased connectivity between the cerebellum and left BG and SMA and a more pronounced symmetry of these connections in controls. In the same time, there was an increased EC between the cerebellum and both sides of BG with more pronounced asymmetry (stronger connection with left BG) in patients. In addition, in the PD group the modulatory input strengthened inhibitory connectivity between the SMA and the cerebellum, while in the HC group the excitatory connection was slightly strengthened. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that although early PD subjects and controls use similar functional circuits to maintain a successful outcome in predictive motor timing behavior, the type and strength of EC and its modulation by behavioral performance differ between these two groups. These functional differences might represent the first step of cortical reorganization aimed at maintaining a normal performance in the brain affected by early Parkinson's disease and may have implications for the neuro-rehabilitation field.
    Journal of neuroimaging: official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging 05/2013; · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the functional anatomy of decision-making during the Iowa Gambling Task in patients with Parkinson's disease. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a computerized version of IGT to compare 18 PD patients on dopaminergic medication in the ON state and 18 healthy control subjects. Our analyses focused on outcome evaluation following card selection, because we expected this aspect of decision-making to be impaired in PD patients. The PD patients exhibited lower activation of the left putamen than the control group as a reaction to penalty. Using psychophysiological interaction analysis, we identified decreased functional connectivity between the right globus pallidus internus and the left anterior cingulate gyrus in the PD group. In contrast, increased connectivity between these structures was observed after penalty in the control group. Our results suggest altered functioning of the basal ganglia and their connections with the cortical structures involved in the limbic loop (e.g., the limbic fronto-striatal circuit of the basal ganglia) during decision-making in PD patients. Differences in the response to loss could be associated with insufficient negative reinforcement after a loss in PD patients in the ON state in comparison to a healthy population.
    Neurological Sciences 04/2013; · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epilepsy may affect connectivity between the putamen and cortex even during the resting state. Putamen is part of the basal ganglia resting state network (BG-RSN) which is anti-correlated with the default mode network (DMN) in healthy subjects. Therefore, we aimed at studying the functional brain connectivity (FC) of the putamen with the cortical areas engaged in the DMN as well as with the primary somatomotor cortex which is a cortical region engaged in the BG-RSN. We compared the data obtained in patients with epilepsy with that in healthy controls (HC). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in 10 HC and 24 patients with epilepsy: 14 patients with extratemporal epilepsy (PE) and 10 patients with temporal epilepsy (PT). Resting state fMRI data was obtained using the 1.5 T Siemens Symphony scanner. The Group ICA of fMRI Toolbox (GIFT) program was used for independent component analysis. The component representing the DMN was chosen according to a spatial correlation with a mask typical for DMN. The FC between the putamen and the primary somatomotor cortex was studied to assess the connectivity of the putamen within the BG-RSN. A second-level analysis was calculated to evaluate differences among the groups using SPM software. In patients with epilepsy as compared to HC, the magnitude of anti-correlation between the putamen and brain regions engaged in the DMN was significantly lower. In fact, the correlation changed the connectivity direction from negative in HC to positive in PE and PT. The disturbed FC of the BG in patients with epilepsy as compared with HC was further illustrated by a significant decrease in connectivity between the left/right putamen and the left/right somatomotor cortex, i.e. between regions that are engaged in the BG-RSN. The FC between the putamen and the cortex is disturbed in patients with epilepsy. This may reflect an altered function of the BG in epilepsy.
    Brain Topography 04/2013; 26(2):355-62. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abnormal task-related activation and connectivity is present in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was the analysis of functional networks in schizophrenia patients in remission after the first episode. Twenty-nine male patients in remission after the first episode of schizophrenia and 22 healthy controls underwent examination by functional magnetic resonance during verbal fluency tasks (VFT). The functional connectivity of brain networks was analyzed using independent component analysis. The patients showed lower activation of the salience network during VFT. They also showed lower deactivation of the default mode network (DMN) during VFT processing. Spectral analysis of the component time courses showed decreased power in slow frequencies of signal fluctuations in the salience and DMNs and increased power in higher frequencies in the left frontoparietal cortex reflecting higher fluctuations of the network activity. Moreover, there was decreased similarity of component time courses in schizophrenia—the patients had smaller negative correlation between VFT activated and deactivated networks, and smaller positive correlations between DMN subcomponents. There is still an abnormal functional connectivity of several brain networks in remission after the first episode of schizophrenia. The effect of different treatment modalities on brain connectivity, together with temporal dynamics of this functional abnormality should be the objective of further studies to assess its potential as a marker of disease stabilization.
    Human Brain Mapping 03/2013; 34(3):726-37. · 6.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using intracerebral EEG recordings in a large cohort of human subjects, we investigate the time course of neural cross-talk during a simple cognitive task. Our results show that human brain dynamics undergo a characteristic sequence of synchronization patterns across different frequency bands following a visual oddball stimulus. In particular, an initial global reorganization in the delta and theta bands (2-8 Hz) is followed by gamma (20-95 Hz) and then beta band (12-20 Hz) synchrony.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e63293. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Moving in a co-ordinated fashion with another individual changes our behaviour towards them; we tend to like them more, find them more attractive, and are more willing to co-operate with them. It is generally assumed that this effect on behaviour results from alterations in representations of self and others. Specifically, through neurophysiological perception-action matching mechanisms, interpersonal motor co-ordination (IMC) is believed to forge a neural coupling between actor and observer, which serves to blur boundaries in conceptual self-other representations and causes positive views of the self to be projected onto others. An investigation into this potential neural mechanism is lacking, however. Moreover, the specific components of IMC that might influence this mechanism have not yet been specified. In the present study we exploited a robust behavioural phenomenon - automatic imitation - to assess the degree to which IMC influences neural action observation-execution matching mechanisms. This revealed that automatic imitation is reduced when the actions of another individual are perceived to be synchronised in time, but are spatially incongruent, with our own. We interpret our findings as evidence that IMC does indeed exert an effect on neural perception-action matching mechanisms, but this serves to promote better self-other distinction. Our findings demonstrate that further investigation is required to understand the complex relationship between neural perception-action coupling, conceptual self-other representations, and social behaviour.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e84820. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypokinetic dysarthria in Parkinson's disease (PD) can be characterized by monotony of pitch and loudness, reduced stress, variable rate, imprecise consonants, and a breathy and harsh voice. Using acoustic analysis, we studied the effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied over the primary orofacial sensorimotor area (SM1) and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on motor aspects of voiced speech in PD. Twelve non-depressed and non-demented men with PD (mean age 64.58 ± 8.04 years, mean PD duration 10.75 ± 7.48 years) and 21 healthy age-matched men (a control group, mean age 64 ± 8.55 years) participated in the speech study. The PD patients underwent two sessions of 10 Hz rTMS over the dominant hemisphere with 2,250 stimuli/day in a random order: (1) over the SM1; (2) over the left DLPFC in the "on" motor state. Speech examination comprised the perceptual rating of global speech performance and an acoustic analysis based upon a standardized speech task. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare acoustic speech variables between controls and PD patients. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare data prior to and after each stimulation in the PD group. rTMS applied over the left SM1 was associated with a significant increase in harmonic-to-noise ratio and net speech rate in the sentence tasks. With respect to the vowel task results, increased median values and range of Teager-Kaiser energy operator, increased vowel space area, and significant jitter decrease were observed after the left SM1 stimulation. rTMS over the left DLPFC did not induce any significant effects. The positive results of acoustic analysis were not reflected in a subjective rating of speech performance quality as assessed by a speech therapist. Our pilot results indicate that one session of rTMS applied over the SM1 may lead to measurable improvement in voice quality and intensity and an increase in speech rate and tongue movements. Nevertheless, these changes were not accompanied by changes in a perceptual evaluation of speech performance by a speech therapist. Future placebo-controlled studies in larger patient cohorts should verify if rTMS would be clinically useful for treating hypokinetic dysarthria in PD.
    Journal of Neural Transmission 12/2012; · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied whether one session of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied over either the right or left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex would induce any measurable changes in the Tower of London spatial planning task performance in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Ten patients with PD (with no dementia and/or depression) entered the randomized, sham-stimulation-controlled study with a crossover design. Active and placebo rTMS were applied over either the left or the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (in four separate sessions) in each patient. The order of sessions was randomized. The Tower of London task was performed prior to and immediately after each appropriate session. The "total problem-solving time" was our outcome measure. Only active rTMS of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex induced significant enhancement of the total problem-solving time, p = 0.038. Stimulation of the left prefrontal cortex or sham stimulations induced no significant effects. Only rTMS applied over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex induced positive changes in the spatial planning task performance in PD, which further supports the results of functional imaging studies indicating the causal engagement of the right-sided hemispheric structures in solving the task in this patient population.
    Experimental Brain Research 09/2012; 223(2):251-7. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to analyse decision making in early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD) patients performing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). We compared 19 patients with early-onset PD (≤45 years) on dopaminergic medication (no evidence of depression, dementia, executive dysfunction according to the Tower of London test and the Stroop test, or pathological gambling) with 20 age-matched controls. A computer version of the IGT was employed. The PD patients achieved slightly lower IGT scores than the control group. A detailed analysis based on 'shift frequencies' between the individual decks showed that the patients tended to change their preferences for the decks more frequently, with a higher preference for the 'disadvantageous' deck B. Control subjects seemed to develop a more effective strategy. These differences could be caused by the poorer ability of the patients to develop any strategy at all. We observed changes in decision making during IGT performance in patients with early-onset PD, although they had no executive dysfunction as measured by established neuropsychological tests. The more detailed analysis employed in the present study could lead to a more accurate study of IGT performance and application of IGT in clinical practice.
    Neurological Sciences 04/2012; · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether voxel-based morphometry (VBM) might contribute to the detection of cortical dysplasia within the temporal pole in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE/HS). Eighteen patients with intractable MTLE/HS and 30 sex- and age-matched healthy controls were included in the study. All of the patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for MTLE/HS and underwent anteromedial temporal resection. VBM without a modulation step was applied to the magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain. Statistical parametric maps were used to compare structural characteristics such as gray matter concentration (GMC) within the temporal pole among patients and controls separately. The acquired data were then statistically analyzed to determine the congruency between visually inspected MR imaging (MRI) scans and VBM results in the detection of morphologic abnormalities in the temporal pole compared to postoperative histopathologic findings of cortical dysplasia. Histopathologic examination revealed cortical dysplasia within the temporal pole in 11 patients. In detail, according to Palmini's classification, mild malformations of cortical development (mMCDs) were disclosed in three patients, focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type Ia in three patients, and FCD type Ib in five patients. Some type of structural temporal pole abnormality was suggested by VBM in 14 patients and by visually inspected MRI scans in 11 patients. The results of VBM were in agreement with the presence/absence of cortical dysplasia in 13 patients (72.2%); this correspondence was significant (p = 0.047). In one case, VBM was false negative and in four cases it was false positive. There was congruence between the results of visual analysis and histologic proof in 55.6% of examined patients, which was not significant. We found that VBM made a superior contribution to the detection of temporopolar structural malformations (cortical dysplasia) compared to visual inspection. The agreement with postoperative histopathologic proof was clearly significant for VBM results and nonsignificant for visual inspection.
    Epilepsia 04/2012; 53(6):1004-12. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Déjà vu (DV) is a widespread, fascinating and mysterious human experience. It occurs both in health and in disease, notably as an aura of temporal lobe epilepsy. This feeling of inappropriate familiarity has attracted interest from psychologists and neuroscientists for over a century, but still there is no widely agreed explanation for the phenomenon of non-pathological DV. Here we investigated differences in brain morphology between healthy subjects with and without DV using a novel multivariate neuroimaging technique, Source-Based Morphometry. The analysis revealed a set of cortical (predominantly mesiotemporal) and subcortical regions in which there was significantly less gray matter in subjects reporting DV. In these regions gray matter volume was inversely correlated with the frequency of DV. Our results demonstrate a structural correlate of DV in healthy individuals for the first time and support a neurological explanation for the phenomenon. We hypothesis that the observed local gray matter decrease in subjects experiencing DV reflects an alteration of hippocampal function and postnatal neurogenesis with resulting changes of volume in remote brain regions.
    Cortex 03/2012; 48(9):1240-3. · 6.16 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

203 Citations
132.33 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2014
    • Masaryk University
      • • Výzkumná skupina Behaviorální a sociální neurovědy
      • • Psychiatrická klinika
      • • Neurologická klinika
      Brünn, South Moravian, Czech Republic
  • 2013
    • St. Ann's University Hospital Brno
      Brünn, South Moravian, Czech Republic
  • 2012
    • Central European Institute of Technology-Czech Republic
      Brünn, South Moravian, Czech Republic
  • 2007–2012
    • St. Anne´s University Hospital
      Brünn, South Moravian, Czech Republic