Michael J Lenardo

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Maryland, United States

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Publications (227)2650.87 Total impact

  • European journal of human genetics: EJHG 09/2014; · 3.56 Impact Factor
  • Benjamin Chaigne-Delalande, Michael J Lenardo
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    ABSTRACT: Divalent cations of two alkaline earth metals Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) and the transition metal Zn(2+) play vital roles in the immune system, and several immune disorders are associated with disturbances of their function. Until recently only Ca(2+) was considered to serve as a second messenger. However, signaling roles for Mg(2+) and Zn(2+) have been recently described, leading to a reevaluation of their role as potential second messengers. We review here the roles of these cations as second messengers in light of recent advances in Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+) signaling in the immune system. Developing a better understanding of these signaling cations may lead to new therapeutic strategies for immune disorders.
    Trends in immunology. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic gammaherpesvirus that infects and persists in 95% of adults worldwide and has the potential to cause fatal disease, especially lymphoma, in immunocompromised hosts. Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) that predispose to EBV-associated malignancies have provided novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of immune defense against EBV. We have recently characterized a novel PID now named "X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, and neoplasia" (XMEN) disease characterized by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding magnesium transporter 1 (MAGT1), chronic high level EBV with increased EBV-infected B cells, and heightened susceptibility to EBV-associated lymphomas. The genetic etiology of XMEN disease has revealed an unexpected quantitative role for intracellular free magnesium in immune functions and led to novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Here, we review the clinical presentation, genetic mutation spectrum, molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis, and diagnostic and therapeutic considerations for this previously unrecognized disease.
    Blood 02/2014; · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS) presents in childhood with nonmalignant lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly associated with a characteristic expansion of mature CD4 and CD8 negative or "double negative" TCRαβ(+) T (DNT) lymphocytes. Patients often present with chronic multilineage cytopenias due to autoimmune peripheral destruction and/or splenic sequestration of blood cells and have an increased risk of B cell lymphoma. Deleterious heterozygous mutations in the FAS gene are the most common cause of this condition, termed ALPS-FAS. We report the natural history and pathophysiology of 150 ALPS-FAS patients and 63 healthy mutation-positive relatives evaluated in our institution over the last two decades. Our principal findings are that FAS mutations have a clinical penetrance of less than 60%, elevated serum vitamin B12 is a reliable and accurate biomarker of ALPS-FAS, and the major causes of morbidity and mortality in these patients are the overwhelming post-splenectomy sepsis (OPSI) and development of lymphoma. With longer follow up, we observed a significantly greater relative risk of lymphoma than previously reported. Avoiding splenectomy while controlling hypersplenism by using corticosteroid-sparing treatments improves the outcome in ALPS-FAS patients. This trial has been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (identifier: NCT00001350).
    Blood 01/2014; · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The p110δ subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) is selectively expressed in leukocytes and is critical for lymphocyte biology. Here we report fourteen patients from seven families who were heterozygous for three different germline, gain-of-function mutations in PIK3CD (which encodes p110δ). These patients presented with sinopulmonary infections, lymphadenopathy, nodular lymphoid hyperplasia and viremia due to cytomegalovirus (CMV) and/or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Strikingly, they had a substantial deficiency in naive T cells but an over-representation of senescent effector T cells. In vitro, T cells from patients exhibited increased phosphorylation of the kinase Akt and hyperactivation of the metabolic checkpoint kinase mTOR, enhanced glucose uptake and terminal effector differentiation. Notably, treatment with rapamycin to inhibit mTOR activity in vivo partially restored the abundance of naive T cells, largely 'rescued' the in vitro T cell defects and improved the clinical course.
    Nature Immunology 10/2013; · 26.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The magnesium transporter 1 (MAGT1) is a critical regulator of basal intracellular free magnesium (Mg(2+)) concentrations. Individuals with genetic deficiencies in MAGT1 have high levels of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and a predisposition to lymphoma. We show that decreased intracellular free Mg(2+) causes defective expression of the natural killer activating receptor NKG2D in natural killer (NK) and CD8(+) T cells and impairs cytolytic responses against EBV. Notably, magnesium supplementation in MAGT1-deficient patients restores intracellular free Mg(2+) and NKG2D while concurrently reducing EBV-infected cells in vivo, demonstrating a link between NKG2D cytolytic activity and EBV antiviral immunity in humans. Moreover, these findings reveal a specific molecular function of free basal intracellular Mg(2+) in eukaryotic cells.
    Science 07/2013; 341(6142):186-191. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) controls genes involved in normal lymphocyte functions, but constitutive NF-κB activation is often associated with B cell malignancy. Using high-throughput whole transcriptome sequencing, we investigated a unique family with hereditary polyclonal B cell lymphocytosis. We found a novel germline heterozygous missense mutation (E127G) in affected patients in the gene encoding CARD11, a scaffolding protein required for antigen receptor (AgR)-induced NF-κB activation in both B and T lymphocytes. We subsequently identified a second germline mutation (G116S) in an unrelated, phenotypically similar patient, confirming mutations in CARD11 drive disease. Like somatic, gain-of-function CARD11 mutations described in B cell lymphoma, these germline CARD11 mutants spontaneously aggregate and drive constitutive NF-κB activation. However, these CARD11 mutants rendered patient T cells less responsive to AgR-induced activation. By reexamining this rare genetic disorder first reported four decades ago, our findings provide new insight into why activating CARD11 mutations may induce B cell expansion and preferentially predispose to B cell malignancy without dramatically perturbing T cell homeostasis.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 11/2012; · 13.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Deleterious mutations in genes involved in the Fas apoptosis pathway lead to Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS). Demonstration of an apoptosis defect is critical for the diagnosis and study of ALPS. The traditional in vitro apoptosis assay, however, requires a week of experimental procedures. Here, we show that defects in Fas-induced apoptosis in PBMCs can be evaluated directly ex vivo using multicolor flow cytometry to analyze the apoptosis of effector memory T cells, a Fas-sensitive subset of PBMCs. This method allowed us to sensitively quantify defective apoptosis in ALPS patients within a few hours. Some ALPS patients (ALPS-sFAS) without germline mutations have somatic mutations in Fas specifically in double-negative αβ T cells (DNTs), an unusual lymphocyte population that is characteristically expanded in ALPS. Since DNTs have been notoriously difficult to culture, defective apoptosis has not been previously demonstrated for ALPS-sFAS patients. Using our novel ex vivo apoptosis assay, we measured Fas-induced apoptosis of DNTs for the first time and found that ALPS-sFAS patients had significant apoptosis defects in these cells compared to healthy controls. Hence, this rapid apoptosis assay can expedite the diagnosis of new ALPS patients, including those with somatic mutations, and facilitate clinical and molecular investigation of these diseases.
    Journal of Clinical Immunology 10/2012; · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IL-15 is an important IL-2-related cytokine whose role in Th17 cell biology has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we show that exogenous IL-15 decreased IL-17A production in Th17 cultures. Neutralization of IL-15 using an Ab led to increases in IL-17A production in Th17 cultures. Both Il15(-/-) and Il15r(-/-) T cell cultures displayed higher frequency of IL-17A producers and higher amounts of IL-17A in the supernatants compared with those of wild-type (WT) cells in vitro. IL-15 down-modulated IL-17A production independently of retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-γt, Foxp3, and IFN-γ expression. Both Th17 cells and APCs produced IL-15, which induced binding of STAT5, an apparent repressor to the Il17 locus in CD4 T cells. Also, in a model of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), Il15(-/-) mice displayed exacerbated inflammation-correlating with increased IL-17A production by their CD4(+) T cells-compared with WT controls. Exogenous IL-15 administration and IL-17A neutralization reduced the severity of EAE in Il15(-/-) mice. Taken together, these data indicate that IL-15 has a negative regulatory role in fine-tuning of IL-17A production and Th17-mediated inflammation.
    The Journal of Immunology 09/2012; 189(9):4237-46. · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Pushpa Pandiyan, Michael Lenardo
    The Journal of Immunology 06/2012; 188(11):5203-4; author reply 5204-5. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    Zhihua Liu, Michael J Lenardo
    Cell Research 03/2012; 22(7):1092-4. · 10.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The detection of insulin autoantibodies (IAA) aids in the prediction of autoimmune diabetes development. However, the long-standing, gold standard 125I-insulin radiobinding assay (RBA) has low reproducibility between laboratories, long sample processing times and requires the use of newly synthesized radiolabeled insulin for each set of assays. Therefore, a rapid, non-radioactive, and reproducible assay is highly desirable. We have developed electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-based assays that fulfill these criteria in the measurement of IAA and anti-insulin antibodies (IA) in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice and in type 1 diabetic individuals, respectively. Using the murine IAA ECL assay, we examined the correlation between IAA, histopathological insulitis, and blood glucose in a cohort of female NOD mice from 4 up to 36 weeks of age. We developed a human IA ECL assay that we compared to conventional RBA and validated using samples from 34 diabetic and 59 non-diabetic individuals in three independent laboratories. Our ECL assays were rapid and sensitive with a broad dynamic range and low background. In the NOD mouse model, IAA levels measured by ECL were positively correlated with insulitis severity, and the values measured at 8-10 weeks of age were predictive of diabetes onset. Using human serum and plasma samples, our IA ECL assay yielded reproducible and accurate results with an average sensitivity of 84% at 95% specificity with no statistically significant difference between laboratories. These novel, non-radioactive ECL-based assays should facilitate reliable and fast detection of antibodies to insulin and its precursors sera and plasma in a standardized manner between laboratories in both research and clinical settings. Our next step is to evaluate the human IA assay in the detection of IAA in prediabetic subjects or those at risk of type 1 diabetes and to develop similar assays for other autoantibodies that together are predictive for the diagnosis of this common disorder, in order to improve prediction and facilitate future therapeutic trials.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 11/2011; 9:203. · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) has been identified by genome-wide association studies as being encoded by a major susceptibility gene for Crohn's disease. Here we found that LRRK2 deficiency conferred enhanced susceptibility to experimental colitis in mice. Mechanistic studies showed that LRRK2 was a potent negative regulator of the transcription factor NFAT and was a component of a complex that included the large noncoding RNA NRON (an NFAT repressor). Furthermore, the risk-associated allele encoding LRRK2 Met2397 identified by a genome-wide association study for Crohn's disease resulted in less LRRK2 protein post-translationally. Severe colitis in LRRK2-deficient mice was associated with enhanced nuclear localization of NFAT1. Thus, our study defines a new step in the control of NFAT activation that involves an immunoregulatory function of LRRK2 and has important implications for inflammatory bowel disease.
    Nature Immunology 11/2011; 12(11):1063-70. · 26.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although Mg(2+) has a well-recognized role as an essential cofactor for all ATP-binding enzymes, its role as a signaling ion, like Ca(2+), has been controversial. A requirement for Mg(2+)for optimal T lymphocyte stimulation was demonstrated more than 30 years ago, but the mechanism of its synergistic effect with Ca(2+)in T cell activation remains elusive. Here, we summarize our recent discovery of a signaling role for Mg(2+)in the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling pathway from the study of a novel primary immunodeficiency, now named X-linked immunodeficiency with Mg(2+)defect, EBV infection and neoplasia (XMEN). XMEN patients were found to have a deficiency in magnesium transporter 1 (MAGT1), an Mg(2+)-specific transporter, which leads to the absence of a TCR-stimulated Mg(2+)flux and an attenuation of T cell activation. We further showed that this Mg(2+)flux is required proximally for the temporal orchestration of phospholipase C-γ1 (PLCγ1) activation. Thus, our study not only provides a second messenger role for Mg(2+)to explain its synergism with calcium in T cell signaling, it also identifies a potential extracellular therapeutic target for T cell-specific immunomodulation.
    Magnesium research: official organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium 09/2011; 24(3):S109-14. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The magnesium ion, Mg(2+), is essential for all life as a cofactor for ATP, polyphosphates such as DNA and RNA, and metabolic enzymes, but whether it plays a part in intracellular signalling (as Ca(2+) does) is unknown. Here we identify mutations in the magnesium transporter gene, MAGT1, in a novel X-linked human immunodeficiency characterized by CD4 lymphopenia, severe chronic viral infections, and defective T-lymphocyte activation. We demonstrate that a rapid transient Mg(2+) influx is induced by antigen receptor stimulation in normal T cells and by growth factor stimulation in non-lymphoid cells. MAGT1 deficiency abrogates the Mg(2+) influx, leading to impaired responses to antigen receptor engagement, including defective activation of phospholipase Cγ1 and a markedly impaired Ca(2+) influx in T cells but not B cells. These observations reveal a role for Mg(2+) as an intracellular second messenger coupling cell-surface receptor activation to intracellular effectors and identify MAGT1 as a possible target for novel therapeutics.
    Nature 07/2011; 475(7357):471-6. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a conserved cellular process to degrade and recycle cytoplasmic components. During autophagy, lysosomes fuse with an autophagosome to form an autolysosome. Sequestered components are degraded by lysosomal hydrolases and presumably released into the cytosol by lysosomal efflux permeases. Following starvation-induced autophagy, lysosome homeostasis is restored by autophagic lysosome reformation (ALR) requiring activation of the "target of rapamycin" (TOR) kinase. Spinster (Spin) encodes a putative lysosomal efflux permease with the hallmarks of a sugar transporter. Drosophila spin mutants accumulate lysosomal carbohydrates and enlarged lysosomes. Here we show that defects in spin lead to the accumulation of enlarged autolysosomes. We find that spin is essential for mTOR reactivation and lysosome reformation following prolonged starvation. Further, we demonstrate that the sugar transporter activity of Spin is essential for ALR.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2011; 108(19):7826-31. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: NF-κB is a major gene regulator in immune responses, and ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3) is an NF-κB subunit that directs specific gene transcription. However, it is unknown how nuclear translocation of RPS3 is regulated. Here we report that phosphorylation of RPS3 Ser209 by the kinase IKKβ was crucial for nuclear localization of RPS3 in response to activating stimuli. Moreover, virulence protein NleH1 of the foodborne pathogen Escherichia coli strain O157:H7 specifically inhibited phosphorylation of RPS3 Ser209 and blocked RPS3 function, thereby promoting bacterial colonization and diarrhea but resulting in less mortality in a gnotobiotic piglet-infection model. Thus, the IKKβ-dependent modification of a specific amino acid in RPS3 promoted specific NF-κB functions that underlie the molecular pathogenetic mechanisms of E. coli O157:H7.
    Nature Immunology 03/2011; 12(4):335-43. · 26.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Th17 cells and CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells are thought to promote and suppress inflammatory responses, respectively. Here we explore why under Th17 cell polarizing conditions, Treg cells did not suppress, but rather upregulated, the expression of interleukin-17A (IL-17A), IL-17F, and IL-22 from responding CD4(+) T cells (Tresp cells). Upregulation of IL-17 cytokines in Tresp cells was dependent on consumption of IL-2 by Treg cells, especially at early time points both in vitro and in vivo. During an oral Candida albicans infection in mice, Treg cells induced IL-17 cytokines in Tresp cells, which markedly enhanced fungal clearance and recovery from infection. These findings show how Treg cells can promote acute Th17 cell responses to suppress mucosal fungus infections and reveal that Treg cells have a powerful capability to fight infections besides their role in maintaining tolerance or immune homeostasis.
    Immunity 03/2011; 34(3):422-34. · 19.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The two major cytopathic factors in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the accessory proteins viral infectivity factor (Vif) and viral protein R (Vpr), inhibit cell-cycle progression at the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Although Vpr-induced blockade and the associated T-cell death have been well studied, the molecular mechanism of G2 arrest by Vif remains undefined. To elucidate how Vif induces arrest, we infected synchronized Jurkat T-cells and examined the effect of Vif on the activation of Cdk1 and CyclinB1, the chief cell-cycle factors for the G2 to M phase transition. We found that the characteristic dephosphorylation of an inhibitory phosphate on Cdk1 did not occur in infected cells expressing Vif. In addition, the nuclear translocation of Cdk1 and CyclinB1 was disregulated. Finally, Vif-induced cell cycle arrest was correlated with proviral expression of Vif. Taken together, our results suggest that Vif impairs mitotic entry by interfering with Cdk1-CyclinB1 activation.
    Virology Journal 01/2011; 8:219. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    Bernice Lo, Michael J Lenardo
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    ABSTRACT: Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have increased attention on genetic variation in somatic tissues. Although long known to cause neoplastic diseases, somatic variation is now being investigated as a pathogenetic mechanism for other diseases. Somatic changes are genomic DNA variations that were not inherited but arise in tissues throughout life. In this issue of the JCI, Magerus-Chatinet et al. explore somatic changes in patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), a congenital disease of defective apoptosis and autoimmunity that is usually associated with germline heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding the Fas death receptor. They explain why certain individuals have severe disease manifestations by documenting somatic alterations in the germline normal FAS allele in an unusual population of "double-negative" T cells found in ALPS. Thus, the oncological concept of somatic loss of heterozygosity leading to selected cell expansion also applies to autoimmune diseases.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 01/2011; 121(1):16-9. · 15.39 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

21k Citations
2,650.87 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1991–2014
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
      • Laboratory of Immunoregulation
      Maryland, United States
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Metabolism Branch
      Maryland, United States
  • 2012
    • Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology
      • Institute of Biophysics
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
  • 1993–2012
    • National Institutes of Health
      • • Section of Inflammation Immunobiology
      • • Laboratory of Immunology
      • • Section on Cellular and Developmental Biology
      • • Department of Laboratory Medicine
      • • Branch of Neuroimmunology and Virology
      Maryland, United States
  • 2011
    • Tsinghua University
      • School of Life Sciences
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
  • 2010
    • University of Pennsylvania
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2006–2009
    • Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease
      Maryland, United States
  • 2001
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Division of Hospital Medicine
      San Francisco, CA, United States
  • 1998–1999
    • National Human Genome Research Institute
      Maryland, United States
    • Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Lubbock, TX, United States
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Department of Biology
      Cambridge, MA, United States
  • 1996
    • University of Toronto
      • Department of Immunology
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1988–1990
    • Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States