Stefano De Stefani

Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modène, Emilia-Romagna, Italy

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Publications (27)69.5 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The histological evaluation of the renal parenchyma is often essential in cases of several renal diseases and provides useful information in determining the prognosis and guiding treatment. In patients with contraindications to percutaneous kidney biopsy, retroperitoneal laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) is to be preferred as a minimally invasive technique. However, there are cases in which the LESS technique is difficult to perform, especially given that the learning curve is not optimal. We present a case of a Jehovah's Witness patient with severe obesity, in whom conventional retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal biopsy was preferred to the LESS technique.
    Urologia. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the differences between LESS and SL among a population of subjects inexperienced of both techniques. Participants were randomly assigned to the LESS or SL arm of the course; between the population examined, none had previous laparoscopic experience. The trial consisted in performing three increasingly difficult exercises either with LESS or standard laparoscopy. Time of execution and Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills score (OSATS) were recorded. Statistical analysis failed to detect any significant difference between the two arms of the trial. A trend in favor of standard laparoscopy was observed anyway. Our study evaluates the technical performance on a surgical simulator in the laboratory setting, with the use of standardized tasks and validated metrics. We believe that a controlled and safe environment aids objective evaluation of LESS compared to SL. Literature on this particular topic is somehow conflicting and heterogeneous. Our trial demonstrated that novices performed LESS tasks without any additional difficulties compared to standard laparoscopy. The aim of such investigation is to support knowledge of this new technology in order to facilitate its use in selected patients and surgical procedures.
    Urologia 12/2013; 80(4):1-5.
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    ABSTRACT: To report our preliminary series with the Doli S EMSE 220F-XXP, the upgraded version of the previous Dornier Lithotripter S EMSE 220, for treatment of ureteral stones. Since July 2006, a total of 200 patients with ureteral stones were submitted to shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) with Doli S EMSE 220F-XXP. Mean stone size was 9.3 mm (range 6-18 mm). Ureteral stone location was proximal in 75, middle in 34, and distal in 91. Follow-up was carried out at 6 weeks after the treatment, by means of kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB) film and ultrasound, or helical computed tomography (CT). The overall stone-free rate was 89.5%, and the effectiveness quotient was 80. Stratifying by stone site, the stone-free rate was 93.3, 67.6, and 94.5% for proximal, middle, and distal location, respectively. Mean number of sessions per patient was 1.14. Analgesia with intravenous ketorolac or tramadol was required in 42.5% of cases. No significant side-effects were recorded. The new Doli S EMSE 220F-XXP provides similar characteristics to the Doli S EMSE 220 in terms of safety and lack of major complications, when dealing with ureteral stones; the improvement in stone disintegration is particularly evident for distal location, for which the number of pulses and the intensity of treatment can be greatly increased and the upgraded power of the device can be widely applied.
    Surgical Endoscopy 03/2011; 25(3):943-6. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The advantages of retroperitoneoscopic technique are well known. We decided to combine this access with the emerging laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) technique. We present our preliminary data on 11 renoureteral procedures and describe our retroperitoneoscopic LESS technique. As of March 2009, 10 patients were submitted to retroperitoneal LESS and divided into three groups: Group A, 3 patients underwent ureterolithotomy; Group B, 4 patients underwent renal cyst ablation; Group C, 4 patients underwent renal biopsy. Retroperitoneal access was obtained with an optical trocar. After retroperitoneal space blunt dissection, a multichannel port was placed. Standard and bent 5-mm instruments were used; we also used a 5-mm flexible laparoscope as a single procedure in group A. Ten of 11 procedures were completed without conversion; a single case in group A was converted to open surgery. Retroperitoneoscopic LESS is a safe and feasible procedure for renal biopsy and renal cyst ablation, with shorter convalescence time, less postoperative pain, and better cosmetic outcomes. LESS ureterolithotomy was more challenging for the lack of triangulation, resulting in a prolonged convalescence period. In addition, bent laparoscopic instruments are not suitable for retroperitoneal space; the multichannel port leaks carbon dioxide due to the flank position. Therefore LESS pelvic trainer practice is imperative in this case.
    European Urology 01/2011; 59(1):164-7. · 10.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To review the minimal-invasive development of surgical technique in urology focusing on nomenclature, history and outcomes of Laparo-Endoscopic Single-site Surgery (LESS), Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) and Computer-Assisted Surgery (CAS). METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in order to find article related to LESS, NOTES and CAS in urology. The most relevant papers over the last 10 years were selected in base to the experience from the panel of experts, journal, authorship and/or content. RESULTS: Seven hundred and fifty manuscripts were found. Papers on LESS describe feasibility/safety in most of the procedures with a clinical experience of more than 300 cases and five compared results to standard laparoscopy without showing significant differences. NOTES accesses have been proved their feasibility/safety in experimental study. In human, the only procedures performed are on kidney and through a hybrid-Transvaginal route. New robots overcome the main drawbacks of the DaVinci(R) platform. The use of CAS is increasing its popularity in urology. CONCLUSIONS: LESS has been applied in clinical practice, but only ongoing technical and instrumental refinement will define its future role and overall benefit. The transition to a clinical application of NOTES seems at present only possible with multiple NOTES access and transvaginal access. Robot and Soft Tissue Navigation appear to be important to improve surgical skills. We are already witness to the advantages offered by the former even if costs need to be redefined based on pending long-term results. The latter will probably upgrade the quality of surgery in a near future.
    World Journal of Urology 09/2010; · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A relationship between sport or fitness activities and urinary incontinence (UI) previously has been described in women. We report our preliminary experience with the use of a complete pelvic floor rehabilitation program in three female athletes affected by UI. The athletes were submitted to a combined pelvic floor rehabilitation program, including biofeedback, functional electrical stimulation, pelvic floor muscle exercises, and vaginal cones. After the scheduled rehabilitation scheme, none of the patients reported incontinence, nor referred to urine leakage during sport or during daily life. We therefore conclude that UI that affects female agonistic athletes may be effectively treated with this combined approach.
    Health Care For Women International 05/2010; 31(5):435-43. · 0.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Urinary incontinence (UI) is a debilitating condition that can cause discomfort, embarrassment, loss of confidence; it can lead to withdrawal from social life, and adversely affects physical and mental health, sexual function and quality of life (QoL) in women. The aim is to determine the impact of combined pelvic floor rehabilitation (PFR) on UI, female sexual dysfunction, and QoL. Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire (FSFI) and King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ). Sixteen patients with UI were selected and underwent a complete PFR program (biofeedback, functional electrical stimulation, pelvic floor muscles exercises, and vaginal cones). Patient filled out the FSFI questionnaire and the KHQ at the baseline and at follow-up. After PFR none of the patients reported urine leakage during sexual activity. Resolution of incontinence was achieved in 13 (81.25%) women. Only three (18.75%) patients had positive 1-hour pad test after the treatment. There was significant difference between pad test leakage before and after the PFR (P < 0.001). The mean Stamey incontinence score was 1.37 +/- 0.5 at the baseline vs. 0.25 +/- 0.57 at the follow up (P < 0.001). Before PFR, FSFI total score ranged from 25.8 to 2 (mean 14.65 +/- 6.88), after treatment the FSFI total score ranged from 36 to 2 (mean 22.65 +/- 9.5) (P < 0.001). The improvement of the scores in the six FSFI domains, 5 months after the conclusion of PFR, was statistically significant (desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain). All the nine domains in the KHQ presented a low average score after treatment and the improvements were statistically significant. PFR led to a significant difference in the daily use of pads, 1-hour pad test, and Stamey incontinence scores. The treatment caused an improvement in patient's QoL index and sexual function.
    Journal of Sexual Medicine 02/2010; 7(3):1200-8. · 3.51 Impact Factor
  • Asian Journal of Andrology 02/2010; · 2.14 Impact Factor
  • ANTICANCER RESEARCH; 01/2010
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    ABSTRACT: Radical prostatectomy is the treatment of choice for prostate cancer; although novel techniques have significantly reduced its side effects, the procedure can provoke urinary incontinence of various degrees and/or erectile dysfunction. We evaluate the effect of a complete pelvic floor rehabilitation program on both incontinence and erectile dysfunction, including climacturia, in a preliminary case series. Pad usage and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-15) Questionnaire. Three male patients, previously submitted to nerve and bladder neck sparing radical prostatectomy, presented with urinary incontinence, climacturia and erectile dysfunction of new onset. We decided to manage those subjects with a pelvic-floor rehabilitation program consisting of active pelvic-floor muscle exercises, electromyography biofeedback for strength and endurance, electrical stimulation. The whole program lasted 4 months, with weekly sessions, including general advices on lifestyle changes. Pad usage for incontinence and IIEF-15 were used to assess symptoms before and after the procedure. Before a complete rehabilitation program, pad usage was 1 per day in all the subjects, and the score for erectile function was set at 17 (range 15-20). After the procedure, all the patients experienced a satisfying urinary continence and an improvement in erectile function (mean IIEF score: 22, range 19-24). Similarly, climacturia seems to be subjectively reduced in all the subjects. Pelvic floor muscles exercises seem to result in an improved urinary continence and erectile function after radical prostatectomy. Since this is the first clinical case series dealing with this topic, our outcomes are encouraging and suggest the potential usefulness of such noninvasive treatment modality.
    Journal of Sexual Medicine 12/2009; 6(12):3496-9. · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    Urology 12/2009; 74(6):1215. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the short-term efficacy and safety of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) with the standard Dornier Lithotripter S 220 F EMSE in the treatment of a large population of 736 patients with renal and ureteral stones. This is the only report with more than 1000 treatments performed with this device. Between January 2003 and July 2006, a total of 479 renal and 257 ureteral stones were treated with 1168 ESWL sessions. ESWL was performed on an outpatient basis. Patients were evaluated after 1 and 3 months. Stone size and location, total number of shockwaves, stone-free rate, and complications were investigated. The stone-free rate for renal calculi was 60.5% at 1 month and 82.5% at 3 months. The stone-free rate for ureteral stones was 58% at 1 month and 82.9% at 3 months. The overall stone-free rate was 59.6% at 1 month and 82.5% at 3 months. Anesthesia was not needed in any case. Analgesia with hospital admission was necessary in 15 patients (2.0%). The major complications observed were renal hematoma in only 1 patient (0.1%), obstruction with sepsis in 3 patients (0.4%), and steinstrasse development in 5 patients (0.7%). The Dornier Lithotripter S 220 F EMSE is a safe and effective tool in the treatment of urolithiasis; the lack of invasiveness and absence of anesthesia confirm its worthy role as an alternative to ureterorenoscopy and percutaneous nephrolitotomy.
    Urology 10/2009; 74(6):1211-4. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transperineal prostate biopsy is a procedure that can be used to obtain histological samples from the prostate. To improve both the quality of the biopsy core samples and prostate cancer detection, we are currently performing a prospective, randomized trial comparing prostate biopsy samples obtained using an 18 G-needle to those obtained using a 16 G needle. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate pain and complication rates in both groups in order to assess whether performing a prostate biopsy with a larger calibre needle is a feasible procedure. One hundred and eighty-seven patients undergoing transperineal prostate biopsy were prospectively evaluated and divided into two groups. The first group (94 patients, Group A) received a transperineal prostate biopsy using a 16 G-needle and the second group (93 patients, Group B) underwent transperineal prostate biopsy with an 18 G-needle. Anaesthesia was obtained with a single perineal injection at the prostatic apex in all subjects. A visual analogue scale (VAS) and facial expression scale (FES) were used to assess pain during multiple steps of the procedure in each group. A detailed questionnaire was used to obtain information about drug use because it could potentially influence the pain and complications that patients experienced. Two weeks after the procedure, early and late complications were evaluated. Statistical analysis was carried out using non-parametric tests. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) and drug use were similar at baseline between the two groups. Pain during prostate biopsy, which was measured with both the VAS and FES instruments, did not differ significantly between the 18- and 16 G-needle groups, and no significant differences were found in early or late complication rates between the groups. Transperineal prostate biopsy with a 16 G-needle is a feasible procedure in terms of pain and complication rates. Further studies with larger patient populations are required to assess whether or not this procedure can improve prostate cancer detection rates.
    Asian Journal of Andrology 09/2009; 11(6):678-82. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Renal multiple peripelvic cysts are often symptomatic. Obstruction of renal hilum and the collecting system leads to hydronephrosis and could promote formation of stones. Managing both entities at the same time needs a new approach to minimize complications and improve success rates. We report for the first time five cases of symptomatic multiple peripelvic cysts and concomitant kidney stones treated by a laparoscopic approach. Between 2003 and 2007 three men and two women, with a median age of 60 years with peripelvic renal cyst and synchronous kidney stones underwent a laparoscopic ablation of cysts, concomitant pyelolithotomy, and stone removal with a flexible auxiliary cystoscope. Mean cyst size was 45 mm (range 15-70 mm). Mean stone size was 25 mm (range 10-33 mm). The mean operative time was 173 minutes (range 150-235 minutes). There were neither intraoperative complications nor conversions to open surgery. Mean blood lost was less than 100 mL, and mean hospital stay was 3.2 days (range 3-5 days). After removal of ureteral catheter, patients were asymptomatic and without signs of hydronephrosis. Computed tomography after 6 months showed clearance of all cysts and stones without sign of recurrence. Laparoscopic management of urolithiasis should be an alternative choice of treatment in some particular and selected indication. Concomitant symptomatic peripelvic cysts and kidney stones could justify simultaneous laparoscopic management. The procedure is technically challenging but safe and effective, and it avoids a staged treatment.
    Journal of endourology / Endourological Society 08/2009; 23(11):1851-6. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Urinary incontinence (UI) is often associated with sexual dysfunction. We present our preliminary experience with a combined rehabilitative approach consisting of biofeedback, functional electrical stimulation, pelvic floor muscle exercises, and vaginal cones. The potential impact of such practice on UI and sexual function was analyzed in our case series and discussed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES AND METHODS: We evaluated three women affected by UI and sexual dysfunction. The patients underwent combined pelvic floor rehabilitation (PFR), kept voiding diaries, and filled out the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI questionnaire) before and after the completion of PFR. We evaluated each domain score, including desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain. After the combined rehabilitation program, none of them had UI requiring pad use or referred urine leakage during sexual activity, including intercourse. Before PFR, FSFI score ranged from 16 to 21; after treatment, the FSFI score ranged from 22.1 to 29.3. There was an improvement in patients regarding desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain. A complete rehabilitation can provide a beneficial effect on sexual function. A larger trial, on a more extended female population, is currently in progress, in order to confirm our findings. The effectiveness of a complete PFR scheme, together with the lack of side effects, makes it a suitable approach to sexual dysfunction that is associated with UI.
    Journal of Sexual Medicine 07/2009; 6(6):1674-7. · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have compared prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics in men with and without cancer, but there has been no adequate analysis of the longitudinal variation in PSA. The aim of this study was to assess the fluctuations in PSA in a cohort of elderly men in an attempt to define a physiological pattern of PSA kinetics. We searched a specific cohort of patients aged > 75 years and with PSA value < 2.0 ng mL(-1). A history of all PSA values over the past 10 years was compiled for each patient to create a database of patients fitting the following criteria: (1) minimum of five PSA measurements, (2) over at least 5 years. Exclusion criteria were: (1) PSA < 0.2 ng mL(-1) at each measurement and (2) having had more than one PSA test per year. In all, 1 327 patients (mean age: 78.52 years) fit the inclusion criteria. The mean variation from the first to the last PSA test was 0.05 +/- 0.43, with a mean follow-up of 6.79 +/- 1.71 years. Over the same period, the mean fluctuation from the lowest to the highest PSA value was 0.04 +/- 0.55 (P = 0.925). The mean annual PSA velocity (PSAV) was calculated by dividing the mean variation from the first to the last PSA test by the number of years of observation for each patient and was set at 0.0104 +/- 0.1050. Concluding, in a large-scale cohort of elderly individuals considered healthy and evaluated for a considerable follow-up, the average annual PSAV as well as the average fluctuation from the lowest to the highest PSA value are insignificant.
    Asian Journal of Andrology 06/2009; 11(4):493-7. · 2.14 Impact Factor
  • Urology 03/2009; 73(2):445; author reply 445-6. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe a new surgical technique for the repair of bulbar urethral strictures to preserve the bulbospongiosum muscle and its perineal innervation. Surgical steps of muscle- and nerve-sparing bulbar urethroplasty are described. The outcome is provided regarding semen sequestration and postvoiding dribbling. We performed the procedure in 12 patients (average age: 43.58 yr) with bulbar urethral strictures (average stricture length: 4.47 cm). Six patients underwent urethroplasty using a ventral oral mucosal onlay graft, and six patients underwent urethroplasty using a dorsal oral mucosal onlay graft. In all patients, the surgical approach to the bulbar urethra was made avoiding dissection of the bulbospongiosum muscle from the corpus spongiosum and leaving the central tendon of the perineum intact. Clinical outcome was considered a failure when any postoperative instrumentation was needed. The primary outcome examined the technical feasibility of the muscle- and nerve-sparing bulbar urethroplasty. The secondary outcome examined the presence or absence of postoperative postvoid dribbling and semen sequestration using a nonvalidated questionnaire (Appendix). In all patients, postoperative voiding cystourethrography was performed 3 wk after surgery and no urethral sacculation was evident. Urethrography were repeated after 6 mo and 12 mo. No postvoid dribbling or semen sequestration was demonstrated in all patients at 6 mo and 12 mo after surgery. No patient showed stricture recurrence. The average follow-up was 15.25 mo (range 12 mo to 26 mo, median 13.5 mo). Bulbar urethroplasty preserving the bulbospongiosum muscle, the central tendon of the perineum, and the perineal nerves is a safe, feasible, minimally invasive alternative to traditional bulbar urethroplasty.
    European Urology 09/2008; 54(2):335-43. · 10.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) is one of the most common treatments for urinary stones. Despite technological improvements, it may cause side effects varying from minor reversible microscopic damage to severe large renal hematomas. The aim of our experimental study is to assess the efficacy of inosine in avoidance of acute renal damage after SWL. We used 25 Wistar rats that had previously had left nephrectomy. The rats were divided into three groups: group A consisted of 10 rats undergoing renal SWL; group B consisted of 10 rats that received adjunctive treatment with IP injection of inosine 40 minutes before SWL; and group C consisted of 5 rats that served as controls. N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentrations were evaluated 24 hours before and 24 hours after SWL. All the rats were subsequently sacrificed (4 rats in group A and 4 in group B at 48 hours post-SWL, and the remaining rats were sacrificed 30 days post-SWL). Renal tissue was submitted to histologic and electron microscopic examination to assess early and late alterations. NAG and LDH values were significantly increased after SWL in group A (P<0.001), while no significant NAG and LDH differences were detected in group B (P<0.16). Early histologic examination revealed a considerable amount of cellular degeneration in group A with ultrastructural vacuolization and disruption of lysosomal membranes; the tubular features and cellular structures appeared to be well preserved in group B. No late histologic alterations were evident in any of the specimens. Inosine is helpful and protective in the prevention of early microscopic damage to renal parenchyma due to SWL.
    Journal of Endourology 05/2008; 22(5):1059-63. · 2.07 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Urology - J UROL. 01/2008; 179(4):544-544.