[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Racial disparities in access and survival have been reported in a variety of cancers. These issues, however, have yet to be explored in detail in patients with soft-tissue sarcomas (STS). The purpose of this paper was to investigate the independent role of race with respect to survival outcomes in STS.
A total of 7601 patients were evaluated in this study. A SEER registry query for patients over 20 years old with extremity STS diagnosed between 2004 and 2009 (n=7225) was performed. Survival outcomes were analyzed after patients were stratified by race. Multivariable survival models were used to identify independent predictors of sarcoma-specific death. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare continuous variables. Statistical significance was maintained at P<0.05.
This study showed that African American patients were more likely to die of their STS. They were younger at presentation (P=0.001), had larger tumors (P<0.001), had less surgery (P=0.002), received radiotherapy less frequently (P=0.024), had higher family income (P<0.001), and were less likely to be married (P<0.001). African American race by itself was not an independent predictor of death.
African Americans encounter death due to STS at a much larger proportion and faster rate than their respective white counterparts. African Americans frequently present with a larger size tumor, do not undergo surgical resection, or receive radiation therapy as frequently as compared with their white peers. Barriers to timely and appropriate care should be further investigated in this group of at-risk patients.
American journal of clinical oncology 01/2014; · 2.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although survival outcomes have been evaluated between those undergoing a planned primary excision and those undergoing a reexcision following an unplanned resection, the financial implications associated with a reexcision have yet to be elucidated. METHODS: A query for financial data (professional, technical, indirect charges) for soft tissue sarcoma excisions from 2005 to 2008 was performed. A total of 304 patients (200 primary excisions and 104 reexcisions) were identified. Wilcoxon rank sum tests and χ (2) or Fisher's exact tests were used to compare differences in demographics and tumor characteristics. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed with bootstrapping techniques. RESULTS: The average professional charge for a primary excision was $9,694 and $12,896 for a reexcision (p < .001). After adjusting for tumor size, American Society of Anesthesiologists status, grade, and site, patients undergoing reexcision saw an increase of $3,699 in professional charges more than those with a primary excision (p < .001). Although every 1-cm increase in size of the tumor results in an increase of $148 for a primary excision (p = .006), size was not an independent factor in affecting reexcision charges. The grade of the tumor was positively associated with professional charges of both groups such that higher-grade tumors resulted in higher charges compared to lower-grade tumors (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Reexcision of an incompletely excised sarcoma results in significantly higher professional charges when compared to a single, planned complete excision. Additionally, when the cost of the primary unplanned surgery is considered, the financial burden nearly doubles.
Annals of Surgical Oncology 04/2013; · 4.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite reports of sex steroid receptor and COX2 expression in desmoid-type fibromatosis, responses to single agent therapy with anti-estrogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are unpredictable. Perhaps combination pharmacotherapy might be more effective in desmoid tumors that co-express these targets. Clearly, a further understanding of the signaling pathways deregulated in desmoid tumors is essential for development of targeted molecular therapy. Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are important regulators of fibroblast proliferation and matrix deposition, but little is known about the TGFβ superfamily in fibromatosis. A tissue microarray representing 27 desmoid tumors was constructed; 14 samples of healing scar and 6 samples of normal fibrous tissue were included for comparison. Expression of selected receptors and activated downstream transcription factors of TGFβ family signaling pathways, β-catenin, sex steroid hormone receptors and COX2 were assessed by immunohistochemistry; patterns of co-expression were explored via correlational statistical analyses. In addition to β-catenin, immunoreactivity for phosphorylated SMAD2/3 (indicative of active TGFβ signaling) and COX2 was significantly increased in desmoid tumors compared to healing scar and quiescent fibrous tissue. Low levels of phosphorylated SMAD1/5/8 were detected in only a minority of cases. TGFβ receptor type 1 and androgen receptor were expressed in both desmoid tumors and scar, but not in fibrous tissue. Estrogen receptor-β was present in all cases studied. TGFβ signaling appears to be activated in desmoid-type fibromatosis and phosphorylated SMAD2/3 and COX2 immunoreactivity may be of diagnostic utility in these tumors. Given the frequency of androgen receptor, estrogen receptor-β and COX2 co-expression in desmoid tumors, further assessment of the efficacy of combination pharmacotherapy using hormonal agonists/antagonists together with COX2 inhibitors should be considered.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine if amputation increases survival when compared to limb salvage surgery in patients with a soft tissue sarcoma (STS) of the extremity when there is often a misconception among physicians and patients that ablative surgery eliminates local recurrence and increases overall survival. This retrospective cohort study assessed 278 patients with STS and compared 18 patients who had undergone amputations for soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities to a comparative cohort of 260 patients who underwent limb salvage surgery during the same time period. Our limb salvage surgery (LSS) rate was 94% overall for soft tissue sarcomas with a median follow-up of 3.1 years. Patients undergoing amputations either had tumors that involved a critical neurovascular bundle (in particular nerve rather than vessel resection was more responsible for a decision toward ablation), or underlying bone or had neoplasms whose large size would require such an enormous resection that a functional limb would not remain. In comparing prognostic effects, mainly death due to sarcoma, distant metastasis and local recurrence, it was found that there was no statistically significant difference between patients undergoing amputation to those undergoing limb salvage surgery (p > 0.05). While amputations do not increase overall survival in soft tissue sarcomas of the extremity as compared to LSS, they are still a valuable option in a surgeon's arsenal. In particular, amputations can provide improved local control and symptomatic treatment in patients who might not be candidates for limb salvage surgery.
European journal of surgical oncology: the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology 09/2012; · 2.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Wound closure accounts for a relatively constant portion of the time required to complete a surgical case. Both longer closure times and wound infections contribute to higher medical costs and patient morbidity. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We therefore determined whether (1) biologic and treatment factors greater influenced wound healing than the choice of sutures or staples; and (2) different times to closure affected cost when sutures or staples are used in patients with musculoskeletal tumors. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 511 patients who had sarcoma resections of the buttock, thigh, and femur from 2003 to 2010; 376 had closure with sutures and 135 with staples. Data were abstracted on patient demographics, comorbidities, select procedural data, and wound complications. Wound complications were defined by hospitalization within 6 months postoperatively for a wound problem, irrigation and débridement, or infection treated with antibiotics. We determined the association between staples versus sutures and wound complications after controlling for confounding factors. The minimum followup was 2 weeks. A prospective, timed analysis of wounds closed with either sutures or staples was also performed. RESULTS: We found an association between obesity and radiation and wound complications. Wounds were closed an average of 5.3 minutes faster with staples than with suture (0.29 minutes versus 5.6 minutes, respectively), saving a mean 2.1% of the total operating time although the total operating time was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: We found no difference in wound complications after closure with sutures or staples, although obesity and radiation treatment appear to affect wound outcomes. Data suggest that time saved in the operating room by closing with staples compensates for added material costs and does not compromise wound care in patients with lower extremity sarcomas. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 08/2012; · 2.79 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Limb salvage surgery (LSS) has gained widespread acceptance as the current treatment for treating extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and has been greatly refined since its inception. Combined with improved adjuvant treatment modalities, rates of local relapse have greatly decreased. Nonetheless, local recurrence still occurs and identifying the cause and the subsequent effects of local recurrence can provide valuable insights as LSS continues to evolve. Methods. This retrospective study evaluated 278 patients treated for STS of the extremities between 2000 and 2006. Of these, 41 patients developed a local recurrence while 247 did not. Tumor characteristics and prognostic outcomes were analyzed. Wilcoxon rank sum test and either χ(2) or Fisher's exact was used to compare variables. Kaplan Meier and Gray's test for cumulative risk were also performed. Results. Patients who had a positive margin were 3.76 times more likely to develop local recurrence when compared to those with negative margins. This corresponds to a 38% risk of local recurrence if the margins were positive after six years vs. 12% if the margins were negative. In patients who underwent a re-excision, the presence or absence of residual disease upon re-excision did not have any bearing on local recurrence (p = 0.27). In comparing patients with and without local recurrence, there was no statistically significant difference in the rate and the proportion encountering distant metastasis and death due to sarcoma (p > 0.05). Conclusions. Despite advancements in surgery, radiation and imaging, positive margins still occur, and the presence of positive margins following definitive treatment continues to remain as a strong predictor for local recurrence. While local recurrence represents a negative outcome for a patient, its impact on future prognosis is influenced by a variety of factors such as time to local recurrence as well as the tumor's inherent biological characteristics.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deep infection following endoprosthetic limb reconstruction for sarcoma of the long bones is a devastating complication occurring in 15% of sarcoma patients. Optimizing infection protocols and conducting definitive surgical trials are critical to improving outcomes. In this study, the PARITY (Prophylactic Antibiotic Regimens in Tumor Surgery) investigators aimed to examine surgeon preferences in antibiotic prophylaxis and perceptions about current evidence, as well as to ascertain interest in resolving uncertainty in the evidence with clinical trials.
We used a cross-sectional survey to examine current practice in the prescription of prophylactic antibiotics in Musculoskeletal Tumor Surgery. The survey was approved by our institution's Ethics Board and emailed to all Active Members of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) and Canadian Orthopaedic Oncology Society (CANOOS). Survey answers were collected using an anonymous online survey tool.
Of the 96 surgeons who received the questionnaire, 72 responded (75% response rate (% CI: 65.5, 82.5%)). While almost all respondents agreed antibiotic regimens were important in reducing the risk of infection, respondents varied considerably in their choices of antibiotic regimens and dosages. Although 73% (95% CI: 61, 82%) of respondents prescribe a first generation cephalosporin, 25% favor additional coverage with an aminoglycoside and/or Vancomycin. Of those who prescribe a cephalosporin, 33% prescribe a dosage of one gram for all patients and the reminder prescribe up to 2 grams based on body weight. One in three surgeons (95% CI: 25, 48%) believes antibiotics could be discontinued after 24 hours but 40% (95% CI: 30, 53%) continue antibiotics until the suction drain is removed. Given the ongoing uncertainty in evidence to guide best practices, 90% (95% CI: 81, 95%) of respondents agreed that they would change their practice if a large randomized controlled trial showed clear benefit of an antibiotic drug regimen different from what they are currently using. Further support for a clinical trial was observed by an overwhelming surgeon interest (87%; 95% CI: 77, 93%) in participating in a multi-center randomized controlled study.
The current lack of guidelines for the prescription of prophylactic antibiotics in Musculoskeletal Tumor Surgery has left Orthopaedic Oncologists with varying opinions and practices. The lack of current evidence and strong surgeon support for participating in a definitive study provides strong rationale for clinical trials.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expression of the p63 tumor suppressor protein has been reported in the mononuclear stromal cells of giant cell tumor of the bone, which may represent osteoblast-precursor cells. Only a limited number of osteoblastic tumors have been studied for p63 expression thus far. We therefore examined whether p63 may serve as a marker for osteoblastic differentiation in osteosarcomas or as a differential diagnostic marker to distinguish osteoblastoma from osteosarcoma. Immunohistochemical stains for p63 were performed on a tissue microarray containing 71 chemotherapy naïve biopsy samples of osteosarcoma, 21 whole sections of osteosarcoma, and 8 osteoblastomas. Nuclear p63 was detected in seven of eight osteoblastomas but was restricted to stromal cells within primitive, immature-appearing areas of osteoid deposition. Although only 7 of 71 (10 %) biopsy samples of osteosarcoma represented on the tissue microarray were positive for p63, 7 of 21 (33 %) osteosarcomas were positive when whole tissue sections were evaluated. Although p63 is detected in most osteoblastomas, it is also observed in a significant subset of osteosarcomas, severely limiting its utility in distinguishing between benign and malignant osteoblastic tumors. The relatively low prevalence of p63 expression in osteosarcoma would also seem to preclude its use as a marker of osteoblastic differentiation in skeletal sarcomas.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite reports of receptor tyrosine kinase activation in desmoid-type fibromatosis, therapeutic benefits of kinase inhibitor therapy are unpredictable. Variability in signal transduction or cellular kinases heretofore unevaluated in desmoid tumors may be responsible for these inconsistent responses. In either case, a better understanding of growth regulatory signaling pathways is necessary to assess the theoretical potential of inhibitor therapy. Immunohistochemical analysis of tyrosine kinases and activated isoforms of downstream signal transduction proteins was performed on a tissue microarray containing 27 cases of desmoid-type fibromatosis and 14 samples of scar; 6 whole sections of normal fibrous tissue were studied for comparison. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor, β type, and focal adhesion kinase 1 were expressed in all desmoid tumors and healing scars but only 80% and 50% of nonproliferative fibrous tissue samples, respectively. Hepatocyte growth factor receptor was detected in 89% of desmoids and all scars tested, but not in any of the fibrous tissue samples. Epidermal growth factor receptor was detected in only 12% of desmoids and not in scar or fibrous tissue. Mast/stem cell growth factor receptor, receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2, and phosphorylated insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor/insulin receptor were negative in all study cases. Variable levels of phosphorylated downstream signal transduction molecules RAC-α/β/γ serine/threonine-protein kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 were observed in desmoids (58%, 62%, and 67%), scar tissues (100%, 86%, and 86%), and fibrous tissue (33%, 17%, and 17%). These results indicate that tyrosine kinase signaling is active in both fibromatosis and healing scar, but not in most nonproliferating fibrous tissues. Although platelet-derived growth factor receptor, β type, is expressed ubiquitously in desmoids, the kinases driving cell proliferation in desmoids remain unresolved.
Human pathology 04/2012; 43(10):1711-8. · 3.03 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The morphologic changes seen in desmoid-type fibromatosis after radiotherapy have not been well studied, and the degree of cytologic atypia, cellularity, mitotic activity, and lesional necrosis found in desmoid-type fibromatosis treated with ionizing radiation has not been thoroughly assessed. Therefore, we evaluated a series of primary and locally recurrent desmoid-type fibromatoses resected at variable intervals after radiation therapy (XRT) and compared their histopathologic and immunophenotypic features with paired pathologic specimens that were obtained before radiotherapy. The morphologic characteristics of desmoid-type fibromatoses resected before and after radiotherapy were not significantly different in 7 of the 8 cases studied. One case resected 191 months after XRT showed morphologic evidence of fibrosarcomatous transformation, with zonal necrosis, hypercellularity, severe nuclear atypia, and increased mitotic activity. No significant differences in the immunophenotype of desmoid-type fibromatosis were observed after XRT. In rare cases of recurrent desmoid-type fibromatosis, the differential diagnosis may include radiation-induced fibrosarcoma. Our data suggest that histomorphologic alterations attributable to the effects of ionizing radiation in desmoid-type fibromatosis are minimal. Therefore, the presence of cytologic features of malignancy in this setting warrants careful examination and consideration of the rare occurrence of postradiation sarcoma. Lesser degrees of nuclear atypia seen in isolation do not necessarily indicate a poor prognosis in irradiated desmoid-type fibromatosis.
Human pathology 03/2012; 43(9):1418-24. · 3.03 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are rare and are commonly excised outside of a sarcoma center without appropriate preoperative planning. Studies have shown varying results in survival and outcome when comparing patients undergoing re-excision to patients undergoing a single, planned excision.
This retrospective study evaluated 278 patients treated for STS of the extremities between January 2000 and July 2006. One hundred seventy-two patients had a primary excision while 106 patients had a sarcoma re-excised. Survival curves for disease-free survival, metastasis-free survival, and local recurrence-free survival were calculated using competing risk analysis for both groups.
After adjusting for high-risk variables, our results indicate that re-excision is a proxy for smaller, low-grade tumors which tend to have a better survival profile. Death due to sarcoma and distant metastases were correlated with high-grade and large tumors. The presence of positive microscopic margins was the strongest predictor of local recurrence (P < 0.05).
There were no differences in death, metastases, or local recurrence between the two groups after adjusting for high-risk variables. Survival advantages previously reported with STS re-excision serve as proxy for tumors that have a better survival profile.
Journal of Surgical Oncology 12/2011; 105(7):662-7. · 2.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Procoagulant states, leading to activation of the coagulation protease thrombin, are common in cancer and portend a poor clinical outcome. Although procoagulant states in osteosarcoma patients have been described, studies exploring osteosarcoma cells' ability to directly contribute to procoagulant activity have not been reported. This study explores the hypothesis that osteosarcoma can regulate thrombin generation and proliferate in response to thrombin, and that attenuating thrombin generation with anticoagulants can slow tumor growth.
Pathologic analysis of osteosarcoma with adjacent venous thrombus was performed. In vitro proliferation assays, cell-based coagulant activity assays, and quantification of coagulation cofactor expression were performed on human and murine osteosarcoma cell lines with varying aggressiveness. The efficacy of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) attenuation of tumor-dependent thrombin generation and growth in vitro and in vivo was determined.
Venous thrombi adjacent to osteosarcoma were found to harbor tumor surrounded by fibrin expressing coagulation cofactors, a finding associated with poor clinical outcome. More aggressive osteosarcoma cell lines had greater surface expression of procoagulant factors and generated more thrombin than less aggressive cell lines and were found to proliferate in response to thrombin. Treatment with LMWH reduced in vitro osteosarcoma proliferation and procoagulant activity as well as tumor growth in vivo.
These findings suggest that elements of the coagulation cascade may play a role in and represent a pharmaceutical target to disrupt osteosarcoma growth. They also have broader implications, as they suggest that, to be effective, dosing of anticoagulants must take into account an individual tumor's capacity to generate thrombin.
Cancer 09/2011; 118(9):2494-506. · 5.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As both cancer and major orthopaedic surgery are risk factors for venous thromboembolism, patients undergoing lower-extremity oncologic endoprosthetic arthroplasty for neoplastic processes are at substantial risk of the development of symptomatic venous thromboembolism. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of symptomatic venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing lower-extremity oncologic endoprosthetic arthroplasty. Secondary purposes were to assess whether chemoprophylaxis influenced the incidence of venous thromboembolism, surgical complications, or the incidence of local sarcoma recurrence. We also sought to determine whether any known risk factors for venous thromboembolism could be identified in this patient population.
We performed a retrospective comparative review of 423 patients who had undergone mega-endoprosthetic reconstruction following cancer resection. Univariate analysis was used to assess the association between chemoprophylaxis and the incidence of venous thromboembolism, to postulate the surgical complications associated with chemoprophylaxis, and to assess the rate of recurrence of local sarcoma as well the association between risk factors and venous thromboembolism.
Seventeen patients (4.0%) (95% confidence interval: 2.5% to 6.3%) had a venous thromboembolic event, ten with deep venous thrombosis and seven with nonfatal pulmonary embolism. Risk factors and chemoprophylactic regimens were not statistically associated with the occurrence of venous thromboembolism.
The incidence of symptomatic venous thromboembolism in our group of cancer patients who underwent lower-extremity endoprosthetic arthroplasty was lower than anticipated. A significant difference was not identified between the use of any or no chemoprophylactic agent and the incidence of venous thromboembolism or complication rates. No risk factors were associated with the incidence of symptomatic venous thromboembolism.
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 05/2011; 93(9):847-54. · 3.23 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extrarenal rhabdoid tumor is a rare, highly aggressive tumor of childhood with a poor prognosis. It represents <1% of pediatric soft tissue malignancies, typically involving infants . Frequently involved extrarenal sites include deep locations of the neck, abdomen, and paraspinal regions. The presence of "rhabdoid" cells is the characteristic histologic feature. Recent discovery of a specific genetic mutation enables a more accurate diagnosis. We present a case in an adolescent of extrarenal rhabdoid tumor arising within the sacral canal. This appears to be the first reported case of an extrarenal rhabdoid tumor arising within the sacral canal and mimicking a peripheral nerve sheath tumor. While rare, this tumor can be included in the radiologic differential diagnosis of peripheral nerve sheath tumors in children.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Analysis of the effect of antifibrinolytics on in vitro bone formation.
As the direct effect of antifibrinolytics on bone formation is unknown, we examined whether antifibrinolytics routinely used in spine surgery, namely, aprotinin and aminocaproic acid, affect osteoblast function in vitro.
Antifibrinolytics are used in spine surgery to prevent intraoperative blood loss and decrease the need for transfusion. They are either delivered systemically or included as a component of most tissue sealants. Although the role of the fibrinolytic system in wound healing is well established, reports of indirect effects on normal bone biology are emerging. This suggests that the pharmacological targeting of this system may also influence skeletal mass and integrity.
Osteoblast progenitor cells were cultured with therapeutic doses of aprotinin and aminocaproic acid. The effect of the antifibrinolytics on osteoblast development was determined by measuring cellular viability and proliferation, quantification of matrix mineralization, and genetic analysis of osteoblast differentiation markers. Protease inhibition profiles of the antifibrinolytics were determined by amidolytic chromogenic assays.
Therapeutic concentrations of aprotinin dose-dependently inhibited plasmin's proteolytic activity, stimulated osteoblast proliferation, and inhibited osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization. Aprotinin inhibition of osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization could be recovered by removing aprotinin from culture or stimulating cells with bone morphogenetic protein-2 or plasmin. Conversely, aminocaproic acid inhibited plasmin's proteolytic activity significantly less than aprotinin and had no effect on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, or matrix mineralization in its therapeutic range.
These findings demonstrate that the antifibrinolytics have drastically different effects on osteoblasts due in part to different efficacies of protease inhibition. Further, this work suggests that the fibrinolytic proteases and their inhibitors have great potential to regulate bone by affecting the processes that control osteoblast growth and differentiation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In megaprostheses, the tibial component is rarely a source of failure. The evolution of these implants has followed standard arthroplasty trends moving from majority use of all-polyethylene tibias (APT) to high volume use of metal-backed tibial (MBT) components. We report the results of 72 endoprostheses using either MBT (n = 42) or APT (n = 30) implanted between 1994 and 2006. Failures of the implant related to the tibial component were isolated, and 5-year survival of the tibial implant of the MBT cohort was 94%, and for the APT cohort, 87% (P = .39). The difference in tibial component failures between the 2 groups was not statistically significant (Pearson χ(2) = 0.1535, P = .6952). Revision rates for the entire implant and infection rates were not significantly different between the 2 groups.
The Journal of arthroplasty 03/2010; 26(3):451-7. · 1.79 Impact Factor