[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An association between low serum vitamin D levels and poorer melanoma survival has been reported. We have studied inheritance of a polymorphism of the GC gene, rs2282679, coding for the vitamin D-binding protein, which is associated with lower serum levels of vitamin D, in a meta-analysis of 3137 melanoma patients. The aim was to investigate evidence for a causal relationship between vitamin D and outcome (Mendelian randomization). The variant was not associated with reduced OS in the UK cohort, per-allele hazard ratio (HR) for death 1.23 (95% CI 0.93,1.64. In the smaller cohorts, HR in OS analysis was 1.07 (95% CI 0.88,1.3) and for all cohorts combined, HR for OS was 1.09 (95% CI 0.93,1.29). There was evidence of increased melanoma specific deaths in the 7 cohorts for which these data were available. The lack of unequivocal findings despite the large sample size illustrates the difficulties of implementing Mendelian randomization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research 11/2013; · 5.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is generally thought that class III β-tubulin expression is limited to cells of the neural lineage and is therefore often used to identify neurons amongst other cell types, both in vivo and in vitro. Melanocytes are derived from the neural crest and share both morphological features and functional characteristics with peripheral neurons. Here, we show that these similarities extend to class III β-tubulin (TUBB3) expression, and that human melanocytes express this protein both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, we studied the expression of class III β-tubulin in two murine melanogenic cell lines and show that expression of this protein starts as melanoblasts mature into melanocytes. Melanin bleaching experiments revealed close proximity between melanin and TUBB3 proteins. In vitro stimulation of primary human melanocytes by α-MSH indicated separate regulatory mechanisms for melanogenesis and to TUBB3 expression. Together, these observations imply that human melanocytes express TUBB3 and that this protein should be recognized as a wider marker for multiple neural crest-derived cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The involvement of epigenetic alterations in the pathogenesis of melanoma is increasingly recognized. Here, we performed genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of primary cutaneous melanoma and benign melanocytic nevus interrogating 14 495 genes using BeadChip technology. This genome-wide view of promoter methylation in primary cutaneous melanoma revealed an array of recurrent DNA methylation alterations with potential diagnostic applications. Among 106 frequently hypermethylated genes, there were many novel methylation targets and tumor suppressor genes. Highly recurrent methylation of the HOXA9, MAPK13, CDH11, PLEKHG6, PPP1R3C, and CLDN11 genes was established. Promoter methylation of MAPK13, encoding p38δ, was present in 67% of primary and 85% of metastatic melanomas. Restoration of MAPK13 expression in melanoma cells exhibiting epigenetic silencing of this gene reduced proliferation, indicative of tumor suppressive functions. This study demonstrates that DNA methylation alterations are widespread in melanoma and suggests that epigenetic silencing of MAPK13 contributes to melanoma progression.
Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research 03/2013; · 5.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This chapter describes a study in which the pattern of numerical chromosomal alterations in cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (C-ALCL) tumor samples was defined using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). First, the array-based CGH technique applied is outlined in detail. Next, its application in the analysis of C-ALCL tumor specimens is described. This approach resulted in the identification of highly recurrent chromosomal alterations in C-ALCL that include gain of 7q31 and loss on 6q16-6q21 and 13q34, each affecting 45% of the patients. The pattern characteristic of C-ALCL differs markedly from chromosomal alterations observed in other CTCL such as mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome and yielded several candidate genes with potential relevance in the pathogenesis of C-ALCL.
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2013; 973:197-212.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paraneoplastic dermatoses may be the first manifestation of a malignancy. Rapid recognition is therefore important.
A 72-year-old woman who had been treated in the past for metastasised neuroendocrine carcinoma and had undergone curative treatment for stage-1c endometrial carcinoma developed three paraneoplastic dermatoses over a 2-year period: acanthosis nigricans, tripe palms and acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa. Half a year later, cutaneous metastases derived from the endometrial carcinoma treated 12 years prior were discovered.
The development of three paraneoplastic dermatoses in a short period of time is rare. Acanthosis nigricans, tripe palms and acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa can develop in association with both neuroendocrine and endometrial carcinoma. The sudden development of paraneoplastic dermatoses is frequently a forewarning of progression of the malignancy.
Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 01/2013; 157(38):A6560.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Variants in the MC1R gene influence skin pigmentation and thereby modulate risk of melanoma and basal and squamous cell carcinoma. In this issue, Kinsler et al. report an association between the MC1R genotype and the development of congenital melanocytic nevi. Further, higher birth weight was observed in carriers of MC1R variants, suggesting a role for the melanocortin network in fetal growth.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology 08/2012; 132(8):1953-5. · 6.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common type of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). To identify a molecular signature characteristic of MF tumor stage, we used a bioinformatic approach involving meta-analysis of publicly available gene expression data sets combined with previously generated gene expression data. Results for a selection of genes were further refined and validated by quantitative PCR and inclusion of additional controls. With this approach, we identified a profile specific for MF tumor stage, consisting of 989 aberrantly expressed genes, the majority of which (718 genes) are statistically significantly more expressed in MF compared with normal skin, inflamed skin, and normal T cells. As expected, the signature contains genes reflecting the highly proliferative characteristic of this T-cell malignancy, including altered expression of cell cycle and kinetochore regulators. We uncovered details of the immunophenotype, suggesting that MF originates from IL-32-producing cells and identified previously unreported therapeutic targets and/or diagnostic markers, for example, GTSF1 and TRIP13. Loss of expression of the NF-κB inhibitor, NFKBIZ, may partly explain the enhanced activity of NF-κB, which is a hallmark of MF and other CTCLs.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology 04/2012; 132(8):2050-9. · 6.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inherited MC1R variants modulate MITF transcription factor signaling, which in turn affects tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. The aim of this BioGenoMEL collaborative study in 10 melanoma cohorts was to test the hypothesis that inherited variants thereby moderate survival expectation. A survival analysis in the largest cohort (Leeds) was carried out adjusting for factors known to impact on survival. The results were then compared with data from nine smaller cohorts. The absence of any consensus MC1R alleles was associated with a significantly lower risk of death in the Leeds set (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.46-0.89) and overall in the 10 data sets (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.65-0.94) with some support from the nine smaller data sets considered together (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.67-1.04). The data are suggestive of a survival benefit for inherited MC1R variants in melanoma patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cutaneous melanoma, a type of skin tumor originating from melanocytes, often develops from premalignant naevoid lesions via a gradual transformation process driven by an accumulation of (epi)genetic lesions. These dysplastic naevi display altered morphology and often proliferation of melanocytes. Additionally, melanocytes in dysplastic naevi show structural mitochondrial and melanosomal alterations and have elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. For this study we performed genome-wide expression and proteomic analysis of melanocytes from dysplastic naevus (DNMC) and adjacent normal skin (MC) from 18 patients. Whole genome expression profiles of the DNMC and MC of each individual patient subjected to GO-based comparative statistical analysis yielded significantly differentially expressed GO classes including "organellar ribosome," "mitochondrial ribosome," "hydrogen ion transporter activity," and "prefoldin complex." Validation of 5 genes from these top GO classes revealed a heterogeneous differential expression pattern. Proteomic analysis demonstrated differentially expressed proteins in DNMC that are involved in cellular metabolism, detoxification, and cytoskeletal organization processes, such as GTP-binding Rho-like protein CDC42, glutathione-S-transferase omega-1 and prolyl 4-hydroxylase. Collectively these results point to deregulation of cellular processes, such as metabolism and protein synthesis, consistent with the observed elevated oxidative stress levels in DNMC potentially resulting in oxidative DNA damage in these cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical and genomic evidence suggests that the metastatic potential of a primary tumor may be dictated by prometastatic events that have additional oncogenic capability. To test this "deterministic" hypothesis, we adopted a comparative oncogenomics-guided function-based strategy involving: (1) comparison of global transcriptomes of two genetically engineered mouse models with contrasting metastatic potential, (2) genomic and transcriptomic profiles of human melanoma, (3) functional genetic screen for enhancers of cell invasion, and (4) evidence of expression selection in human melanoma tissues. This integrated effort identified six genes that are potently proinvasive and oncogenic. Furthermore, we show that one such gene, ACP5, confers spontaneous metastasis in vivo, engages a key pathway governing metastasis, and is prognostic in human primary melanomas.
Cancer cell 07/2011; 20(1):92-103. · 25.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oncogene-induced cellular senescence (OIS) is an increasingly recognized tumour suppressor mechanism that confines the outgrowth of neoplastic cells in vivo. It relies on a complex signalling network, but only few components have been identified so far. Gene-expression profiling revealed a >100-fold increase in the levels of the transcription factor and putative tumour suppressor gene TGFβ-stimulated clone 22 (TSC22D1) in BRAF(E600)-induced senescence, in both human fibroblasts and melanocytes. Only the short TSC22D1 transcript was upregulated, whereas the abundance of the large protein variant was suppressed by proteasomal degradation. The TSC22D1 protein variants, in complex with their dimerization partner TSC22 homologue gene 1 (THG1), exerted opposing functions, as selective depletion of the short form, or conversely, overexpression of the large variant, resulted in abrogation of OIS. This was accompanied by the suppression of several inflammatory factors and p15(INK4B), with TSC22D1 acting as a critical effector of C/EBPβ. Our results demonstrate that the differential regulation of antagonistic TSC22D1 variants is required for the establishment of OIS and suggest distinct contributions of TSC22 family members to the progression of BRAF(E600)-driven neoplasia.
The EMBO Journal 03/2011; 30(9):1753-65. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA species that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally and are aberrantly expressed in many malignancies including lymphoma. However, the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of T-cell lymphoid malignancies is poorly understood. Previously we examined the miRNA profile of Sézary syndrome (Sz), a leukemia of skin-homing memory T cells. In this study we determined the complete miRNome of mycosis fungoides (MF), the most common type of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. The miRNA profile of skin biopsies from 19 patients with tumor stage MF and 12 patients with benign inflammatory dermatoses (eczema and lichen planus) were compared by microarray analysis. We identified 49 miRNAs that are differentially expressed in tumor stage MF compared to benign inflammatory dermatoses using ANOVA analysis (P < 0.05, Benjamini-Hochberg corrected). The majority of the differentially expressed miRNAs (30/49) were up-regulated in tumor stage MF. The most significant differentially expressed were miR-155 and miR-92a (both up-regulated in tumor stage MF), while miR-93 showed the highest up-regulation in tumor stage MF with a fold difference of 5.8. Differential expression of a selection of these miRNAs was validated by miRNA-Q-PCR on additional test groups (tumors and controls). None of the miRNAs up-regulated in tumor stage MF was previously shown to be up-regulated in Sz, and only 2 of the 19 miRNAs down-regulated in tumor stage MF were also down-regulated in Sz. Taken together this report is the first describing the miRNA signature of tumor stage MF.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The first choice of treatment for lentigo maligna (LM) is excision. Initial studies of treatment with imiquimod 5% cream have shown promising results with excellent cosmetic outcome, but the follow-up duration in these studies was short.
To evaluate the results of treatment of patients with LM with imiquimod in routine clinical practice with long-term follow-up.
We prospectively followed 10 patients with LM who were treated with imiquimod 5% cream between 2004 and 2007 with a median follow-up of 31 months (range 11-56 months). Histological clearance was assessed in all patients using post-treatment biopsies.
Complete clinical clearance was achieved in nine of 10 patients after treatment with imiquimod. During follow-up, three clinical and histological recurrences were observed at 9, 10, and 27 months after treatment cessation. In a fourth patient, histological recurrence without clinical signs was demonstrated 17 months after treatment. Five of 10 patients are in sustained clinical remission.
Imiquimod appears to be an effective treatment for a subset of patients with LM. We recommend long-term follow-up and taking multiple post-treatment biopsies, even in the absence of a clinical recurrence. This case series emphasizes the need for finding an optimal treatment regimen.
Dermatologic Surgery 06/2010; 36(6):853-8. · 1.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (C-ALCL) has an indolent clinical course and favorable prognosis. On the contrary, primary cutaneous peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTL-NOS) shows aggressive clinical behavior. To identify genomic events relevant in the pathogenesis of these cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs), we carried out array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis. Simultaneously, gene expression profiling was conducted to gain insight into gene expression programs associated with the different clinical behavior of these CTCLs. C-ALCL was characterized by gains on chromosome 7q and 17q and losses on 6q and 13q. PTL-NOS similarly showed gains on 7q and 17q, but was distinguished by gains on chromosome 8 and loss of a focal overlapping region on 9p21. We identified minimal common regions harboring candidate oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in C-ALCL and PTL-NOS. Genes with a role in lymphocyte chemotaxis, apoptosis, and proliferation were overrepresented among genes differentially expressed between these lymphomas. C-ALCL showed higher expression of the skin-homing chemokine receptor genes CCR10 and CCR8, which may explain the lower tendency to disseminate to extracutaneous sites. Furthermore, C-ALCL and PTL-NOS showed aberrant expression of distinct genes implicated in apoptosis and proliferation, such as IRF4/MUM1 and PRKCQ, which may account for differences in clinical aggressiveness.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology 09/2009; 130(2):563-75. · 6.19 Impact Factor