R Amann

Medical University of Graz, Graz, Styria, Austria

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Publications (82)231.97 Total impact

    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 12/2006; 657(1):491 - 492. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although prostaglandin (PG)D2 is one of the main metabolites of the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway of arachidonate metabolism in the brain, relatively little is known about the regulation of PGD2 biosynthesis in the spinal cord during systemic inflammation. Therefore, the present study was aimed at investigating the effect of endotoxin treatment on spinal PGD2 biosynthesis in BALB/c mice. Spinal inflammatory response to systemic endotoxin was verified by determination of spinal TNFalpha and IL-1beta mRNA. COX-1, COX-2, membrane-bound prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), and lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) mRNA and protein were determined by RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. The concentrations of immunoreactive PGD2 and PGE2 were measured in superfusion media of spinal cord samples in-vitro. Endotoxin treatment (1 mg/kg; 24 h before) enhanced the expression of COX-2, mPGES-1, and L-PGDS mRNA and protein in spinal cord, while there was no significant effect on COX-1 mRNA and protein. In superfusion media of spinal cord samples obtained from endotoxin treated mice, the concentrations of immunoreactive PGE2 and PGD2 were higher than in the control group suggesting enhanced spinal PG biosynthesis after endotoxin treatment. Addition of the selective COX-2 inhibitor lumiracoxib (100 nM) to the superfusion medium did not significantly affect PGE2 or PGD2 release in spinal cord obtained from non-treated mice. In spinal cord of endotoxin-treated mice, lumiracoxib (100 nM) attenuated PGE2 and PGD2 release to values similar to those observed in tissue obtained from non-endotoxin-treated mice. These results show enhanced expression of spinal L-PGDS and increased spinal PGD2 biosynthesis during systemic inflammation whereby enhanced biosynthesis seems to be dependent primarily on COX-2 activity.
    Neuropharmacology 03/2006; 50(2):165-73. · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 5-Oxo-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-ETE) is a chemoattractant for eosinophils and neutrophils, and the messenger RNA for its receptor, the oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid receptor (OXE), has been detected in several tissues. This study aimed at clarifying the role of 5-oxo-ETE in the regulation of basophil function. Basophil responses were determined in assays of flow-cytometric shape change, Ca(2+) flux, chemotaxis, and histamine release. Messenger RNA for OXE was detected by real-time PCR. We observed that human eosinophils were 3 to 10 times more sensitive to 5-oxo-ETE than neutrophils in flow-cytometric shape change and Ca(2+) flux assays, as estimated from the half-maximal responses of the cells. Basophils responded to 5-oxo-ETE in the shape change assay with a sensitivity similar to that of eosinophils. 5-Oxo-ETE was a weak inducer of Ca(2+) flux in basophils and did not cause histamine release but was a highly effective chemoattractant for basophils in the low nanomolar concentration range in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. In agreement with these functional studies, the messenger RNA for the 5-oxo-ETE receptor, OXE, was detectable in basophils as in monocytes, eosinophils, and neutrophils, but not in fibroblasts. Specimens from sinus mucosa, tonsils, and adenoids also contained detectable levels of messenger RNA for OXE. Our data suggest that 5-oxo-ETE is potentially involved in the regulation of basophil recruitment and might hence be a useful therapeutic target in atopic disease.
    Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 12/2005; 116(5):1014-9. · 12.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enhanced biosynthesis of prostaglandin (PG)D(2) and subsequent formation of 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ(2) has been suggested to contribute to resolution of inflammation. The primary aim of the present study in mouse heart was, therefore, to determine at the transcriptional level if there is sequential induction of PGE and PGD synthases (S) during inflammation. Expression of interleukin (IL)-1beta in heart was enhanced 4h after systemic inflammation and declined thereafter within 3-5 days to basal levels. In contrast to cyclooxygenase-2 and membrane-bound (m)-PGES-1, which both peaked 4h after endotoxin administration, hematopoietic (H)-PGDS expression was enhanced only >or=48h after endotoxin. The expression of lipocalin-type (L)-PGDS was not significantly influenced. mRNA encoding the putative target of 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ(2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, was enhanced between 4 and 24h after induction of inflammation. Treatment of mice with acetylsalicylic acid or indomethacin at doses effective to cause near-complete inhibition of PGE(2) and PGD(2) biosynthesis in heart ex vivo resulted in enhanced expression of IL-1beta 24h after endotoxin administration. These results provide additional support for the hypothesis of a shift towards PGD(2) biosynthesis during resolution of inflammation.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2005; 335(3):684-9. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    Rainer Amann, Rufina Schuligoi
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    ABSTRACT: Excitation of primary afferent neurons stimulates the expression of cytokines and nerve growth factor (NGF) in innervated tissues. Since NGF is a neurotrophic and immunomodulatory factor contributing to inflammatory hyperalgesia and tissue response to injury, this study was conducted in order to investigate the mechanisms by which afferent neuron stimulation by topical application of capsaicin increases NGF in the rat skin. Thereby it was sought to identify possible targets for pharmacological modulation of NGF biosynthesis. Topical capsaicin (>1 mg/ml ethanol) caused a concentration- and time-dependent increase in the concentration of NGF in rat skin. The capsaicin-induced increase of NGF was not significantly affected by indomethacin administered at a dose (2 mg/kg) that abolishes prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis. The NGF increase was suppressed by treatment of rats with the selective tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist SR140333 (0.1 mg/kg), and by the beta adrenergic agonist terbutaline (0.3 mg/kg). The effect of terbutaline was reversed by the beta adrenergic antagonist propranolol (1 mg/kg). Terbutaline also inhibited the increase in NGF caused by intraplantar injection of the NK1 receptor agonist substance P (SP), but did not significantly affect that caused by carrageenan. The results show that topical administration of capsaicin causes a primarily NK1 receptor-dependent increase in the NGF content of rat skin, which is susceptible to inhibition by beta adrenergic agonists. These observations not only suggest regulation of skin NGF biosynthesis by afferent neuronal and adrenergic mechanisms, but also indicate possible targets for pharmacological modulation of skin NGF biosynthesis.
    Pain 12/2004; 112(1-2):76-82. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human endotoxin-stimulated adherent monocytes were used in order to determine whether or not NSAIDs influence cyclooxygenase-2 and/or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha expression within the range of inhibitor concentrations that are required to suppress prostaglandin biosynthesis. Exogenous prostaglandin E(2) (IC(50)<5 nM) inhibited endotoxin-induced TNFalpha mRNA and protein while, up to 1 microM, it did not significantly affect cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression. Similar results were obtained using the membrane-permeable cAMP analogue db-cAMP, which caused preferential inhibition of TNFalpha expression. Indomethacin or lysine-acetylsalicylic acid concentration-dependently inhibited prostaglandin E(2) biosynthesis and, at concentrations causing near-complete inhibition, enhanced TNFalpha mRNA and protein expression without significantly influencing cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA. In addition, by facilitating endotoxin-induced TNFalpha expression, indomethacin or lysine-acetylsalicylic acid counteracted dexamethasone-induced inhibition of TNFalpha biosynthesis, thereby exhibiting an effect opposite to that of exogenous prostaglandin E(2). The results suggest that in human endotoxin-stimulated monocytes, NSAIDs can enhance TNFalpha expression through inhibition of cyclooxygenase and the resulting decrease in prostanoid biosynthesis.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 10/2004; 501(1-3):9-17. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the immediate early microglial genes that are up-regulated in response to proinflammatory stimuli is cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2). In the present study, we have investigated the effects of alpha-tocopherol (alpha TocH), an essential constituent of the nervous system, on the activation of COX-2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse BV-2 microglia. In unstimulated BV-2 cells, COX-2 mRNA and protein were almost undetectable but were strongly up-regulated in response to LPS. Activation of COX-2 protein synthesis in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells involved activation of the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and was sensitive to the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors staurosporine and chelerythrine, and the MAP kinase/ERK kinase 1/2 inhibitors PD98059 and U0126. Supplementation of BV-2 cells with alpha TocH before LPS stimulation resulted in pronounced up-regulation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity, down-regulation of PKC activity, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and nuclear factor kappa B (NF kappa B) activation. As a result, COX-2 protein levels and prostaglandin E(2) production were significantly lower in alpha TocH-supplemented cells. The effects of alpha TocH on PKC activity could be reverted by calyculin A and okadaic acid, two PP inhibitors. In summary, our results suggest that alpha TocH activates microglial PP2A activity and thereby silences an LPS-activated PKC/ERK/NF kappa B signalling cascade resulting in significantly attenuated COX-2 protein synthesis. These in vitro results imply that alpha TocH could induce quiescence to pathways that are associated with acute or chronic inflammatory conditions in the central nervous system.
    Biochemical Journal 04/2003; 370(Pt 2):459-67. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is an ongoing debate about possible advantages of the coadministration of caffeine with cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors in the treatment of pain. There are results suggesting interference by caffeine with COX expression and activity in rat immune cells. In the present study, we have used, therefore, human endotoxin-stimulated monocytes to investigate a possible influence of caffeine on indometacin-induced inhibition of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) formation. Endotoxin caused a concentration- and time-dependent increase in immunoreactive PGE(2) that was dependent on CD14-mediated mechanisms. In order to investigate pharmacological inhibition of the COX activity, a submaximal concentration of 1 ng/ml endotoxin (4 h exposure time) was used. Indometacin caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of PGE(2) with an apparent IC(50) of 8.9 +/- 1.4 x 10(-9) mol/l and an I(max) of 1 x 10(-7) mol/l. Caffeine (5 x 10(-6) to 1.5 x 10(-4) mol/l) on its own produced no statistically significant effect on endotoxin-induced PGE(2) formation. In the presence of caffeine (5 x 10(-6) to 1.5 x 10(-4) mol/l), inhibition of PGE(2) biosynthesis by indometacin (1 x 10(-8) mol/l) was not significantly altered. These results show that, in human monocytes, caffeine, up to concentrations severalfold higher than those reached in patients, has no significant effect on endotoxin-induced PGE(2) formation nor on its inhibition by indometacin.
    Pharmacology 03/2003; 67(2):67-71. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peripheral inflammation causes upregulation of cyclooxygenase in the spinal cord and subsequent increase in prostaglandin biosynthesis. However, prostaglandin synthases, which are downstream of cyclooxygenase control the type of prostaglandin that is formed predominantly. Since there is little known about the regulation of prostaglandin synthases, the present study was conducted in order to determine the effect of endotoxin treatment on the expression of messenger RNA encoding interleukin 1beta, cyclooxygenase-2, and prostaglandin synthases mediating the formation of prostaglandin E(2) (membrane bound prostaglandin E synthase) and prostaglandin D(2) (lipocalin prostaglandin D synthase) in spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia and skin of rats. Endotoxin (2 mg/kg i.p.) induced the expression of interleukin-1beta, cyclooxygenase-2, and membrane bound prostaglandin E synthase messenger RNA in spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia, and skin as determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In contrast, basal expression of lipocalin prostaglandin D synthase messenger RNA in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia was not significantly altered by endotoxin. Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg s.c. at -18 h and -1 h) attenuated the effect endotoxin on the expression of interleukin-1beta, cyclooxygenase-2, and membrane bound prostaglandin E synthase messenger RNA in all tissues investigated, but did not significantly influence expression of lipocalin prostaglandin D synthase mRNA in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia. In situ hybridisation histochemistry showed endotoxin-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and membrane bound prostaglandin E synthase messenger RNA throughout gray and white matter of spinal cord sections. In dorsal root ganglia, expression of membrane bound prostaglandin E synthase seemed primarily located to non-neuronal cells, while cyclooxygenase-2 messenger RNA was not detectable. The results show that the immune response elicited by endotoxin induced cyclooxygenase-2 and membrane bound prostaglandin E synthase, but not lipocalin prostaglandin D synthase messenger RNA in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia of rats. The distribution of cyclooxygenase-2 and membrane bound prostaglandin E synthase messenger RNA expressing cells suggests major involvement of non-neuronal cells in spinal prostaglandin biosynthesis. Determination of the regulation of enzymes downstream of cyclooxygenase at the messenger RNA level may represent a valuable tool to investigate effects of analgesic/anti-inflammatory drugs on the regulation of spinal prostaglandin biosynthesis.
    Neuroscience 02/2003; 116(4):1043-52. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The calcium flux in human basophils was measured by flow cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were labeled with anti-CD123 and anti-HLA-DR antibodies, loaded with fluo-3 acetoxymethyl ester (2 micromol/l) in the presence of probenecid (2.5 micromol/l) and Pluronic F-127 (0.02%) for 20 min, and equilibrated with Ca(2+) (1.8 mmol/l) and Mg(2+) (1 mmol/l) for 5 min. The levels of intracellular free calcium were monitored as changes in fluorescence. Cross-linking of surface IgE on basophils with anti-IgE antibodies caused effective calcium flux in atopic, but not in healthy, donors. Concentration-dependent responses to monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), eotaxin, macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1alpha), and C5a (0.3-10 nmol/l) were observed in all subjects, with a rank order of potency of C5a = MCP-1 > eotaxin > MIP-1alpha. In contrast, the rank order of potency in causing basophil shape change (i.e., increase in forward scatter) was eotaxin > C5a > MCP-1 > MIP-1alpha. Nerve growth factor (NGF; 15 nmol/l) did not induce calcium flux in basophils, and pretreatment of cells with a low concentration of NGF (0.3 nmol/l), which has previously been shown to prime basophils for mediator release, had no effect on the calcium response to subsequent stimulation with C5a. We conclude that calcium mobilization is differentially involved in signaling to chemoattractants in basophils and that it is correlated with the agonist's efficacy to induce mediator release. The data also suggest that priming of basophil responses by NGF does not rely on enhanced calcium mobilization.
    Pharmacology 01/2003; 67(1):49-54. · 1.60 Impact Factor
  • Rainer Amann, Ilse Lanz, Rufina Schuligoi
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    ABSTRACT: Injection of carrageenan (1 mg) into the rat hind paw caused a time-dependent increase in paw volume that was maximal 3 h after injection. At this time, the concentration of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the skin of the inflamed paw was more than twofold higher than in the contralateral, non-inflamed paw. Treatment of rats with indomethacin reduced inflammatory oedema by 57%, morphine treatment attenuated oedema by 62%. While indomethacin had no statistically significant effect on the concentration of NGF in the skin of inflamed paws, morphine attenuated the NGF response by 24.2% in a naloxone reversible manner. These data suggest that drug-induced inhibition of inflammatory oedema is not predictive of its effect on an inflammation-induced rise in tissue NGF. Furthermore, our results confirm and extend previous observations suggesting an anti-inflammatory activity of morphine.
    Pharmacology 12/2002; 66(3):169-72. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    Rainer Amann, Bernhard A Peskar
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    ABSTRACT: Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is one of the most widely used drugs worldwide. It acetylates cyclooxygenases thereby irreversibly blocking the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostanoids. Biotransformation of aspirin yields salicylate, a compound that possesses similar anti-inflammatory potency as aspirin but lacks aspirin's inhibitory effect on the activity of isolated cyclooxygenase. This article is aimed at providing an overview about the often conflicting results concerning the mechanisms of action of aspirin and sodium salicylate. At present, there is no common agreement about the extent to which salicylate contributes to aspirin's anti-inflammatory properties, as well as there is still no final conclusion reached about the mechanisms of action of sodium salicylate. Several possible sites of action of salicylate have been suggested: It has been shown that in intact cells-but not in purified enzyme preparations-, sodium salicylate inhibits prostanoid biosynthesis. This effect seems to be prevented in the presence of high concentrations of arachidonic acid, which has been shown to interfere with inhibition by salicylate of cyclooxygenase-2-mediated prostanoid formation in vitro. Other possible sites of action that are not directly related to cyclooxygenase inhibition have been suggested based on observations made in vitro using high concentrations of aspirin and sodium salicylate. These effects target intracellular signaling mechanisms such as kinases, including the mitogen activated protein-kinases (MAPK) cascade. With the exception of reported salicylate-induced activation of p38 MAPK, observed effects are usually inhibitory. This may be one reason for the observation that, downstream to kinases, inhibitory effects of salicylates have been observed on several nuclear transcription factors, such as nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-kB) or activator protein 1 (AP-1). Several reports have also shown interference by salicylates with the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, which, depending on experimental models, can be observed as inhibitory but also stimulatory effects. Antioxidant properties of salicylates, adenosine release induced by sodium salicylate and aspirin-triggered lipoxin formation are additional mechanisms that may contribute to anti-inflammatory properties of aspirin and/or sodium salicylate. An additional focus of this review is the discussion of interactions between aspirin, sodium salicylate and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are of particular relevance in the gastro-intestinal and cardiovascular systems.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 07/2002; 447(1):1-9. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of salicylate on the expression of cyclooxygenases, and on prostaglandin E(2) biosynthesis were examined in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were incubated in the presence of endotoxin, which induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 protein, and caused a time-dependent increase of immunoreactive prostaglandin E(2) in the supernatant. The cycooxygenase-2 selective inhibitor N-(2-cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl)methanesulfonamide (NS-398, 1 microM) suppressed the endotoxin-induced increase of prostaglandin E(2), without significantly affecting the expression of cyclooxygenase-1 or cyclooxygenase-2. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to endotoxin (18 h), 1.0 and 3.0 mM sodium salicylate reduced the prostaglandin E(2) concentration of the supernatant, and, at the same time, stimulated cyclooxygenase-2 expression. After a subsequent 2 h incubation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in drug-free medium, prostaglandin E(2) concentrations in samples that had been exposed to endotoxin together with 1.0 or 3.0 mM salicylate were significantly higher than in samples exposed to endotoxin alone. These results show that salicylate can enhance the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in endotoxin-exposed peripheral blood mononuclear cells and at the same time reduce prostaglandin E(2) formation. After washout and removal of salicylate-induced cyclooxygenase inhibition, increased cyclooxygenase-2 expression resulted in enhanced prostaglandin E(2) formation. It seems possible that under certain conditions salicylate-induced stimulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression may contribute to its clinical pharmacological profile.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 01/2002; 433(1):129-34. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the beta adrenergic agonist terbutaline on NGF increase caused by allergic inflammation in rats. 2. Intraplantar antigen injection in sensitized rats increased paw volume and stimulated NGF biosynthesis in the skin of the injected paw as determined 3 and 6 h after injection. Treatment of rats with terbutaline (0.1 - 0.3 mg kg(-1), s.c.) had no significant effect on the NGF concentration in non-inflamed skin, but reduced oedema, and at 0.3 mg kg(-1) also NGF mRNA and immunoreactive NGF in the skin of the inflamed paw in a propranolol-reversible manner. In carrageenan-induced inflammation, terbutaline did not significantly reduce the inflammation-induced increase of NGF in paw skin. 3. Exposure of sensitized rats to aerosolized antigen (twice, 24 h interval) increased protein content, eosinophil leukocytes, and immunoreactive NGF in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL, obtained 16 h after the second antigen exposure). Treatment of rats with terbutaline (0.3 mg kg(-1), s.c. 30 min before the second antigen challenge) suppressed antigen-induced elevation of protein and eosinophil leukocytes, and reduced the concentration of NGF in BAL to values similar to those found in non-sensitized rats. 4. The present results demonstrate anti-allergic properties of terbutaline in rats that were accompanied by a marked reduction of antigen-induced NGF increase in skin and BAL, respectively. These results are compatible with the assumption that terbutaline primarily suppressed the immune response to antigen thereby attenuating the release of vasoactive mediators and the stimulation of NGF biosynthesis.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 06/2001; 133(1):186-92. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that caffeine can augment analgesic activity and aggravate side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The aim of the present study was to investigate a possible interaction between ketoprofen and caffeine on prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis and cyclooxygenase (COX) mRNA expression in the rat renal medulla ex vivo. Treatment of rats with ketoprofen (60 min before) resulted in a dose-dependent (estimated ID(50) 0.3 mg/kg p.o.) reduction of PGE(2) biosynthesis in renal medulla ex vivo. Ketoprofen (0.3 mg/kg)-induced inhibition of PGE(2) biosynthesis was stable between 30 and 180 min and still detectable 300 min after drug administration. Caffeine (10 mg/kg) did not cause a detectable effect on its own, nor did it significantly affect ketoprofen-induced inhibition of renal medullary PGE(2) biosynthesis. Similar results were obtained with repeated daily drug administration for 1 week: there was no significant effect of caffeine on ketoprofen-induced inhibition of renal medullary PGE(2) biosynthesis. The absence of significant caffeine effects on ketoprofen-induced inhibition of renal medullary PGE(2) biosynthesis was paralleled by experiments showing no significant effect of caffeine on ketoprofen-induced inhibition of platelet thromboxane (TX)B(2) biosynthesis. Additional experiments showed increased COX-2 mRNA expression in the renal medulla 60 min after ketoprofen administration, that was not significantly influenced by concomitant caffeine treatment. Treatment of rats with ketoprofen for 1 week had no significant effects on COX-2 mRNA expression. The present results show that ketoprofen caused inhibition of PGE(2) biosynthesis in the rat renal medulla ex vivo with a potency similar to that reported for in vivo models suggesting that the ex vivo approach is a valid model to test a possible interference of caffeine with ketoprofen-induced COX inhibition. The absence of detectable effects of caffeine on time course or magnitude of ketoprofen-induced suppression of PGE(2) biosynthesis in this model indicates, therefore, that possible adverse actions of co-administered caffeine on renal function are not related to interference with renal COX inhibition.
    Pharmacology 02/2001; 63(4):234-9. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the guinea-pig isolated perfused lung, co-administration of bradykinin (BK) and histamine causes the release of pro-inflammatory neuropeptides, an effect that is largely dependent on BK-induced formation of prostaglandins. Since it is known that at least two isoenzymes, cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) catalyse the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins (PGs) and thromboxanes, the present study aimed at investigating the effect of selective COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors on the evoked release of substance P (SP). Lungs were vascularly perfused with oxygenated physiological salt solution containing peptidase inhibitors. BK (0.1 microM) and histamine (100 microM) were added to the perfusate for 10 min and 5 min, respectively. The concentrations of 6-keto-PGF1alpha, cysteinyl-leukotriene (LT), and SP were determined in the outflow by radioimmunoassay. In non-stimulated preparations, indomethacin (2 microM) and the selective COX-1 inhibitor SC-560 (0.03-1 microM) reduced basal release of 6-keto-PGF1alpha, without significantly affecting the release of cysteinyl-LT and SP. The selective COX-2 inhibitors NS-398 (1 microM) or DFU (10 microM) had no significant effect on the basal release of eicosanoids or SP. Co-administration of BK and histamine caused a pronounced increase in the concentration of 6-keto-PGF1alpha and cysteinyl-LT, and SP in the effluate. Under these conditions, indomethacin as well as SC-560 reduced the release of 6-keto-PGF1alpha, enhanced cysteinyl-LT release, and attenuated the release of SP. In contrast, the selective COX-2 inhibitors NS 398 and DFU had no significant effect on the stimulated release of eicosanoids or SP. These results suggest that in the isolated guinea-pig lung, basal prostanoid biosynthesis as well as BK-induced stimulation of prostanoid formation and subsequent facilitation of histamine-induced SP release is primarily mediated by COX-1 without detectable involvement of COX-2.
    Inflammation Research 02/2001; 50(1):50-3. · 1.96 Impact Factor
  • R Amann, R Schuligoi
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    ABSTRACT: It is known that the concentration of nerve growth factor (NGF) is increased in inflamed tissue, a phenomenon thought to induce long-lasting sensitization of afferent neurons. Although the effects of NGF may be of pathophysiological relevance, there is little known about the effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the inflammation-induced increase in NGF. In the present study, therefore, we used the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs indomethacin and sodium salicylate in carrageenan-induced rat paw inflammation, in order to compare their anti-inflammatory action (determined as inhibition of edema) with their effects on the concentration of NGF in inflamed tissue. Carrageenan-induced inflammation increased the concentration of NGF in the paw 2-fold compared to non-inflamed controls. Indomethacin (0.66-2 mg/kg) and sodium salicylate (100-300 mg/kg) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema and indomethacin also inhibited the ex-vivo release of immunoreactive prostaglandin E2 from inflamed paw skin. However, at these doses, neither anti-inflammatory agent reduced the elevated levels of NGF. In contrast, a supramaximal dose of indomethacin (6 mg/kg) partially inhibited, and dexamethasone completely prevented the carrageenan-induced increase in NGF. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory potency of drugs as determined in the carrageenan edema model is not necessarily predictive for their ability to inhibit the NGF response. It seems possible, therefore, that even if anti-inflammatory treatment prevents the appearance of visible signs of inflammation, there may be still long-lasting effects of NGF on the phenotype of primary afferent neurons.
    Neuroscience Letters 02/2000; 278(3):173-6. · 2.03 Impact Factor
  • R Amann, T Egger, R Schuligoi
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    ABSTRACT: Target-derived nerve growth factor provides trophic support for adult primary afferent neurons containing calcitonin gene-related peptide and tachykinins. Noxious chemical or thermal stimuli cause the release of these mediators from peripheral afferent nerve endings. However, little is known of the extent to which these mediators, in turn, influence nerve growth factor expression in the innervated tissue. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the possible effect of exogenous substance P, or neurogenic inflammation on the nerve growth factor concentration in the skin of the rat hindpaw. Our results show that substance P as well as topical application of mustard oil cause a significant increase in detectable nerve growth factor, an effect that was prevented by treatment of rats with the tachykinin NK(1) receptor antagonist SR140333. We did not observe a significant inhibitory effect of SR140333 on the nerve growth factor content in non-treated skin, or the nerve growth factor increase caused by carrageenan or allergic inflammation. The results provide evidence that substance P as well as neurogenic inflammation cause a rapid increase in detectable nerve growth factor in the paw skin and suggest the involvement of NK(1) receptors in this effect. We obtained no evidence for the participation of a NK(1) receptor-mediated nerve growth factor increase in models of inflammation induced by non-neurogenic stimuli.
    Neuroscience 02/2000; 100(3):611-5. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a telephone survey using a standardized questionnaire, 78 resident dentists in Germany, Switzerland and Austria were interviewed with respect to several aspects of the dental treatment of pregnant women. Only 58% of the interviewees decided clearly in favour of local anaesthetics, 59% supported the use of analgesics, 70% a possible antibiotic therapy and 33% a radiological examination during pregnancy. In addition, according to references in the specialist literature guidelines for the dental treatment, drug therapy and radiological diagnosis of pregnant women are presented. The local anaesthetics should have a high plasma protein bonding (articain, bupivacain, etidocain) and a minimum adrenaline concentration. Paracetamol is the analgesic of choice. If an antibiotic treatment is required, penicillin, cephalosporin and erythromycin are recommended. In particular during the first three-month period, radiological examinations should be restricted to the absolute minimum and performed only if no reasonable alternative is available, even though the radiological burden on the foetus falls 500,000 times short of the limit value of 50 mgray (5 rad) in the case of a microradiogram, and 50,000 times short of the limit value in the case of an orthopantomogram.
    Schweizer Monatsschrift für Zahnmedizin = Revue mensuelle suisse d'odonto-stomatologie = Rivista mensile svizzera di odontologia e stomatologia / SSO 02/2000; 110(1):37-46.
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    ABSTRACT: Recent observations have demonstrated a central role of the "inducible" isoform of the cyclooxygenase (COX), COX-2, in the rat lung. Therefore, the reported capacity of selective COX-2 inhibitors to potentiate the formation of leukotriene (LT) B4 may raise concern about pro-inflammatory side effects of such drugs in the respiratory system. The present study was aimed at determining the effects of the COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 on the release of COX and 5-lipoxygenase (LOX) metabolites of arachidonic acid in isolated perfused lungs obtained from endotoxin-treated rats before and after stimulation with the leukocyte secretagogue N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP). Two hours after rats had received endotoxin i.v., the lung was dissected and perfused via the pulmonary artery with physiological salt solution. After an equilibration period of 20 min the outflow was collected (5-min fractions). In the respective treatment groups, indomethacin, NS-398, or the 5-LOX inhibitor MK886 were present throughout the experiment, while FMLP was added to the perfusate during a single 5-min period. The concentration of eicosanoids in the outflow was determined by radioimmunoassay. Endotoxin treatment of rats resulted in increased expression of COX-2 mRNA in lung tissue, and an elevated basal release of the prostaglandin (PG)I2 metabolite 6-keto PGF1alpha, without a detectable increase of leukotriene (LT) formation. In-vitro exposure to FMLP stimulated LT and prostanoid release, which was significantly enhanced in endotoxin-primed lungs, and was suppressed by the 5-LOX inhibitor MK-886 (3 microM) and the COX-inhibitor indomethacin (5 microM), respectively. Either compound showed selective inhibition of the respective pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. In endotoxin-primed lungs, the COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 (0.3-1.0 microM) depressed basal as well as FMLP-stimulated release of 6-keto PGF1alpha, but did not cause a significant increase of LTB4 or cysteinyl-LT release. These results suggest that FMLP, presumably acting on inflammatory cells trapped in the pulmonary circulation of endotoxin treated rats, induced prostanoid formation mainly via the COX-2 pathway, and that its inhibition by NS-398 had no detectable potentiating effect on LTB4 or cysteinyl-LT biosynthesis.
    Inflammation Research 01/2000; 48(12):632-6. · 1.96 Impact Factor

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  • 2004–2006
    • Medical University of Graz
      • Institut für Experimentelle und Klinische Pharmakologie
      Graz, Styria, Austria
  • 1985–2006
    • Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz
      • • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology
      • • Institute of Molecular Biosciences
      Gratz, Styria, Austria
  • 1990
    • Ruhr-Universität Bochum
      Bochum, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1988
    • London Research Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1987
    • University of Pécs
      • Institute of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy
      Pécs, Baranya megye, Hungary