[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic head resection represents one of the most demanding procedures in abdominal surgery; however, several complications may develop after this type of surgery such as fistulas (internal and/or external), gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage, and abdominal infections. The relaparotomy rate, as well as low perioperative mortality, may be present. The reported postoperative complication rate may range from 23 to 57%, even when an expert surgeon performs the resection. However, late complications of pancreatic head resection are rare. A case of double gastrojejunocolic fistula, which developed in a patient who had undergone pancreatic head resection some years earlier, is herein reported. The patient was admitted to our hospital for abdominal pain associated with nausea and vomiting. She also complained of diarrhea after food ingestion, even in small quantities, and referred the presence of undigested food in the feces and a weight loss of 10 kg in the previous three months. The patient was treated conservatively. We should be aware that symptoms of fistulas due to pancreatic head resections may be diagnosed several years after surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The majority of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas are branch duct (BD) IPMNs, and these neoplasms are being diagnosed with increasing frequency; no data are also available on the well-being (quality of life [QoL]) of these patients. We aimed to evaluate the 2-year follow-up results in consecutive patients with BD-IPMNs to assess symptoms at presentation and their morphological progression; the physical and psychological statuses of these patients were also evaluated.
METHODS: One hundred one patients with BD-IPMN of the pancreas were enrolled in the study (37.6% men and 62.4% women; mean [SD] age, 66.3[10.4] years). Magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate the modification of the cystic lesions at baseline as well as in the follow-up. The SF-12 Health Survey, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Y-1 and Y-2, the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire, as well as the Beck Depression Inventory-II were used to evaluate the QoL once a year.
RESULTS: The mean (SD) basal size of the major lesion was 15.5 (8.9) mm, and in the follow-up period, the size remained stable. The QoL did not change during the follow-up period.
CONCLUSIONS: Branch duct IPMNs are very slow-growing neoplasms, and they do not affect the QoL of affected patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report contains clinically oriented guidelines for the diagnostic work-up and follow-up of cystic pancreatic neoplasms in patients fit for treatment. The statements were elaborated by working groups of experts by searching and analysing the literature, and then underwent a consensus process using a modified Delphi procedure. The statements report recommendations regarding the most appropriate use and timing of various imaging techniques and of endoscopic ultrasound, the role of circulating and intracystic markers and the pathologic evaluation for the diagnosis and follow-up of cystic pancreatic neoplasms.
Digestive and Liver Disease 05/2014; 46(6). · 2.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are currently the most frequently performed imaging modalities for the study of pancreatic disease. In cases of suspected autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), a dynamic quadriphasic (precontrast, contrast-enhanced pancreatic, venous and late phases) study is recommended in both techniques. In the diffuse form of autoimmune pancreatitis (DAIP), the pancreatic parenchyma shows diffuse enlargement and appears, during the MDCT and MR contrast-enhanced pancreatic phase, diffusely hypodense and hypointense, respectively, compared to the spleen because of lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and pancreatic fibrosis. During the venous phase of MDCT and MR imaging, the parenchyma appears hyperdense and hyperintense, respectively, in comparison to the pancreatic phase. In the delayed phase of both imaging modalities, it shows retention of contrast media. A "capsule-like rim" may be recognised as a peripancreatic MDCT hyperdense and MR hypointense halo in the T2-weighted images, compared to the parenchyma. DAIP must be differentiated from non-necrotizing acute pancreatitis (NNAP) and lymphoma since both diseases show diffuse enlargement of the pancreatic parenchyma. The differential diagnosis is clinically difficult, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MDCT has an important role. In the focal form of autoimmune pancreatitis (FAIP), the parenchyma shows segmental enlargement involving the head, the body-tail or the tail, with the same contrast pattern as the diffuse form on both modalities. FAIP needs to be differentiated from pancreatic adenocarcinoma to avoid unnecessary surgical procedures, since both diseases have similar clinical and imaging presentation. The differential diagnosis is clinically difficult, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MDCT and MR imaging both have an important role. MR cholangiopancreatography helps in the differential diagnosis. Furthermore, MDCT and MR imaging can identify the extrapancreatic manifestations of AIP, most commonly biliary, renal and retroperitoneal. Finally, in all cases of uncertain diagnosis, MDCT and/or MR follow-up after short-term treatment (2-3 weeks) with high-dose steroids can identify a significant reduction in size of the pancreatic parenchyma and, in FAIP, normalisation of the calibre of the upstream main pancreatic duct.
La radiologia medica 03/2014; · 1.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are regarded as benign entities with rare malignant potential and are frequently resected.
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of a multidisciplinary team (MDT) approach in decision making regarding the diagnosis and management of pancreatic serous cystic neoplasms.
A retrospective study of a prospective database involving 43 patients with serous cystic neoplasms was carried out. Patients who underwent multidisciplinary team evaluation (Group 1) were compared with patients who did not (Group 2) as regards demographic, clinical, radiological, surgical and pathological data. Uni-multivariate analyses were carried out.
Uni-multivariate analysis showed that a multidisciplinary team approach was significantly related to the type of management, suggesting that MDT evaluation independently reduced the odds of surgery (odds ratio (OR) 0.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02-0.8; P=0.027). Age, second level imaging techniques, latero-lateral diameter, cranio-caudal diameter and Wirsung duct size differed between the two groups; however, the differences were not statistically significant.
A multidisciplinary team approach seems to be useful in proper decision making regarding the diagnosis and management of pancreatic serous cystic neoplasms.
JOP: Journal of the pancreas 01/2014; 15(6):577-80.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to prospectively compare the diagnostic accuracy of 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (3D-CEUS) with that of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the study of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas. METHODS: Thirty consecutive patients with IPMN were studied. RESULTS: Three patients (10.0%) did not undergo diagnostic 3D-CEUS because of technical problems. Three dimensional CEUS identified 12 (44.4%) main-duct IPMNs versus no cases by MRI (P < 0.001). Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm localization showed poor agreement between 3D-CEUS and MRI (κ = 0.058), whereas good agreement was found in detecting the pancreatic calcifications (κ = 1.000). Significant differences between 3D-CEUS and MRI were found regarding the number of lesions detected (1.4 ± 0.8 vs 3.8 ± 3.6; P < 0.001), the detection of mucinous plugs (3.7% vs 50.0%; P < 0.001), chronic pancreatitis (7.4% vs 26.7%; P = 0.031), pancreatic atrophy (0% vs 50.0%; P < 0.001), thick septa (22.2% vs 53.3%; P = 0.004), and mural nodules (25.9% vs 3.3%; P = 0.016). Three dimensional CEUS showed similar results as compared with MRI in evaluating IPMNs smaller than 1 cm of diameter or greater than 2 cm. CONCLUSIONS: Even if MRI remains the criterion standard technique for the diagnosis of IPMNs, 3D-CEUS can be safely used to follow patients with IPMNs of less than 1 cm.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a case of clinical benefit and partial response with gemcitabine and oxaliplatin (GEMOX) in a young patient with ovarian metastasis from cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas. A young woman complained of abdominal pain and constipation. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging scans disclosed two bilateral ovarian masses with pancreatic extension. She underwent bilateral ovarian and womb resection. During surgery peritoneal carcinosis, a pancreatic mass and multiple abdominal lesions were found. The final diagnosis was mucinous pancreatic cystadenocarcinoma with ovarian and peritoneal metastases. She started chemotherapy with GEMOX (gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m(2)/d1 and oxaliplatin 100 mg/m(2)/d2 every 2 weeks). After 12 cycles of chemotherapy a CT scan showed reduction of the pancreatic mass. She underwent distal pancreatic resection, regional lymphadenectomy and splenectomy. Pathologic examination documented prominent fibrous tissue and few neoplastic cells with mucin-filled cytoplasm. Chemotherapy was continued with gemcitabine as adjuvant treatment for another 3 cycles. There is currently no evidence of disease. As reported in the literature, GEMOX is associated with an improvement in progression-free survival and clinical benefit in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. This is an interesting case in whom GEMOX transformed inoperable pancreatic cancer into a resectable tumor.
Case Reports in Gastroenterology 05/2012; 6(2):530-7.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) of the pancreas usually affects female patients and is characterized by an ovarian-type stroma. From literature review, only 9 cases of MCNs have been reported in male patients.
We describe the 10th case of a MCN in a 65-year-old male patient who underwent a distal pancreatectomy with spleen resection and standard lymphadenectomy.
MCN may rarely regard male patients, probably for embryological abnormalities.
JOP: Journal of the pancreas 01/2012; 13(6):687-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cystic dystrophy of the duodenal wall is a rare form of the disease which was described in 1970 by French authors who reported the presence of focal pancreatic disease localized in an area comprising the C-loop of the duodenum and the head of the pancreas. German authors have defined this area as a "groove". We report our recent experience on cystic dystrophy of the paraduodenal space and systematically review the data in the literature regarding the alterations of this space. A MEDLINE search of papers published between 1966 and 2010 was carried out and 59 papers were considered for the present study; there were 19 cohort studies and 40 case reports. The majority of patients having groove pancreatitis were middle aged. Mean age was significantly higher in patients having groove carcinoma. The diagnosis of cystic dystrophy of the duodenal wall can now be assessed by multidetector computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography. These latter two techniques may also add more information on the involvement of the remaining pancreatic gland not involved by the duodenal malformation and they may help in differentiating "groove pancreatitis" from "groove adenocarcinoma". In conclusion, chronic pancreatitis involving the entire pancreatic gland was present in half of the patients with cystic dystrophy of the duodenal wall and, in the majority of them, the pancreatitis had calcifications.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 10/2011; 17(39):4349-64. · 2.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to test the usefulness of the Clavien-Dindo classification after pancreatic resection. In 183 patients who underwent pancreatic resections, complications were classified according to Clavien-Dindo classification and each grade was evaluated regarding the length of the postoperative stay and was compared to the most important complications. Sixty-four (35.0%) patients had no complications; out of the 119 (65.0%) patients with complications, grade I, was 9.3%; grade II, 35.5%; grade III, 9.3%; grade IV, 7.7% and grade V, 3.3%. The postoperative pancreatic fistula rate was 29.1%, postpancreatectomy hemorrhage, 35% and delayed gastric emptying, 11.5%. There was a progressive increase in the length of hospitalization from patients with no complications to those having grade IV (P < 0.001). Postoperative pancreatic fistula, postpancreatectomy hemorrhage and delayed gastric empty rates significantly increased from Clavien-Dindo grade I to grade IV; only postoperative pancreatic fistula and postpancreatectomy hemorrhage severity significantly increased from grade I to grade IV (both P < 0.001). The Clavien-Dindo classification is an objective, simple, and reliable way of reporting all complications following pancreatic resections and it allows to recognize appropriately all the most important complications after pancreatic resection, and the severity of postoperative pancreatic fistula and postpancreatectomy hemorrhage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autoimmune pancreatitis, in comparison to other benign chronic pancreatic diseases, is characterized by the possibility of curing the illness with immunosuppressant drugs. The open question is whether to differentiate autoimmune pancreatitis as a primary or secondary disease based on the presence or absence of other autoimmune diseases or whether to consider autoimmune pancreatitis a clinical and pathological systemic entity, called IgG4-related sclerosing disease, since this aspect is also very important from a therapeutic point of view.
In this paper, we reviewed the conventional therapeutic approach used to treat autoimmune pancreatitis patients and the clinical outcome related to each treatment modality. We also reviewed some aspects which are important for the correct management of autoimmune pancreatitis, such as the surgical approach, the outcome of surgically treated autoimmune pancreatitis patients, whether medical treatment is always necessary, and, finally, when medical treatment should be initiated.
Steroids are useful in alleviating the symptoms of the acute presentation of autoimmune pancreatitis, but some questions remain open such as the dosage of steroids in the acute phase and the duration of steroid therapy; finally, it should be assessed if other immunosuppressive non-steroidal drugs may become the first-line therapy in patients with AIP without jaundice and without atrophic pancreas.
Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 05/2011; 46(9):1029-38. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The optimal treatment of patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer remains to be elucidated. Chemo-radiotherapy is regarded as the treatment of choice, and studies have examined the sequential schedule of induction chemoradiotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy, with favourable results. This study investigated the principal clinical trials of chemoradiotherapy treatment in locally advanced pancreatic cancer in 2 patients. The 2 patients received induction chemotherapy with gemcitabine 1000 mg/mq day on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle for two cycles, followed by chemoradiotherapy with concurrent radiosensitizer bi-weekly gemcitabine 50 mg/mq for six weeks. Radiotherapy consisted of an external conformational 3D treatment administered to the pancreatic bed and locoregional nodes, with a total dose of 4500 Gy fractionated in 180 Gy/day, and a boost of 900 Gy to the neoplastic mass. Efficacy was evaluated four weeks after the end of treatment by a computed tomography (CT) scan and by fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/CT. The patients underwent further treatment with periodical instrumental evaluation. A disease control rate was observed in the two patients following sequential treatment, enhanced by subsequent treatment. The two patients remained alive 23-24 months following the diagnosis. The sequential treatment schedule therefore was an effective option in our locally advanced pancreatic cancer patients. A phase III trial and further investigation are required to verify this option in clinical practice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The absence of a definition and a widely accepted ranking system to classify surgical complications has hampered proper interpretation of the surgical outcome.
Sixty-one patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy.
The complications were classified according to the Clavien-Dindo classification; each grade was evaluated regarding the length of the postoperative stay and was compared to the most important complications.
Thirty (49.2%) patients had no complications; out of the thirty-one (50.8%) patients with complications, 9 (14.5%) had grade I, 15 (24.6%) had grade II, 6 (9.8%) had grade III, and 1 (1.6%) had grade IV. There were no postoperative deaths (grade V). A progressive increase in the length of hospitalization from patients with no complications to those having grade IV (P < 0.001) was noted. Postoperative pancreatic fistula and postpancreatectomy hemorrhage rates did not significantly increase from Clavien-Dindo grade I to grade IV (P = 0.118 and P = 0.226, respectively). The severity of a postpancreatectomy hemorrhage, instead, was positively related to the grade of the Clavien-Dindo classification (P = 0.049) while postoperative pancreatic fistula resulted near the significant value (P = 0.058).
The Clavien-Dindo classification is a simple way of reporting all complications following distal pancreatectomy. It allows us to distinguish a normal postoperative course from any deviation and the severity of complications and it may be useful for comparing postoperative morbidity between different pancreatic centers.
JOP: Journal of the pancreas 01/2011; 12(2):126-30.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), in contrast to other benign chronic pancreatic diseases, can be cured with immunosuppressant drugs, thus the differentiation of AIP from pancreatic cancer is of particular interest in clinical practice. There is the possibility that some patients with AIP may develop pancreatic cancer, and this possibility contributes to increasing our difficulties in differentiating AIP from pancreatic cancer. We herein report the case of a 70-year-old man in whom pancreatic adenocarcinoma and AIP were detected simultaneously. We must carefully monitor AIP patients for the simultaneous presence of pancreatic cancer, even when a diagnosis of AIP is confirmed.
Case Reports in Gastroenterology 01/2011; 5(2):378-85.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper gives practical guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of chronic pancreatitis. Statements have been elaborated by working teams of experts, by searching for and analysing the literature, and submitted to a consensus process by using a Delphi modified procedure. The statements report recommendations on clinical and nutritional approach, assessment of pancreatic function, treatment of exocrine pancreatic failure and of secondary diabetes, treatment of pain and prevention of painful relapses. Moreover, the role of endoscopy in approaching pancreatic pain, pancreatic stones, duct narrowing and dilation, and complications was considered. Recommendations for most appropriate use of various imaging techniques and of ultrasound endoscopy are reported. Finally, a group of recommendations are addressed to the surgical treatment, with definition of right indications, timing, most appropriate procedures and techniques in different clinical conditions and targets, and clinical and functional outcomes following surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Italy, pancreatic cancer is the fifth leading cause of tumor related death with about 7000 new cases per year and a mortality rate of 95%. In a recent prospective epidemiological study on the Italian population, a family history was found in about 10% of patients suffering from a ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (PDAC). A position paper from the Italian Registry for Familial Pancreatic Cancer was made to manage these high-risk individuals. Even though in the majority of high-risk individuals a genetic test to identify familial predisposition is not available, a screening protocol seems to be reasonable for subjects who have a >10-fold greater risk for the development of PDAC. However this kind of screening should be included in clinical trials, performed in centers with high expertise in pancreatic disease, using the least aggressive diagnostic modalities.
Digestive and Liver Disease 09/2010; 42(9):597-605. · 2.89 Impact Factor