[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract This study evaluated the effects of 10-day broccoli (250 g/day) intake on dietary markers and markers of inflammations in young male smokers. A dietary intervention study with a repeated measures crossover design was conducted. Circulating levels of carotenoids, folate, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 6 receptor (IL-6sR) and adiponectin were measured. Broccoli intake significantly increased plasma levels of folate (+17%) and lutein (+39%), while no significant effect was observed for TNF-α, IL-6, IL-6sR or adiponectin. Plasma CRP decreased by 48% (post-hoc analysis, p < 0.05) following broccoli diet; this resulted to be independent from the plasma variations in lutein and folate. An inverse correlation between lycopene, TNF-α and IL-6sR was observed at baseline. In conclusion, broccoli consumption may reduce CRP levels in smokers, consistent with epidemiologic observations that fruit and vegetable intake is associated with lower circulating CRP concentrations.
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 09/2013; · 1.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) has been used for the diagnosis and treatment of malignant pheochromocytomas (PHEO) and paragangliomas (PGL) since 1980's. Despite increasing amount of experience with iodine-131 (I-131) MIBG therapy, many important questions still exist. In this article, we will discuss the current problems learned from clinical experience in diagnosis and therapy of PHEO/PGL with I-131 MIBG, and present a sample case to emphasize the critical aspects for an optimal treatment strategy.
The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging: official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of... 06/2013; 57(2):146-152. · 1.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate carcinoma is the most common non-cutaneous cancer in developed countries and represents the second leading cause of death. Early stage androgen dependent prostate carcinoma responds well to conventional therapies, but relatively few treatment options exist for patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer. One of the most suitable targets for antibody-mediated approaches is prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) which is a well known tumour associated antigen. PSMA is a type II integral cell-surface membrane protein that is not secreted, and its expression density and enzymatic activity are increased progressively in prostate cancer compared to normal prostate epithelium, thereby making PSMA an ideal target for monoclonal antibody imaging and therapy. To obtain a small protein that can better penetrate tissue, we have engineered a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) starting from the variable heavy and light domains of the murine anti-PSMA monoclonal antibody D2B. scFvD2B was analysed in vitro for activity, stability, internalisation ability and in vivo for targeting specificity. Maintenance of function and immunoreactivity as well as extremely high radiolabelling efficiency and radiochemical purity were demonstrated by in vitro assays and under different experimental conditions. Despite its monovalent binding, scFvD2B retained a good strength of binding and was able to internalise around 40% of bound antigen. In vivo we showed its ability to specifically target only PSMA expressing prostate cancer xenografts. Due to these advantageous properties, scFvD2B has the potential to become a good theranostic reagent for early detection and therapy of prostate cancers.
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 02/2013; · 4.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: Our goal was to limit liver toxicity and to obtain good efficacy by developing a dosimetric treatment planning strategy. While several dosimetric evaluations are reported in literature, the main problem of the safety of the treatment is rarely addressed. Our work is the first proposal of a treatment planning method for glass spheres, including both liver toxicity and efficacy issues. Methods: Fifty-two patients (series 1) had been treated for intermediated/advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with glass spheres, according to the Therasphere® prescription of 120 Gy averaged on the injected lobe. They were retrospectively evaluated with voxel dosimetry, adopting the local deposition hypothesis. Regions of interest on tumor and non tumor parenchyma were drawn to determine the parenchyma absorbed dose, averaged also on non irradiated voxels, excluding tumor voxels. The relationship between the mean non tumoral parenchyma absorbed dose D and observed liver decompensation was analyzed. Results: Basal Child-Pugh strongly affected the toxicity incidence, which was 22% for A5, 57% for A6, 89% for B7 patients. Restricting the analysis to our numerically richest class (basal Child-Pugh A5 patients), D median values were significantly different between toxic (median 90 Gy) and non toxic treatments (median 58 Gy) at a Mann-Withney test, (P=0.033). Using D as a marker for toxicity, the separation of the two populations in terms of area under ROC curve was 0.75, with 95% C.I. of [0.55-0.95]. The experimental Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) curve as a function of D resulted in the following values: 0%, 14%, 40%, 67% for D interval of [0-35] Gy, [35-70] Gy, [70-105] Gy, [105-140] Gy. Discussion. A limit of about 70 Gy for the mean absorbed dose to parenchyma was assumed for A5 patients, corresponding to a 14% risk of liver decompensation. This result is applicable only to our administration conditions: glass spheres after a decay interval of 3.75 days. Different safety limit (40 Gy) are published for resin spheres, characterized by higher number of particle per GBq (more uniform irradiation, bigger biological effect for the same absorbed dose). Conclusion: As result of this study we suggest a constraint of about 70 Gy mean absorbed dose to liver non tumoral parenchyma, corresponding to about 15% probability of radioinduced liver decompensation while still aiming at achieving an absorbed of several hundreds of Gy to lesions.
The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging: official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of... 12/2012; 56(6):503-8. · 1.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroid carcinomas derived from follicular cells comprise papillary (PTC), follicular (FTC), poorly-differentiated (PDTC), and undifferentiated anaplastic (ATC) carcinomas. PTC, the most frequent thyroid carcinoma histotype, is associated with gene rearrangements that generate RET/PTC and TRK oncogenes and with BRAF-V600E and RAS gene mutations. These last two genetic lesions are also present in a fraction of PDTCs. The ERK1/2 pathway, downstream of the known oncogenes activated in PTC, has a central role in thyroid carcinogenesis. In this study, we demonstrate that the BRAF-V600E, RET/PTC, and TRK oncogenes upregulate the ERK1/2 pathway's attenuator cytoplasmic dual-phase phosphatase DUSP6/MKP3 in thyroid cells. We also show DUSP6 overexpression at the mRNA and protein levels in all of the analysed PTC cell lines. Furthermore, DUSP6 mRNA was significantly higher in PTC and PDTC in comparison to normal thyroid tissues both in expression profile datasets and in patients' surgical samples analysed by real-time RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses showed that DUSP6 was also overexpressed at the protein level in most PTC and PDTC surgical samples tested, but not in ATC, and revealed a positive correlation trend with ERK1/2 pathway activation. Finally, DUSP6 silencing reduced the neoplastic properties of four PTC cell lines, thus suggesting that DUSP6 may have a pro-tumourigenic role in thyroid carcinogenesis.
Endocrine Related Cancer 11/2012; · 5.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, in Italy, the reimbursement for the use of rhTSH in preparing patients for radiometabolic treatment of iodine-avid metastases from differentiated thyroid cancer has been made possible. Intramuscular administration of rhTSH increases the radioiodine uptake and thyroglobulin production by thyroid cells. In addition to the previous indications on the use of rhTSH (mainly: serum thyreoglobulin assay with or without 131I scintigraphy and ablation with 131I of remnants in low risk patients), the reimbursement is now allowed for the treatment with radioiodine of iodine-avid loco-regional and distant metastases, in subjects with inability to reach adequate TSH levels and/or severe clinical conditions which could be potentially worsened by other concurrent diseases (history of stroke or transient ischemic attack, severe cardiac disease, renal failure or major psychiatric disorders). The Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA) approved this use (and added this hormone in the special list of drugs regulated by the D.Lgs 648/96) on the basis of a series of scientific evidences, proposed by a "team of experts". In the present paper we illustrate the scientific background of the use of rhTSH (clinical usefulness, economic considerations, aspects related to a better quality of life) that allowed the modification of the reimbursement and how it was made possible in the Italian legislative context.
The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging: official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of... 10/2012; 56(5):476-84. · 1.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: an increased frequency of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) has been reported in patients with treated breast cancer (BC). PHP has been found in about 7% of BC patients after surgery and radio-, chemio- or hormonal therapy. The aim of this work was evaluate the frequency of PHP in untreated BC patients. Subjects and Methods: we evaluated 186 women with BC and 233 women with thyroid cancer (TC, n=122) or benign thyroid diseases (BTD, n=111). In all patients serum calcium, albumin, PTH and 25-OHvitD were measured before any treatment. Results: Serum calcium concentrations were significantly higher in BC than in TC and BTD groups (median values 9.5 mg/dl, 9.3 mg/dl and 9.3 mg/dl, respectively), but, according to a logistic regression model, calcium was not significantly different between the 3 groups when age was taken into account. In all patients, serum calcium was in the normal range, indicating that no case of overt PHP was present. Five patients (1 in BC, 2 in TC and 2 in BDT groups) had serum calcium close to the upper limit of normal range, high PTH and low 25-OHvitD, indicating a possible PHP with hypercalcemia masked by concomitant 25-OHvitD deficiency. Conclusions: in untreated BC group, no patient had overt PHP and 1/186 (0.5%) presented a possible PHP masked by 25-OHvitD deficiency, a PHP frequency much lower than that observed in treated BC patients. These data suggest that the treatments of BC may be responsible for the increased frequency of PHP reported in previous studies.
Journal of endocrinological investigation 08/2012; · 1.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The established treatment for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is founded on total thyroidectomy and subsequent administration of radioiodine (131I) to ablate the thyroid remnant and to treat the metastatic disease. In the case of metastatic or recurrent disease, further cycles of 131I therapy are often necessary. The condition for maximizing the effectiveness of the treatment is to have an adequate stimulation from TSH, which must be >25-30 mIU/L. This elevation is achieved either discontinuing the hormone suppression therapy for an appropriate period, or administering recombinant human TSH (rhTSH). The latter has shown good clinical efficacy in patients with residual thyroid gland and is nowadays commonly employed since it is easy to use and allows to avoid the side effects of hypothyroidism. It thus represents a good alternative to thyroid hormone withdrawal for the remnant ablation, while is still open the question if its efficacy on the management of metastatic disease is superimposable to thyroid hormone withdrawal. To this purpose, a Panel of expert reviewed the literature, assessing the advantages and disadvantages for the patient, as well as the impact in terms of cost and benefit to the National Health Service. The work of the Panel concluded with a proposal for the use of rhTSH in selected patients with metastatic DTC, in which is considered the efficacy and safety of the product and is examined its use in terms of costs; this proposal was accepted by the Italian Drug Agency resulting in an update of the indications for rhTSH.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To reduce the sequelae of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) in children under 10 (≥3) years old and to improve the prognosis for high-risk medulloblastoma in adolescents, we adjusted postoperative chemotherapy and CSI doses to patients' stage and age. From 1986 to 1995, 73 patients entered the study. Children under 10 and adolescents with metastases, residual disease (RD) or stage >T3 received postoperative IV vincristine and high-dose (HD) ± intrathecal (IT) methotrexate, while standard-risk adolescents were given IV vincristine and IT methotrexate. Chemotherapy was followed by CSI (19.8 Gy for children <10; 36 Gy for adolescents), with a 54-Gy posterior fossa boost. Maintenance chemotherapy with lomustine and vincristine was administered for a year afterwards. A total of 39 children were under 10 of whom 20 had metastases. Response to chemotherapy was recorded in 70%, but 5-year EFS and OS were only 48 and 56%, respectively. Results were significantly worse for metastatic cases, patients under 10, those with RD, and those staged without MRI (unavailable early in the study). Efforts to preserve survivors' quality of life did not pay off, and most patients over 30 still depended on their parents' income and had severe cognitive/endocrine disabilities. In conclusion, despite a very high response rate with this preradiation HD methotrexate schedule, the outcome for high-risk medulloblastoma patients did not improve (especially when lower CSI doses were used) and patients still developed severe morbidities.
Journal of Neuro-Oncology 02/2012; 108(1):163-71. · 3.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) is a growth arrest triggered by the enforced expression of cancer-promoting genes and acts as a barrier against malignant transformation in vivo. In this study, by a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches, we investigate the role of OIS in tumours originating from the thyroid epithelium. We found that expression of different thyroid tumour-associated oncogenes in primary human thyrocytes triggers senescence, as demonstrated by the presence of OIS hallmarks: changes in cell morphology, accumulation of SA-β-Gal and senescence-associated heterochromatic foci, and upregulation of transcription of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p16(INK4a) and p21(CIP1). Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis of a panel of thyroid tumours characterised by different aggressiveness showed that the expression of OIS markers such as p16(INK4a), p21(CIP1) and IGFBP7 is upregulated at early stages, and lost during thyroid tumour progression. Taken together, our results suggest a role of OIS in thyroid carcinogenesis.
Endocrine Related Cancer 09/2011; 18(6):743-57. · 5.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone pain in advanced stages of cancer significantly decreases the patient's quality of life having a great impact on physical, physiological and social functioning. About 65% of patients with prostate or breast cancer will experience symptomatic skeletal metastases. Bone pain sustained by osseous metastases represents the most frequent kind of pain and its clinical presentation and characteristics differ from other type of neoplastic pain (i.e., neuropathic or visceral ones). Pathophysiology of bone pain is not yet completely understood but a general mechanism including infiltration of bone tissue associated with osteolysis and release of biological active molecules able to stimulate peripheral nervous terminals, seems to be principally involved. In oncological practice, painful skeletal metastases are managed by different multidisciplinary modalities which include the use of systemic analgesics (i.e., bisphosphonates), antineoplastic agents (i.e., hormones and chemotherapeutics), external beam radiotherapy, interventional radiology and radiopharmaceuticals. In this review we will discuss the state of the art of palliative therapy of bone pain with particular emphasis to the current approved radiopharmaceuticals, focusing on indications, patient selection, efficacy and toxicity. Some remarks on new or under developing strategies in systemic metabolic radiopharmaceutical therapy will be reported.
The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging: official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of... 08/2011; 55(4):411-9. · 1.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypothyroidism remains a common late effect after irradiation of the neck/mediastinum for Hodgkins lymphoma (HL). We evaluated the protective effect of TSH suppression during neck/mediastinum irradiation. From 1998 to 2001, 14 consecutive euthyroid children were given, before and until the end of their radiotherapy on neck/mediastinum, L-thyroxine at TSH-suppressive doses. The 14 patients had adequate TSH suppression during irradiation in 8, inadequate in 6. The 8-year hypothyroidism-free-survival after irradiation was 75 ± 15% for the former group, 0% for the latter (P = 0.009). TSH suppression could have a protective effect on thyroid function as shown in a small group of patients with HL.
Pediatric Blood & Cancer 07/2011; 57(1):166-8. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activating mutations of RET, a gene encoding two isoforms of a tyrosine kinase receptor physiologically expressed in several neural crest-derived cell lineages, are associated with the inherited forms of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The identification and characterization of novel RET mutations involved in MTC is valuable, as RET gene testing plays a crucial role in the management of these patients. In an MTC patient, we have identified a germline c.1996A>G transition in heterozygosis leading to K666E substitution. In addition, the conservative S904S (c.2712C>G) and the non-conservative functional G691S (c.2071G>A) polymorphisms have been identified. Through functional studies, we demonstrate for the first time that K666E is a gain-of-function mutation with oncogenic potential, based on its ability to transform NIH3T3 cells. It was not possible to define whether K666E is a de novo or inherited RET variant in the patient, as the family history was negative for MTC, and the carrier status of family members could not be tested. Our results, together with a recent report of co-segregation of the mutation in three MTC families, suggest that K666E is a causative MTC mutation. As we have shown that the same patient allele carries both K666E and G691S variants, the latter known to increase downstream RET signaling, a possible role for the G691S polymorphism has also been investigated. We have demonstrated that, although RET-G691S is not oncogenic per se, it enhances the transforming activity of the RET-K666E mutant, thus suggesting a modifier role for this functional polymorphism.
Endocrine Related Cancer 06/2011; 18(4):519-27. · 5.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In most centres, the choice of the optimal activity to be administered in selective intra-arterial radioembolization with microspheres is nowadays based on empirical models which do not take into account the evaluation of tumour and non tumour individual absorbed dose, despite plenty of published data which showed that local efficacy is correlated to tumour absorbed dose, and that the mean absorbed dose is a toxicity risk factor. A pitfall of the crudest, empirical tumour involvement method are 20 deaths in a single centre which adopted it to administer the whole liver, or the need of systematic 25% subjective reduction of activity prescribed with body surface area method. In order to develop a possibly safer and more effective strategy based on real individual dosimetry, we examine first external beam liver radiation therapy results. The half century experience has something to be borrowed: the volume effect, according to which the smaller the fraction of the irradiated liver volume, the higher the tolerated dose. Different tolerance for different underlying disease or previous non radiation treatment is to be expected. Radiobiological models experience also has to be inherited, but not their dose reference values. Then we report the published dosimetric experience about (90)Y microsphere radioembolization of primary and metastatic liver tumours. In addition we also present original data from our growing preliminary experience of more refined (99m)Tc MAA SPECT based calculations in hepatocarcinoma patients. This overcame the mean dose approach in favour of the evaluation of dose distribution at voxel level. An insight into dosimetry issues at microscopic level (lobule level) is also provided, from which the different radiobiological behaviour between resin and glass spheres can be understood. For tumour treatment, an attenuation corrected (99m)Tc- SPECT based treatment planning strategy can be proposed, although quantitative efficacy thresholds should be differentiated according to the kind of pathology and previous treatment. For non tumour liver parenchyma, data in favour of a relationship between absorbed dose and dangerous effects are encouraging. Unfortunately in hepato-cellular carcinoma, some confounding factors may hamper the adequate estimation of the risk of toxicity. First there is a lack of consensus about the exact definition of toxicity after (90)Y microsphere radioembolization. Second, for HCC patients, progression of both cancer and cirrhosis can simulate a radioinduced toxicity, making the analysis more complex.
The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging: official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of... 04/2011; 55(2):168-97. · 1.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroendocrine tumors over-express somatostatin receptors and literature data have demonstrated the efficacy of the peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with somatostatin analogues labelled with high activities of b-emitting radioisotopes, such as (90)Y and (177)Lu. Yttrium-90 is a pure high energy b-emitter while (177)Lu is a b/g emitter of medium energy. We decided to evaluate an original tandem treatment based on administration of radiolabeled [DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotate (DOTA-TATE) alternating (177)Lu and 90Y. Aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, the efficacy and the toxicity of this treatment in neuroendocrine tumors expressing somatostatin receptors relapsed or refractory to conventional therapies.
Patients were treated with four therapeutic cycles alternating [(177)Lu]DOTA-TATE (5.55 GBq) and [(90)Y]DOTA-TATE (2.6 GBq). Dosimetric evaluation after administration of [(177)Lu]DOTA-TATE allows to calculate the absorbed doses in healthy organs. Blood samples were collected at 5 min, 1, 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 h and scintigraphy was performed once a day for four days after administration. Toxicity was evaluated considering hematological parameters and renal toxicity was evaluated also by the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Efficacy related with RECIST criteria.
Up to now 26 patients entered the study and 16 patients completed all cycles. Treatment was well tolerated with no adverse event registered. No damage to healthy organs was revealed in accordance with the calculated absorbed doses. We had a partial response in 10/15 patients evaluated three months after the fourth treatment.
Up to now only a few patients participated in and concluded this study; preliminary results are encouraging and indicate the feasibility of the study.
The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging: official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of... 02/2010; 54(1):84-91. · 1.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nuclear medicine can image some tumors by means of receptor specific radiopharmaceuticals, and offers the possibility to characterize cancer through the detection of its receptor expression. This is the case of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), that are visualized by different radiolabelled somatostatin analogues that bind 5 distinct somatostatin receptor types (named sstr1-5) that show different tissue distribution. The subtypes sstr2 and sstr5 are the most commonly expressed in NETs. Until now the most widely used radiolabelled somatostatin analogue for planar and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been [(111)In]pentetreotide, because of its commercial availability. Other analogues labelled with gamma emitting radionuclides are [(99m)Tc]EDDA/HYNIC-TOC, [(99m)Tc]P829, [(111)In]DOTA-lanreotide, [(111)In]DOTA-NOC-ATE, [(111)In]DOTA-BOC-ATE. However, these compounds have not been successful for the routine use. Moreover, NETs express various receptors that can be depicted by different radiopharmaceuticals, such as [(123)I]VIP and [(111)In]GLP-1. Besides this, some precursors of the catecholamines metabolism, as meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (MIBG), labelled with (123)I or (131)I, accumulates in neuroendocrine tissues, in particular those of sympathoadrenal lineage. MIBG scintigraphy is currently indicated for neuroblastoma, paraganglioma and phaeocromocitoma. An impressive technological progress has been achieved recently with PET and, in particular, with the development of hybrid instrumentations (PET/CT) combining nuclear imaging with radiological imaging providing both functional and morphologic information. Among positron emitting tracers, the [(18)F]FDG is the most diffuse in oncology, but other more effective tracers are available for NETs, such as the analogues labelled with 68Ga. The diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy of these technology is superior to that of gamma emitting radiopharmaceuticals, but the fact that they are not still registered limits their use in the clinical practice. This overview summarizes the state of art of NETs imaging, focusing the attention mainly on gamma-emitting tracers.
The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging: official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of... 02/2010; 54(1):3-15. · 1.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the second half of the 1980s, (131)I-MIBG has been widely used for treatment of patients with malignant pheochromocytoma. In 1991, at the International Meeting in Rome, it was agreed that (131)I-MIBG therapy induces significant tumor responses in about 30-50% of cases, long-term stabilization of disease in several cases and significant reduction of cathecolamine-related symptoms in almost all patients. Nevertheless, more than 20 years later, its therapeutic use in malignant phaeochromocytoma has not yet been standardized. Aim of the present study was to compare the use of low versus intermediate activity of MIBG to achieve better results in a shorter time with higher activities.
Two different modalities of (131)I-MIBG therapy were performed: before 2001, 12 patients (Group 1) received a fixed activity of 5.55 GBq/session. From 2001 to 2009, 16 patients (Group 2) were treated with 9.25-12.95 GBq/session.
As expected, the overall response rate in Group 2 are slightly better. The most important result of increasing the single session activity was the shorter median time to achieve a significant response (7 versus 19 months), which was obtained with a lower median cumulative activity (11 versus 22 GBq) in a lower median number of sessions (2 versus 7).
We demonstrated that intermediate single session activity shortened to one third the global treatment time, with similar efficacy and a moderate increment of toxicity. Consequently, the increase of (131)I-MIBG activity, without reaching myeloablative levels, can be recommended for standard treatment of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma patients.
The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging: official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of... 02/2010; 54(1):100-13. · 1.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTCs), the most frequent thyroid cancer, is usually not life threatening, but may recur or progress to aggressive forms resistant to conventional therapies. A more detailed understanding of the signaling pathways activated in PTCs may help to identify novel therapeutic approaches against these tumors. The aim of this study is to identify signaling pathways activated in PTCs.
We examined coordinated gene expression patterns of ligand/receptor (L/R) pairs using the L/R database DRLP-rev1 and five publicly available thyroid cancer datasets of gene expression on a total of 41 paired PTC/normal thyroid tissues. We identified 26 (up) and 13 (down) L/R pairs coordinately and differentially expressed. The relevance of these L/R pairs was confirmed by performing the same analysis on REarranged during Transfection (RET)/PTC1-infected thyrocytes with respect to normal thyrocytes. TGFA/EGFR emerged as one of the most tightly regulated L/R pair. Furthermore, PTC clinical samples analyzed by real-time RT-PCR expressed EGFR transcript levels similar to those of 5 normal thyroid tissues from patients with pathologies other than thyroid cancer, whereas significantly elevated levels of TGFA transcripts were only present in PTCs. Biochemical analysis of PTC cell lines demonstrated the presence of EGFR on the cell membrane and TGFA in conditioned media. Moreover, conditioned medium of the PTC cell line NIM-1 activated EGFR expressed on HeLa cells, culminating in both ERK and AKT phosphorylation. In NIM-1 cells harboring BRAF mutation, TGFA stimulated proliferation, contributing to PI3K/AKT activation independent of MEK/ERK signaling.
We compiled a reliable list of L/R pairs associated with PTC and validated the biological role of one of the emerged L/R pair, the TGFA/EGFR, in this cancer, in vitro. These data provide a better understanding of the factors involved in the biology of PTCs and would be useful in developing combination therapeutic approaches against these cancers.
PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(9):e12701. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gamma camera saturation is the first quantification problem in dosimetric studies following therapeutic administrations of 131I labeled radiopharmaceuticals. A new approach for dead time correction (DTC) is here proposed. It employs planar whole-body (WB) images without the need of standard radionuclide sources or of preliminary phantom calibrations.
Step and shoot WB acquisitions of the patient are required. A program was developed to compensate for the image discontinuities ("Continuity DTC method") between two adjacent static fields of view (FOVs) caused by different dead time count losses. For its validation, authors used two 99mTc 6 GBq phantom scans after administration of six patients with 131I labeled agents with different statistics and ten clinical scans taken between 16 h and 48 h after administration of 131I labeled agents, whose activity ranged from 4 to 10 GBq. The deviation from true decay corrected counts on phantoms and the constancy of monitor point-source counts in different patients' FOVs (root mean square error and maximum deviation) served as figures of merit. The accuracy of absorbed dose calculation was also estimated by comparison with the standard source correction method, computing the area under the time activity curve (AUC) of six lesions.
With respect to the true phantom counts, corrected images gave excellent results, giving a 6% maximum deviation. For what concerns the other figures of merit, continuity DTC reduced the average root mean square error from 36% to 2% and the mean maximum deviation from 50% to 2%, on phantom, while from 51% to 32/28% (absence/presence of triple energy window scatter correction) and from 72% to 21/14% on patients. Mean compensation of AUC gave a correction of +56% with our method, while +78% with standard source method.
The "Continuity DTC method" is a useful tool in dosimetry during nuclear medicine treatment, showing good accuracy. Moreover, since it does not require the use of any source, it provides with several advantages in terms of practicability and applicability, with respect to the standard source method and to methods based on the count rate characteristic curve.
The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging: official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of... 12/2009; 53(6):658-70. · 1.92 Impact Factor