[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the emotion and appraisal correlates of the needs for Competence and Relatedness. Using experience-sampling, fluctuations of competence and relatedness throughout a day's period were found to correspond to fluctuations in emotions and appraisals in ways theoretically consistent with the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 20002.
Deci , E. L. , & Ryan , R. M. ( 2000 ). The “what” and “why” of goal-pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior . Psychological Inquiry , 11 , 227 – 268 . [Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®]View all references). Each need was related in specific ways to the six emotions examined (anger, sadness, fear, guilt, shame, and joy) and, more interesting, was characterized by a specific appraisal-profile. Implications of these findings for needs processes are discussed.
Basic and Applied Social Psychology 07/2009; 31(3):218-225. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In light of the lack of studies examining the cognitive components of affective chronometry, this research examined the appraisals associated with emotion habituation, using anger as the emotion of focus. Anger and its appraisals were assessed repeatedly over a day in the participants' naturalistic contexts. The trajectory of decline in anger over time after its first appearance was found to be a function of chronic coping styles. More importantly, the trajectories of anger-related appraisals generally corresponded to that of anger and were also moderated by coping styles in ways consistent with the moderating effects of coping styles on anger. Implications of these results for affective chronometry research and for appraisal research are discussed.
Journal of Personality 06/2009; 77(4):1103-36. · 2.44 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study employed Ecological Momentary Assessment to test predictions
from appraisal theories of emotion about the relationships between
emotions and appraisals, using a sample of police officers from Singapore.
Strong support was obtained for the predictions, thus demonstrating
ecological validity of appraisal theories while circumventing shortcomings
of previously used methods in appraisal studies. The results also
indicate that the emotions were accounted for by specific configurations
of appraisals over and above those accounted for by individual constituent
appraisals. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using Hierarchical Linear Modelling, this study examined individual differences in appraisal styles. Data were collected using Ecological Momentary Assessment from police officers in Singapore who participated while on their work-routines. Average levels of 11 appraisals showed significant individual-difference variability. The Big Five personality traits were examined for whether they accounted for these individual difference variations. Only Neuroticism and Conscientiousness significantly explained individual-difference variability in appraisals. Also, replicating past studies, all Big Five traits except for Openness correlated significantly with daily emotions.
Personality and Individual Differences - PERS INDIV DIFFER. 01/2006; 41(3):513-523.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although appraisal theories have received strong empirical support, there are methodological concerns about the research, including biased recall, heuristic responding, ethical issues, and weak and unrealistic induction of emotions in laboratories. To provide a more ecologically valid test of appraisal theories, the authors used ecological momentary assessment, in which the emotions and appraisals of Singaporean police officers were measured online over the course of an ordinary workday. The research focused on happiness. Support was obtained for predictions, demonstrating the generalizability of appraisal theories to a nonlaboratory setting and circumventing the shortcomings of previously used methodologies. Also, evidence was obtained that happiness was reported primarily in association with a specific combination of 3 relevant appraisals: high pleasantness, high perceived control, and low moral violation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study tested the hypotheses that ambulatory heart rate and blood pressure would be higher for individuals high but not low in hostility when they experienced negative affect or social stress and that this interaction would be stronger for Indians compared with other Singapore ethnic groups. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was done on 108 male Singapore patrol officers as they went about their daily duties. After each BP measurement participants completed a computerized questionnaire including items on emotional experience. Individuals high in hostility showed higher systolic blood pressure when reporting negative affect whereas this was not true for those low in hostility. Ethnic differences were obtained such that Indians showed an increase in mean arterial pressure when angered whereas MAP was negatively related to anger for Malays and unrelated for Chinese. Also a three-way interaction between ethnicity, hostility, and social stress indicated that hostility and social stress interacted in their effects on DBP for Indian participants but not for Chinese or Malays. Finally, a three-way interaction was obtained between ethnicity, hostility and negative affect for heart rate in which heart rate increased with increasing levels of negative affect for Chinese high in hostility and Malays low in hostility but decreased with increasing negative affect for all other participants. These data are consistent with higher CHD rates among individuals high in hostility and also provide additional evidence on ethnic differences in cardiovascular reactivity in Singapore.
International Journal of Psychophysiology 06/2005; 56(2):185-97. · 2.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two studies examined the interrelationships of anger, the experience of stress, perceived social support, and coping strategies along with their relationship to health using structural equation modelling (SEM). Results showed dispositional anger to be composed of two factors, anger experience and anger control. Higher levels of anger experience were related directly to higher levels of stress and lower levels of perceived support resources, indirectly to greater use of avoidance coping, and both directly and indirectly to lower psychological well-being and greater psychological distress. Psychological distress was, in turn, related to poorer physical health. By contrast, higher levels of anger control were associated with a greater tendency to engage in active and reappraisal coping and lower use of avoidance coping. Active and reappraisal coping were, in turn, related to better psychological and physical health whereas the opposite was true for avoidance coping.
Psychology & Health - PSYCHOL HEALTH. 01/2005; 20(4):467-495.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examines the relationship between perceived social support and personality among police officers from Singapore's three main ethnic groups, Chinese, Indians, and Malays. Perceived social support was measured by the short version of the Social Support Questionnaire [SSQ: Sarason, Sarason, Shearin, & Pierce (1987) and personality was assessed by the NEO PI-R. Of the three ethnic groups Chinese participants reported the largest number of social supports but the lowest satisfaction with that support. Regression analyses revealed that none of the NEO PI-R domains stood out as independent predictors of Satisfaction with Social Support (SSS) whereas Agreeableness, Extraversion, and Openness contributed independently to Number of Social Supports (SSN). In addition, SSN was divided into two components: Number of Social Supports from Family (SSN-fm) and Number of Social Supports from Others (SSN-o). Regression analyses showed Agreeableness and Conscientiousness to be independent predictors of SSN-fm and Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Openness to be independent predictors of SSN-o. In addition, the relationships were found to be equally descriptive of the three ethnic groups. These results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This research examined hemodynamic processes in cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) as a function of task, ethnicity and trait hostility.
One hundred and fourteen male patrol officers from the Singapore Police Force participated in this experimental study. Trait hostility was measured using the interpersonal hostility assessment technique to derive a hostile behavior index (HBI). Heart rate, blood pressure and hemodynamic measures were taken while participants performed three tasks: mental arithmetic, number reading and anger recall (AR).
AR elicited the greatest blood pressure, vascular and cardiac output reactivity. HBI scores were positively related to systolic blood pressure reactivity during AR for Malays whereas this was not true for Indians and Chinese. Across tasks Indians with high HBI scores appeared to be cardiac reactors whereas the reactivity patterns for Malays and Chinese were undifferentiated. Self-report of negative mood was not related to CVR.
These results are consistent with the higher rates of coronary heart disease deaths among Indians as well as the higher rates for hypertension among Malays in Singapore.
International Journal of Psychophysiology 09/2003; 49(2):99-110. · 2.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The demand-control model for coronary heart disease was tested using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Male patrol officers (N = 118) wore ambulatory blood pressure monitors during 1 of their day shifts with readings taken every 30 min. Following each reading, officers completed a questionnaire using a handheld computer. Significant interactions were obtained between job demands and decisional control for heart rate and pressure rate product such that both variables were highest under conditions of high demand and low control. Main effects were obtained for control such that diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were significantly higher under conditions of low control. These results support the demand-control model and emphasize the importance of psychological control in cardiovascular responses.
Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 05/2003; 8(2):146-56. · 2.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationship between coping styles and personality was investigated with 243 male police officers from the Singapore Police Force. Coping style was measured using the dispositional version of the COPE, whereas personality was measured by the NEO PI-R. Canonical correlation analysis revealed three significant canonical correlations. Examination of the rotated canonical variables indicated that Problem Solving, composed of Active Coping, Suppression of Competing Activities, Planning, Restraint Coping, and Instrumental Social Support, was positively associated with Conscientiousness. Avoidance Coping, which included Behavioral Disengagement, Mental Disengagement, Denial, and Focusing on and Venting of Emotion, was positively related to Neuroticism but negatively related to Conscientiousness. Finally, Positive Reappraisal, which included Emotional Social Support, Turning To Religion, Positive Reinterpretation and Growth, and Acceptance, was positively associated with Extroversion, Agreeableness, and Openness.
Journal of Research in Personality 01/2001; 35(3):353-374. · 2.00 Impact Factor