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Publications (19)46.89 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Defining the source of the constant region is IgG2 or IgG4. Ocular diseases include macular degeneration, Diabetic retinopathy, or choroidal neovascularization. Defines both intravitreal and intravenous injections
    Ref. No: 8,309,084, Year: 11/2012
  • Ramakrishnan V, Powers D, Dale E Johnson, Jeffry U
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    ABSTRACT: Methods for purification of these antibodies, and methods for their use in treating conditions comprising undesirable tissue angiogenesis
    Ref. No: 8,017,116, Year: 09/2011
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    ABSTRACT: Methods for purification of these antibodies, and methods for their use in treating conditions comprising undesirable tissue angiogenesis
    Ref. No: 7,897,148, Year: 03/2011
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    ABSTRACT: Methods of determining pharmaceutical compositions and therapeutically acceptable doses of antibodies
    Ref. No: 7,897,148, Year: 03/2011
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    ABSTRACT: Isolated nucleic acids encoding polypeptides comprising specific heavy chain amino acid sequences
    Ref. No: 7,879,987, Year: 02/2011
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    ABSTRACT: Expression vectors comprising specific nucleic acid sequences and the isolated vector-transformed cells
    Ref. No: 7,776,585, Year: 08/2010
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    ABSTRACT: Targeted therapeutics have significantly changed the outcome for patients diagnosed with cancer. Still, effective therapeutic intervention does not exist for many cancers and much remains to be done. The objective of this study was to identify novel genes that potentially regulate tumor growth, to target these gene products with monoclonal antibodies, and to examine the therapeutic potential of these antibodies. Using cDNA microarray analysis, we identified genes overexpressed in several solid malignancies. We generated a mouse monoclonal antibody, 19.2.1, and its humanized counterpart, PDL192, to one such target, TweakR (TWEAK receptor, Fn14, TNFRSF12A, CD266), and characterized the antitumor activities in vitro and in mouse xenograft models. Both 19.2.1 (mouse IgG2a) and PDL192 (human IgG1), like TWEAK, the natural ligand of TweakR, inhibited the growth of several TweakR-expressing cancer cell lines in anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent assays in vitro. Both antibodies showed significant antitumor activity in multiple mouse xenograft models. PDL192 and 19.2.1 also induced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of cancer cell lines in vitro. A chimeric version of 19.2.1 containing the mouse IgG1 Fc region (19.2.1 x G1) exhibited significantly less ADCC than 19.2.1. However, 19.2. 1x G1 showed differential activity in vivo, with activity equivalent to 19.2.1 in one model, but significantly less efficacy than 19.2.1 in a second model. These results indicate that PDL192 and 19.2.1 mediate their antitumor effects by signaling through TweakR, resulting in reduced tumor cell proliferation, and by ADCC.
    Clinical Cancer Research 01/2010; 16(2):497-508. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: E-cadherin loss is frequently associated with ovarian cancer metastasis. Given that adhesion to the abdominal peritoneum is the first step in ovarian cancer dissemination, we reasoned that down-regulation of E-cadherin would affect expression of cell matrix adhesion receptors. We show here that inhibition of E-cadherin in ovarian cancer cells causes up-regulation of alpha(5)-integrin protein expression and transcription. When E-cadherin was blocked, RMUG-S ovarian cancer cells were able to attach and invade more efficiently. This greater efficiency could, in turn, be inhibited both in vitro and in vivo with an alpha(5)beta(1)-integrin-blocking antibody. When E-cadherin is silenced, alpha(5)-integrin is up-regulated through activation of an epidermal growth factor receptor/FAK/Erk1-mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent signaling pathway and not through the canonical E-cadherin/beta-catenin signaling pathway. In SKOV-3ip1 ovarian cancer xenografts, which express high levels of alpha(5)-integrin, i.p. treatment with an alpha(5)beta(1)-integrin antibody significantly reduced tumor burden, ascites, and number of metastasis and increased survival by an average of 12 days when compared with IgG treatment (P < 0.0005). alpha(5)-Integrin expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in 107 advanced stage ovarian cancers using a tissue microarray annotated with disease-specific patient follow-up. Ten of 107 tissues (9%) had alpha(5)-integrin overexpression, and 39% had some level of alpha(5)-integrin expression. The median survival for patients with high alpha(5)-integrin levels was 26 months versus 35 months for those with low integrin expression (P < 0.05). Taken together, we have identified alpha(5)-integrin up-regulation as a molecular mechanism by which E-cadherin loss promotes tumor progression, providing an explanation for how E-cadherin loss increases metastasis. Targeting this integrin could be a promising therapy for a subset of ovarian cancer patients.
    Cancer Research 05/2008; 68(7):2329-39. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis, the process by which new blood vessels form from existing vasculature, is critical for tumor growth and invasion. Growth factors, such as VEGF, initiate signaling cascades resulting in the proliferation of resting endothelial cells. Blockade of growth factor pathways has proven effective in inhibiting angiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo. Integrins, including the integrin alpha5beta1, are also important mediators of angiogenesis and these adhesion molecules also regulate cancer cell growth and migration in vitro. Volociximab is a high affinity, function-blocking antibody against integrin alpha5beta1 that is currently in multiple Phase II oncology clinical trials. Volociximab displays potent anti-angiogenic activity in a monkey model of choroidal neovascularization. In this study, we explored the consequences of integrin alpha5beta1 blockade on tumorigenesis. Because volociximab does not cross-react with rodent alpha5beta1, the syngeneic rabbit VX2 carcinoma model was utilized as an alternative to standard mouse xenograft models for the assessment of anti-tumor activity of volociximab. Volociximab administered intravenously to rabbits bearing VX2 tumors is detectable on tumor cells and vasculature 45 min post-administration. Volociximab was found to significantly inhibit the growth of tumors growing subcutaneously or intramuscularly, despite a 20-fold lower affinity for rabbit integrin, relative to human. This effect was found to correlate with decreased blood vessel density within these tumors. These results support the use of volociximab in the intervention of malignant disease.
    Investigational New Drugs 03/2008; 26(1):7-12. · 3.50 Impact Factor
  • Ejc Supplements - EJC SUPPL. 01/2008; 6(12):161-161.
  • Ramakrishnan V, Powers D, Dale E Johnson, Jeffry U
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    ABSTRACT: Method of treatment of an angiogenesis-associated ocular disease
    Ref. No: 7,285,268, Year: 10/2007
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    ABSTRACT: Amino acid sequences of the heavy and light chain variable regions of the antibody. Pharmaceutical composition and a physiological acceptable carrier
    Ref. No: 7,276,586, Year: 10/2007
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    ABSTRACT: Integrins are important adhesion molecules that regulate tumor and endothelial cell survival, proliferation and migration. The integrin alpha5beta1 has been shown to play a critical role during angiogenesis. An inhibitor of this integrin, volociximab (M200), inhibits endothelial cell growth and movement in vitro, independent of the growth factor milieu, and inhibits tumor growth in vivo in the rabbit VX2 carcinoma model. Although volociximab has already been tested in open label, pilot phase II clinical trials in melanoma, pancreatic and renal cell cancer, evaluation of the mechanism of action of volociximab has been limited because this antibody does not cross-react with murine alpha5beta1, precluding its use in standard mouse xenograft models. We generated a panel of rat-anti-mouse alpha5beta1 antibodies, with the intent of identifying an antibody that recapitulated the properties of volociximab. Hybridoma clones were screened for analogous function to volociximab, including specificity for alpha5beta1 heterodimer and blocking of integrin binding to fibronectin. A subset of antibodies that met these criteria were further characterized for their capacities to bind to mouse endothelial cells, inhibit cell migration and block angiogenesis in vitro. One antibody that encompassed all of these attributes, 339.1, was selected from this panel and tested in xenograft models. A panel of antibodies was characterized for specificity and potency. The affinity of antibody 339.1 for mouse integrin alpha5beta1 was determined to be 0.59 nM, as measured by BIAcore. This antibody does not significantly cross-react with human integrin, however 339.1 inhibits murine endothelial cell migration and tube formation and elicits cell death in these cells (EC50 = 5.3 nM). In multiple xenograft models, 339.1 inhibited the growth of established tumors by 40-60% (p < 0.05) and this inhibition correlates with a concomitant decrease in vessel density. The results herein demonstrate that 339.1, like volociximab, exhibits potent anti-alpha5beta1 activity and confirms that inhibition of integrin alpha5beta1 impedes angiogenesis and slows tumor growth in vivo.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 02/2007; 5:61. · 3.46 Impact Factor
  • V. Bhaskar, D. Zhang, M. Fox, P. Wales, V. Ramakrishnan
    Ejc Supplements - EJC SUPPL. 01/2007; 5(4):79-80.
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    ABSTRACT: Integrin alpha5beta1, the principal fibronectin receptor, is an important survival factor, playing a key role in angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is critical for tumor growth, and anti-angiogenic therapies have met clinical success. To validate the therapeutic potential of an anti-alpha5beta1 strategy, we generated volociximab (M200) a chimeric human IgG4 version of the alpha5beta1 function-blocking murine antibody IIA1; and F200, the Fab derivative. Volociximab, F200 and IIA1 showed similar activity by ELISA (EC50= 0.2nM), Biacore (Kd= 0.1-0.4nM) and inhibition of fibronectin binding (IC50= 2-3nM). The inhibitory potential of alpha5beta1 antibodies was compared to HuMV833, an anti-VEGF antibody. Both volociximab and HuMV833 inhibited HUVEC proliferation (IC50 of volociximab = 0.2-0.5nM; IC50 of HuMV833 = 45nM). However, IIA1, volociximab and F200 were also potent inhibitors of an in vitro model of angiogenesis (HUVEC tube formation assay), unlike HuMV833. Additionally, volociximab inhibited in vitro tube formation induced by VEGF and/or bFGF, suggesting a mechanism of action independent of growth factor stimulus. In fact, inhibition of alpha5beta1 function by volociximab induced apoptosis of actively proliferating, but not resting, endothelial cells. Volociximab does not cross-react with rodent alpha5beta1, therefore in vivo validation of an anti-alpha5beta1 approach was conducted in a cynomolgus model of choroidal revascularization. Volociximab and F200 were potent inhibitors of neovessel formation in this model. These data demonstrate that volociximab has therapeutic potential in diseases in which new vessel formation is a component of the pathology.
    Journal of Experimental Therapeutics and Oncology 02/2006; 5(4):273-86.
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    ABSTRACT: Current treatments for advanced stage, hormone-resistant prostate cancer are largely ineffective, leading to high patient mortality and morbidity. To fulfill this unmet medical need, we used global gene expression profiling to identify new potential antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) targets that showed maximal prostate cancer-specific expression. TMEFF2, a gene encoding a plasma membrane protein with two follistatin-like domains and one epidermal growth factor-like domain, had limited normal tissue distribution and was highly overexpressed in prostate cancer. Immunohistochemistry analysis using a specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) to human TMEFF2 showed significant protein expression in 74% of primary prostate cancers and 42% of metastatic lesions from lymph nodes and bone that represented both hormone-naïve and hormone-resistant disease. To evaluate anti-TMEFF2 mAbs as potential ADCs, one mAb was conjugated to the cytotoxic agent auristatin E via a cathepsin B-sensitive valine-citrulline linker. This ADC, Pr1-vcMMAE, was used to treat male severe combined immunodeficient mice bearing xenografted LNCaP and CWR22 prostate cancers expressing TMEFF2. Doses of 3 to 10 mg/kg of this specific ADC resulted in significant and sustained tumor growth inhibition, whereas an isotype control ADC had no significant effect. Similar efficacy and specificity was shown with huPr1-vcMMAE, a humanized anti-TMEFF2 ADC. No overt in vivo toxicity was observed with either murine or human ADC, despite significant cross-reactivity of anti-TMEFF2 mAb with the murine TMEFF2 protein, implying minimal toxicity to other body tissues. These data support the further evaluation and clinical testing of huPr1-vcMMAE as a novel therapeutic for the treatment of metastatic and hormone-resistant prostate cancer.
    Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 09/2004; 3(8):921-32. · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have used the Eos Hu03 GeneChip array, which represents over 92% of the transcribed human genome, to measure gene expression in a panel of normal and diseased human tissues. This analysis revealed that E-selectin mRNA is selectively overexpressed in prostate cancer epithelium, a finding that correlated strongly with E-selectin protein expression as assessed by immunohistochemistry. Antibodies against E-selectin that blocked function failed to impede cancer cell growth, suggesting that overexpression of E-selectin was not essential for cell growth. However, a novel auristatin E-based antibody drug conjugate (ADC), E-selectin antibody valine-citrulline monomethyl-auristatin E, was a potent and selective agent against E-selectin-expressing cancer cell lines in vitro, with the degree of cytotoxicity varying with surface antigen density. Interestingly, sensitivity to the ADC differed among cell lines from different tissues expressing similar amounts of E-selectin and was found to correlate with sensitivity to free auristatin E. Furthermore, E-selectin-expressing tumors grown as xenografts in severe combined immunodeficient mice were responsive to treatment with E-selectin antibody valine-citrulline monomethyl-auristatin E in vivo, with more than 85% inhibition of tumor growth observed in treated mice. These findings demonstrate that an E-selectin-targeting ADC has potential as a prostate cancer therapy and validates a genomics-based paradigm for the identification of cancer-specific antigens suitable for targeted therapy.
    Cancer Research 11/2003; 63(19):6387-94. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have utilized oligonucleotide microarrays to identify novel genes of potential clinical and biological importance in prostate cancer. RNA from 74 prostate cancers and 164 normal body samples representing 40 different tissues were analysed using a customized Affymetrix GeneChip oligonucleotide microarray representative of over 90% of the expressed human genome. The gene for the zinc transporter ZnT4 was one of several genes that displayed significantly higher expression in prostate cancer compared to normal tissues from other organs. A polyclonal antipeptide antibody was used to demonstrate ZnT4 expression in the epithelium of all 165 elements of benign and 326 elements of localized prostate cancers examined and in nine of 10 advanced prostate cancer specimens by immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, decreased intensity of ZnT4 immunoreactivity occurred in the progression from benign to invasive localized prostate cancer and to metastatic disease. Immunofluorescence analysis and surface biotinylation studies of cells expressing ZnT4 localised the protein to intracellular vesicles and to the plasma membrane. These findings are consistent with a role for ZnT4 in vesicular transport of zinc to the cell membrane and potentially in efflux of zinc in the prostate.
    Oncogene 10/2003; 22(38):6005-12. · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anti-angiogenics have shown efficacy in the treatment of renal cancer. Most current therapies target the VEGF pathway. In this chapter, we discuss the role of integrins, specifically α5β1, in angiogenesis. The integrin α5β1 is up-regulated on proliferating endothelial cells. The monoclonal antibody volocixi-mab is a potent, high-affinity inhibitor of α5β1. Inhibition of α5β1 function by volociximab results in the apoptosis of proliferating, but not resting, endothelial cells in vitro. Inhibitory activity of volociximab appears to be independent of the growth factor milieu, suggesting a potential role for this agent under pathological conditions where multiple growth factors are present. Additionally, in pre-clinical models of angiogenesis such as the cynomolgus choroidal neovascularization model, volociximab is effective at inhibiting lesion development. An assessment of the expression of α5β1 by immunohistochemistry in annotated samples of renal cancer suggest a relationship between α5β1 expression and clinical grade of the tumour. The analysis shows that the expression of this integrin was very high in the tumour vasculature in all the clinical grades of renal cancer tested. However, we found an increase in target expression on the tumour cells that correlated with worsening clinical grade. These results suggest an additional mechanism by which volociximab may provide clinical benefit. Volociximab may not only exert an anti-angiogenic effect but may also have a direct inhibitory effect on the tumour cells. A phase 1 clinical trial with volociximab has been completed in patients having a variety of tumour types. The results show that the antibody is well tolerated at doses up to 15 mg/kg weekly. No drug-related adverse events were noted, and the best clinical response seen so far is stable disease. Volociximab is currently undergoing further clinical testing, and is being assessed in pilot open label trials, in indications including renal cancer.