[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of thienorphine on small intestinal transit in vivo and on guinea-pig ileum (GPI) contraction in vitro.
The effects of thienorphine on intestinal transit were examined in mice and in isolated GPI. Buprenorphine and morphine served as controls. The distance traveled by the head of the charchol and the total length of the intestine were measured in vivo. Gastrointestinal transit was expressed as a percentage of the distance traveled by the head of the marker relative to the total length of the small intestine. The isolated GPI preparations were connected to an isotonic force transducer and equilibrated for at least 1 h before exposure to drugs. Acetylcholine was used for muscle stimulation.
Thienorphine (0.005-1.0 mg/kg, ig) or buprenorphine (0.005-1.0 mg/kg, sc) dose-dependently significantly inhibited gut transit compared with saline. Thienorphine inhibited gut transit less than buprenorphine. The maximum inhibition by thienorphine on the intestinal transit was 50%-60%, whereas the maximum inhibition by morphine on gut transit was about 100%. Thienorphine also exhibited less inhibition on acetylcholine-induced contraction of GPI, with a maximum inhibition of 65%, compared with 93% inhibition by buprenorphine and 100% inhibition by morphine. Thienorphine induced a concentration-dependent decrease in the basal tonus of spontaneous movement of the GPI, the effect of which was weaker than that with buprenorphine. The duration of the effect of thienorphine on the GPI was longer than that with buprenorphine.
Thienorphine had less influence, but a longer duration of action on GPI contraction and moderately inhibited intestinal transit.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2013; 19(9):1444-50. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v19.i9.1444 · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numerous efforts have been made on the chemical modification of opioid compounds, with the ultimate goal of developing new opioid analgesics that is highly potent and low/non-addictive. In a search for such compounds, TH-030418 [7α-[(R)-1-hydroxy-1-methyl-3-(thien-3-yl)-propyl]-6,14-endo-ethanotetrahydrooripavine] was synthesized. Here, we evaluated the pharmacological activities of TH-030418, in comparison with morphine, the prototype opioid analgesic. In radioligand binding assays, TH-030418 bound potently and nonselectively to μ-, δ-, κ-, and ORL1 (opioid receptor-like 1) receptors stably expressed in CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells with K (i) values of 0.56, 0.73, 0.60, and 1.55 nM, respectively. When administered subcutaneously, TH-030418 was much more potent than morphine in analgesia, with the ED(50) values of 1.37 μg/kg and 1.70 μg/kg in hot plate and acetic acid writhing tests, respectively. The opioid antagonist naloxone blocked the antinociceptive effect of TH-030418, indicating that the action of TH-030418 was mediated by opioid receptors. The antinociceptive effect of s.c. TH-030418 in hot plate test lasted for more than 12 h, which is much longer than those of morphine (2.5 h) and dihydroetorphine (1.5 h). In addition, naloxone did not precipitate withdrawal syndrome in the mice treated with TH-030418 previously. Most importantly, TH-030418 did not induce conditioned place preference in mice after chronic treatment. These results indicate that TH-030418 is a potent long-acting opioid analgesic with low dependence liability and may be of some value in the development of new analgesics.
Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 05/2011; 384(2):125-31. DOI:10.1007/s00210-011-0652-8 · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of agmatine on memory formation in morphine-treated mice on the step-down inhibitory avoidance test was examined. Pre-training and pre-test administration of agmatine (5, 10 and 20mg/kg, s.c.) facilitated memory formation and retrieval while post-training administration of agmatine (5, 10 and 20mg/kg, s.c.) had no effect on memory consolidation. Idazoxan (5mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited the effect of agmatine on memory formation and retrieval. Pre-training administration of morphine (1.25, 2.5 and 5mg/kg, s.c.) impaired memory formation while post-training and pre-test administration of morphine (1.25, 2.5 and 5mg/kg, s.c.) had no effect on memory consolidation and retrieval. Pre-training agmatine treatment reversed the impairment of morphine on memory formation. Moreover, pre-test administration of agmatine inhibited morphine-induced amnesia. Pre-training and pre-test idazoxan (5mg/kg, i.p.) treatment inhibited the effect of agmatine on morphine induced memory impairment. In conclusion, agmatine inhibited morphine-induced memory impairment on the mice step-down inhibitory avoidance test. The mechanism was exerted, at least in part, through activation of imidazoline receptors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension is a kind of disease associated with a very high rate of mortality, and there are not many effective drugs for the treatment. Today, endothelin (ET)-1 receptor antagonists were proved to be effective in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Aiming at developing new endothelin-A receptor (ETA) antagonist for treatment of pulmonary hypertension, di-n-butylaminocarbamyl-L-leucyl-D-tryptophanyl-D-4-chloro-Phe, named GF063, was synthesized at base of selective ETA receptor antagonist BQ485 and selected for the further pharmacological characterization. The preliminary pharmacodynamics of GF063 was evaluated by radioligand receptor binding assay and test of antivasoconstriction effects in vitro and in vivo. The integrative pharmacodynamics was evaluated in hypoxia-induced rat pulmonary hypertension. In vitro, GF063 bound to ETA receptor with 100,000-fold higher affinity than to ETB receptor. GF063 concentration dependently inhibited contraction of isolated rat aortic ring induced by ET-1 and shifted the cumulative concentration-contraction response curve to right with no change in the maximal response. In vivo, GF063 inhibited the increase of mean systemic arterial pressure induced by ET-1 in anesthetized rat. In hypoxia-induced rat pulmonary hypertension model, pretreatment with GF063 (40 mg/kg, s.c.) significantly decreased pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy, also significantly inhibited the increase of ET-1 level in lung, improved hemodynamics, and alleviated the wall thickness of pulmonary vessels. This study indicated that GF063, as a selective ETA receptor antagonist, could inhibit vasoconstriction effects in vivo and in vitro, could prevent pulmonary hypertension induced by hypoxia, and may have great potential to be developed as a new drug of antipulmonary hypertension.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Agmatine is an endogenous amine derived from l-arginine that potentiates morphine analgesia and inhibits naloxone precipitated abstinent symptoms in morphine dependent rats. In this study, the effects of agmatine on long-term potentiation (LTP) in the lateral perforant path (LPP)-granule cell synapse of the rat dentate gyrus (DG) on saline or morphine-treated rats were investigated. Population spikes (PS), evoked by stimulation of the LPP, was recorded from DG region. Acute agmatine (2.5-10mg/kg, s.c.) treatment facilitated hippocampal LTP. Acute morphine (30mg/kg, s.c.) treatment significantly attenuated hippocampal LTP and agmatine (10mg/kg, s.c.) restored the amplitude of PS that was attenuated by morphine. Chronic morphine treatment resulted in the enhancement of hippocampal LTP, agmatine co-administered with morphine significantly attenuated the enhancement of morphine on hippocampal LTP. Imidazoline receptor antagonist idazoxan (5mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the effect of agmatine. These results suggest that agmatine attenuated the effect of morphine on hippocampal LTP, possibly through activation of imidazoline receptor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SO-3, a novel Omega-superfamily conotoxin derived from Conus striatus, selectively inhibits N-type neuronal voltage-sensitive calcium channels. In current study, antinociception of SO-3 compared with MVIIA or morphine and its effects on morphine analgesia were investigated in rodent chemical stimulus tests after acute or repeated intrathecal administration. In mice acetic acid writhing test, similar to MVIIA, SO-3 caused dose- and time-dependent spinal antinociception with ED(50) of 0.25 microg/kg and t(1/2) of 4h, which was more potent and longer-acting than morphine. In rat formalin test after intrathecal bolus injection, SO-3 produced dose- and time-dependent antinociception by suppressing acute (ED(50), 1.79 microg/kg) and tonic phases (ED(50), 0.41 microg/kg), which was similar to MVIIA and approximately 10-fold potency and twice longer-acting of morphine in blocking tonic phase responses. After repeated intrathecal injections twice daily for 5 consecutive days, SO-3 produced analgesia without loss of potency whereas morphine produced analgesia tolerance in rat formalin test; further, SO-3 still produced potent analgesia in morphine-tolerant rats. SO-3 co-administered with morphine left-shift the dose-response curve of morphine in mice acetic acid writhing test and significantly potentiated morphine analgesia in rat formalin test. No changes in motor function were seen in mice or rats receiving antinociceptive doses of SO-3 whereas MVIIA caused motor dysfunction at doses of 1.0-2.0 microg/kg in rats. This study showed that (1) novel SO-3 produced potent and long-acting spinal antinociception without observable motor dysfunction, (2) SO-3 significantly potentiated morphine analgesia, (3) After repeated intrathecal administration, SO-3 produced neither tolerance nor cross-tolerance to morphine analgesia.
European journal of pharmacology 03/2010; 636(1-3):73-81. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.03.036 · 2.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pharmacokinetics of 6beta-naltrexol (6beta-NOL) following single intramuscular administration and multiple intramuscular injection once per day for seven days was studied in 4 Beagle dogs. Plasma concentration of 6beta-NOL in dogs was analyzed by a combination of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrochemical detection with naloxone (NLX) as internal standard. After single intramuscular injection of 0.2 mg x kg(-1) 6beta-NOL, the plasma concentration-time curve of the drug was found to fit to a two compartment model with first-order absorption. The main parameters of single dosing were as follows: t1/2alpha was (0.26 +/- 0.23) h, t1/2beta was (4.77 +/- 1.65) h, C(max) was (81.65 +/- 5.61) ng x mL(-1), t(peak) was (0.27 +/- 0.07) h, CL(s) was (1.20 +/- 0.06) L x kg(-1) x h(-1), V/F(c) was (1.94 +/- 0.15) L x kg(-1), and AUC(0-t) was (166.82 +/- 7.68) ng x h x mL(-1), separately. After multiple intramuscular injection of 0.2 mg x kg(-1) 6beta-NOL once per day for seven days, the plasma concentration-time curve of the drug fitted to a two compartment model with first-order absorption too. The main parameters of the last dosing were as follows: t1/2alpha was (0.19 +/- 0.18) h, t1/2beta was (5.79 +/- 1.50) h, C(max) was (79.82 +/- 10.5) ng x mL(-1), t(peak) was (0.18 +/- 0.08) h, CL(s) was (1.12 +/- 0.07) L x kg(-1) x h(-1), V/F(c) was (2.10 +/- 0.27) L x kg(-1), and AUC(0-t) was (173.23 +/- 9.49) ng x h x mL(-1), separately. The difference of the parameters between the first and the last dosing was not significant, showing that the plasma kinetics of 6beta-naltrexol was not changed after multiple administrations. In the course of multiple administration, the peak and valley concentration of plasma 6beta-naltrexol were (79.03 +/- 10.3) and (1.50 +/- 0.93) ng x mL(-1), respectively. No clear adverse events were noted during this study. These results showed that plasma 6beta-naltrexol fits to a two compartment model with first-order absorption in dog after intramuscular administration and their pharmacokinetic parameters were reported. There was no remarkable change on plasma pharmacokinetics of 6beta-naltrexol after multiple intramuscular administrations.
Yao xue xue bao = Acta pharmaceutica Sinica 07/2009; 44(7):722-5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to identify ceftriaxone and its analogs whether has the function of anti-tolerance of morphine and study the dose-effect relation of ceftriaxone in mice, hot plate method to measure pain threshold of mouse and naloxone withdrawal models were carried out and compared with normal saline group. Ceftriaxone and cefotaxime had the effect of anti-tolerance and anti-dependence of morphine notably. And ceftriaxone has the effect of anti-tolerance of morphine in a dose dependent manner.
Yao xue xue bao = Acta pharmaceutica Sinica 12/2008; 43(11):1094-8.