James G Herman

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (320)3048.99 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aim: To examine epigenetic changes and the function of HOXA11 in human gastric cancer (GC). Materials & methods: Seven GC cell lines, five cases of normal gastric mucosa and 112 cases primary GC samples were used in this study. Results: Expression of HOXA11 and lack of promoter region methylation were found in NCI-N87, MKN45, BGC823 and HGC27 cells. Loss of expression and complete methylation were found in AGS gastric cancer cells. Reduced expression and partial methylation were found in MGC803 and SGC7901 cells. Restoration of HOXA11 expression was induced by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. HOXA11 was methylated in 81.25% (91/112) of primary GCs. The presence of methylation was associated with male gender, tumor size, tumor differentiation and lymph node metastasis (all p < 0.05). Restoration of HOXA11 expression reduced cell proliferation, invasion, migration and induced apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest. HOXA11 was found to inhibit Wnt signaling by upregulating NKD1 expression. Conclusion: Epigenetic silencing of HOXA11 promotes GC proliferation, migration and invasion through activation of Wnt signaling.
    Epigenomics 01/2015; · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Identifying biomarkers in body fluids may improve the non-invasive detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). Previously we identified N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 4 (NDRG4) and GATA binding protein 5 (GATA5) methylation as promising biomarkers for CRC in stool DNA. Here, we examined the utility of NDRG4, GATA5, and two additional markers (Forkhead box protein E1 (FOXE1) and spectrin repeat containing nuclear envelope 1 (SYNE1)) promoter methylation as biomarkers in plasma DNA. Quantitative methylation-specific PCR was performed on plasma DNA from 220 CRC patients and 684 non-cancer controls, divided in a training and test set. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to measure the area under the curve of GATA5, NDRG4, SYNE1 and FOXE1 methylation. Functional assays were performed in SYNE1 and FOXE1 stably transfected cell lines. The sensitivity of NDRG4, GATA5, FOXE1 and SYNE1 methylation in all stages of CRC (154 cases, 444 controls) was 27% (95%CI=20%-34%), 18% (95%CI=12%-24%), 46% (95%CI=38%-54%) and 47% (95%CI=39%-55%), with a specificity of 95% (95%CI=93%-97%), 99% (95%CI=98%-100%), 93% (95%CI=91%-95%) and 96% (95%CI=94%-98%) respectively. Combining SYNE1 and FOXE1, increased the sensitivity to 56% (95%CI=48%-64%), while the specificity decreased to 90% (95%CI=87%-93%) in the training set and to 58% sensitivity (95%CI=46%-70%) and 91% specificity (95%CI=80%-100%) in a test set (66 cases, 240 controls). SYNE1 overexpression showed no major differences in cell proliferation, migration and invasion compared to controls. Overexpression of FOXE1 significantly decreased the number of colonies in SW480 and HCT116 cell lines. Overall our data suggests that SYNE1 and FOXE1 are promising markers for CRC detection. Copyright © 2014, American Association for Cancer Research.
    Cancer Prevention Research 12/2014; · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignant disease and the incidence is increasing. DACT2 was found frequently methylated in human lung cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. To explore the epigenetic change and the role of DACT2 in thyroid cancer, 7 thyroid cancer cell lines, 10 cases of non-cancerous thyroid tissue samples and 99 cases of primary thyroid cancer samples were involved in this study. DACT2 was expressed and unmethylated in K1, SW579, FTC-133, TT, W3 and 8505C cell lines. Loss of expression and complete methylation was found in TPC-1 cells. Restoration of DACT2 expression was induced by 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine treatment. It demonstrates that the expression of DACT2 was regulated by promoter region methylation. In human primary papillary thyroid cancer, 64.6% (64/99) was methylated and methylation of DACT2 was related to lymph node metastasis (p<0.01). Re-expression of DACT2 suppresses cell proliferation, invasion and migration in TPC-1 cells. The activity of TCF/LEF was inhibited by DACT2 in wild-type or mutant β-catenin cells. The activity of TCF/LEF was increased by co-transfecting DACT2 and Dvl2 in wild-type or mutant β-catenin cells. Overexpression of wild-type β-catenin promotes cell migration and invasion in DACT2 stably expressed cells. The expression of β-catenin, c-myc, cyclinD1 and MMP-9 were decreased and the level of phosphorylated β-catenin (p-β-catenin) was increased after restoration of DACT2 expression in TPC-1 cells. The expression of β-catenin, c-myc, cyclinD1 and MMP-9 were increased and the level of p-β-catenin was reduced after knockdown of DACT2 in W3 and SW579 cells. These results suggest that DACT2 suppresses human papillary thyroid cancer growth and metastasis by inhibiting Wnt signaling. In conclusion, DACT2 is frequently methylated in papillary thyroid cancer. DACT2 expression was regulated by promoter region methylation. DACT2 suppresses papillary thyroid cancer proliferation and metastasis by inhibiting Wnt signaling.
    PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112336. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Here, we describe the genomic landscape of 496 PTCs. We observed a low frequency of somatic alterations (relative to other carcinomas) and extended the set of known PTC driver alterations to include EIF1AX, PPM1D, and CHEK2 and diverse gene fusions. These discoveries reduced the fraction of PTC cases with unknown oncogenic driver from 25% to 3.5%. Combined analyses of genomic variants, gene expression, and methylation demonstrated that different driver groups lead to different pathologies with distinct signaling and differentiation characteristics. Similarly, we identified distinct molecular subgroups of BRAF-mutant tumors, and multidimensional analyses highlighted a potential involvement of oncomiRs in less-differentiated subgroups. Our results propose a reclassification of thyroid cancers into molecular subtypes that better reflect their underlying signaling and differentiation properties, which has the potential to improve their pathological classification and better inform the management of the disease.
    Cell 10/2014; 159(3):676-90. · 31.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent genomic analyses of pathologically defined tumor types identify ''within-a-tissue'' disease sub-types. However, the extent to which genomic sig-natures are shared across tissues is still unclear. We performed an integrative analysis using five genome-wide platforms and one proteomic platform on 3,527 specimens from 12 cancer types, revealing a unified classification into 11 major subtypes. Five subtypes were nearly identical to their tissue-of-origin counterparts, but several distinct cancer types were found to converge into common subtypes. Lung squamous, head and neck, and a subset of bladder cancers coalesced into one subtype typified by TP53 alterations, TP63 amplifications, and high expression of immune and proliferation pathway genes. Of note, bladder cancers split into three pan-cancer subtypes. The multiplatform classification, while correlated with tissue-of-origin, provides inde-pendent information for predicting clinical outcomes. All data sets are available for data-mining from a uni-fied resource to support further biological discov-eries and insights into novel therapeutic strategies. INTRODUCTION
    Cell 08/2014; · 31.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adenocarcinoma of the lung is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Here we report molecular profiling of 230 resected lung adenocarcinomas using messenger RNA, microRNA and DNA sequencing integrated with copy number, methylation and proteomic analyses. High rates of somatic mutation were seen (mean 8.9 mutations per megabase). Eighteen genes were statistically significantly mutated, including RIT1 activating mutations and newly described loss-of-function MGA mutations which are mutually exclusive with focal MYC amplification. EGFR mutations were more frequent in female patients, whereas mutations in RBM10 were more common in males. Aberrations in NF1, MET, ERBB2 and RIT1 occurred in 13% of cases and were enriched in samples otherwise lacking an activated oncogene, suggesting a driver role for these events in certain tumours. DNA and mRNA sequence from the same tumour highlighted splicing alterations driven by somatic genomic changes, including exon 14 skipping in MET mRNA in 4% of cases. MAPK a
    Nature 07/2014; 511(7511):543-550. · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Data on the prognostic significance of promoter CpG island methylation in colorectal cancer (CRC) are conflicting, possibly due to associations between methylation and other factors affecting survival such as genetic alterations and use of adjuvant therapy. Here, we examine the prognostic impact of promoter methylation in patients with CRC treated with surgery alone in the context of microsatellite instability (MSI), BRAF and KRAS mutations.
    Clinical Cancer Research 06/2014; 20(12):3261-71. · 8.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common malignancy in males and the fifth most common malignancy in females worldwide. DACH1 is frequently methylated in hepatic and colorectal cancer. To further understand the regulation and mechanism of DACH1 in GC, eight GC cell lines, eight cases of normal gastric mucosa, 98 cases of primary GC and 50 cases of adjacent non-tumour tissues were examined. Methylation-specific PCR, western blot, transwell assay and xenograft mice were used in this study. Loss of DACH1 expression correlated with promoter region methylation in GC cells, and re-expression was induced by 5-Aza-2'-deoxyazacytidine. DACH1 is methylated in 63.3% (62/98) of primary GC and 38% (19/50) of adjacent non-tumour tissues, while no methylation was found in normal gastric mucosa. Methylation of DACH1 correlated with reduced expression of DACH1 (P < 0.01), late tumour stage (stage III/IV) (P < 0.01) and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). DACH1 expression inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis by inhibiting transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signalling and suppressed GC cell proliferation through inducing G2/M phase arrest. The tumour size is smaller in DACH1-expressed BGC823 cell xenograft mice than in unexpressed group (P < 0.01). Restoration of DACH1 expression also sensitized GC cells to docetaxel. These studies suggest that DACH1 is frequently methylated in human GC and expression of DACH1 was controlled by promoter region methylation. DACH1 suppresses GC proliferation, invasion and metastasis by inhibiting TGF-β signalling pathways both in vitro and in vivo. Epigenetic silencing DACH1 may induce GC cells' resistance to docetaxel.
    Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 06/2014; · 3.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological evidence suggests that HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk of lung cancer, but no data exist because large computed tomography (CT) screening trials routinely exclude HIV-infected participants. From 2006 to 2013, we conducted the world's first lung cancer screening trial of 224 HIV-infected current/former smokers to assess the CT detection rates of lung cancer. We also used 130 HIV-infected patients with known lung cancer to determine radiographic markers of lung cancer risk using multivariate analysis. Median age was 48 years with 34 pack-years smoked. During 678 person-years, one lung cancer was found on incident screening. Besides this lung cancer case, 18 deaths (8%) occurred, but none were cancer related. There were no interim diagnoses of lung or extrapulmonary cancers. None of the pulmonary nodules detected in 48 participants at baseline were diagnosed as cancer by study end. The heterogeneity of emphysema across the entire lung as measured by CT densitometry was significantly higher in HIV-infected subjects with lung cancer compared with the heterogeneity of emphysema in those without HIV (p ≤ 0.01). On multivariate regression analysis, increased age, higher smoking pack-years, low CD4 nadir, and increased heterogeneity of emphysema on quantitative CT imaging were all significantly associated with lung cancer. Despite a high rate of active smoking among HIV-infected participants, only one lung cancer was detected in 678 patient-years. This was probably because of the young age of participants suggesting that CT screening of high-risk populations should strongly consider advanced age as a critical inclusion criterion. Future screening trials in urban American must also incorporate robust measures to ensure HIV patient compliance, adherence, and smoking cessation.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 06/2014; 9(6):752-9. · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Improved prognostic stratification of patients with TNM stage II colorectal cancer is desired, since 20-30% of high-risk stage II patients may die within five years of diagnosis. This study was conducted to investigate REarranged during Transfection (RET) gene promoter CpG island methylation as a possible prognostic marker for TNM stage II colorectal cancer patients (CRC) patients. The utility of RET promoter CpG island methylation in tumors of stage II CRC patients as a prognostic biomarker for CRC related death was studied in three independent series (including 233, 231, and 294 TNM stage II patients, respectively) by using MSP and pyrosequencing. The prognostic value of RET promoter CpG island methylation was analyzed by using Cox regression analysis. In the first series, analyzed by MSP, CRC stage II patients (n=233) with RET methylated tumors, had a significantly worse overall survival as compared to those with unmethylated tumors (HRmultivariable = 2.51, 95%-CI: 1.42-4.43). Despite a significant prognostic effect of RET methylation in stage III patients of a second series, analyzed by MSP, the prognostic effect in stage II patients (n=231) was not statistically significant (HRmultivariable = 1.16, 95%-CI 0.71-1.92). The third series (n=294), analyzed by pyrosequencing, confirmed a statistically significant association between RET methylation and poor overall survival in stage II patients (HRmultivariable = 1.91, 95%-CI: 1.03-3.52). Our results show that RET promoter CpG island methylation, analyzed by two different techniques, is associated with a poor prognosis in stage II CRC in two independent series and a poor prognosis in stage III CRC in one series. RET methylation may serve as a useful and robust tool for clinical practice to identify high-risk stage II CRC patients with a poor prognosis. This merits further investigation.
    Molecular oncology 05/2014; · 6.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gastric carcinoma (GC) has one of the highest mortality rates of cancer diseases and has a high incidence rate in China. Palliative chemotherapy is the main treatment for advanced gastric cancer. It is necessary to compare the effectiveness and toxicities of different regimens. This study explores the possibility of methylation of DNA damage repair genes serving as a prognostic and chemo-sensitive marker in human gastric cancer. The methylation status of five DNA damage repair genes (CHFR, FANCF, MGMT, MLH1, and RASSF1A) was detected by nested methylation-specific PCR in 102 paraffin-embedded gastric cancer samples. Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests were used to evaluate the association of methylation status and clinic-pathological factors. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models were employed to analyze the association of methylation status and chemo-sensitivity. The results indicate that CHFR, MLH1, RASSF1A, MGMT, and FANCF were methylated in 34.3 % (35/102), 21.6 % (22/102), 12.7 % (13/102), 9.8 % (10/102), and 0 % (0/102) of samples, respectively. No association was found between methylation of CHFR, MLH1, RASSF1A, MGMT, or FANCF with gender, age, tumor size, tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, and TNM stage. In docetaxel-treated gastric cancer patients, resistance to docetaxel was found in CHFR unmethylated patients by Cox proportional hazards model (HR 0.243, 95 % CI, 0.069-0.859, p = 0.028), and overall survival is longer in the CHFR methylated group compared with the CHFR unmethylated group (log-rank, p = 0.036). In oxaliplatin-treated gastric cancer patients, resistance to oxaliplatin was found in MLH1 methylated patients (HR 2.988, 95 % CI, 1.064-8.394, p = 0.038), and overall survival was longer in the MLH1 unmethylated group compared with the MLH1 methylated group (log-rank, p = 0.046). CHFR is frequently methylated in human gastric cancer, and CHFR methylation may serve as a docetaxel-sensitive marker. MLH1 methylation was related to oxaliplatin resistance in gastric cancer patients.
    Gastric Cancer 04/2014; · 4.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human Dachshund homologue 1 (DACH1) is a major component of the Retinal Determination Gene Network. Loss of DACH1 expression was found in breast, prostate, lung, endometrial, colorectal and hepatocellular carcinoma. To explore the expression, regulation and function of DACH1 in human esophageal cancer, 11 esophageal cancer cell lines, 10 cases of normal esophageal mucosa, 51 cases of different grades of dysplasia and 104 cases of primary esophageal squamous cancer were employed. Methylation specific PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blot, flow cytometry, small interfering RNAs, colony formation techniques and xenograft mice model were used. We found that DACH1 expression was regulated by promoter region hypermethylation in esophageal cancer cell lines. 18.8% (6 of 32) of grade 1, 42.1% (8 of 19) of grade 2 and grade 3 dysplasia (ED2,3), and 61.5% (64 of 104) of esophageal cancer were methylated, but no methylation was found in 10 cases of normal esophageal mucosa. The methylation was increased in progression tendency during esophageal carcinogenesis (P<0.01). DACH1 methylation was associated with poor differentiation (P<0.05) and late tumor stage (P<0.05). Restoration of DACH1 expression inhibited cell growth and activated TGF-β signaling in KYSE150 and KYSE510 cells. DACH1 suppressed human esophageal cancer cell tumor growth in xenograft mice. In conclusion, DACH1 is frequently methylated in human esophageal cancer and methylation of DACH1 is involved in the early stage of esophageal carcinogenesis. DACH1 expression is regulated by promoter region hypermethylation. DACH1 suppresses esophageal cancer growth by activating TGF-β signaling.
    PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e95509. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 03/2014; 21(10_Supplement):B78-B78. · 4.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DNA repair aberrations and associated chromosomal instability is a feature of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To evaluate if DNA repair insufficiencies are related to methylation changes, we examined the methylation of nine promoter regions of DNA repair proteins by bisulfide sequencing in 26 CLL primary samples and performed quantitative PCR on a subset of samples to examine BRCA1 expression. We also investigated if changes in cytogenetic or expression level of DNA repair proteins led to changes in sensitivity to a novel PARP inhibitor, CEP-8983, alone and in combination with bendamustine. No changes in promoter methylation were identified in BRCA1, BRCA2, FANC-C, FANC-F, FANC-L, ATM, MGMT, hMLH1 and H2AX except for two cases of minor BRCA1 hypermethylation. CLL samples appeared to have reduced BRCA1 mRNA expression uniformly in comparison to non-malignant lymphocytes irrespective of promoter hypermethylation. CEP-8983 displayed single agent cytotoxicity and the combination with bendamustine demonstrated synergistic cytotoxicity in the majority of CLL samples. These results were consistent across cytogenetic subgroups, including 17p deleted and previously treated patients. Our results provide rationale for further exploration of the combination of a PARP inhibitor and DNA damaging agents as a novel therapeutic strategy in CLL.
    Leukemia research 03/2014; 38(3):411-417. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epigenetic mechanisms may be important in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We studied the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern associated with rapid loss of kidney function using the Infinium HumanMethylation 450 K BeadChip in 40 Chronic Renal Insufficiency (CRIC) study participants (n = 3939) with the highest and lowest rates of decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate. The mean eGFR slope was 2.2 (1.4) and -5.1 (1.2) mL/min/1.73 m(2) in the stable kidney function group and the rapid progression group, respectively. CpG islands in NPHP4, IQSEC1 and TCF3 were hypermethylated to a larger extent in subjects with stable kidney function (P-values of 7.8E-05 to 9.5E-05). These genes are involved in pathways known to promote the epithelial to mesenchymal transition and renal fibrosis. Other CKD-related genes that were differentially methylated are NOS3, NFKBIL2, CLU, NFKBIB, TGFB3 and TGFBI, which are involved in oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways (P-values of 4.5E-03 to 0.046). Pathway analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed that gene networks related to cell signaling, carbohydrate metabolism and human behavior are epigenetically regulated in CKD. Epigenetic modifications may be important in determining the rate of loss of kidney function in patients with established CKD.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 02/2014; · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early detection and multi-modality curative treatment for pancreatic cancer remain unsatisfactory due to the insufficient understanding of the mechanisms underlying tumor progression. Epigenetic events, including aberrant methylation of tumor suppressor gene promoter regions, may contribute to tumorigenesis involving both the exocrine and endocrine pancreas. Methylation changes of specific gene promoter regions were examined in 48 resected neoplasms of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas, which were obtained as paraffin-embedded tissue samples. The pancreatic neoplasms included acinar cell carcinoma (n=12), adenocarcinoma (n=18), and islet cell tumors (n=18). DNA methylation was determined with a nested methylation-specific PCR (MSP) technique incorporating an initial bisulfite modification of tumor DNA for the promoter regions associated with 14 tumor suppressor genes. In decreasing order, the 6 most frequently methylated genes were: APC 50%, BRCA1 46%, p16INK4a 35%, p15INK4b 35%, RARβ 35%, and p73 33%. Overall, 94% of the tumors had methylation of at least one gene, and methylation of two or more genes was present in 69% of pancreatic tumors. Pancreatic adenocarcinomas had patterns of gene methylation that differed from pancreatic endocrine tumors. These differences were most notable for the APC and hMLH1 genes.
    Discovery medicine 02/2014; 17(92):67-73. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. Novel diagnostic biomarkers may augment both existing NSCLC screening methods as well as molecular diagnostic tests of surgical specimens to more accurately stratify and stage candidates for adjuvant chemotherapy. Hypermethylation of CpG islands is a common and important alteration in the transition from normal tissue to cancer. Following previously validated methods for the discovery of cancer-specific hypermethylation changes we treated 8 NSCLC cell lines with the hypomethylating agent deoxyazacitidine or trichostatin A. We validated the findings using a large publically available database and two independent cohorts of primary samples. We identified >300 candidate genes. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and employing extensive filtering to refine our candidate genes for the greatest ability to distinguish tumor from normal, we define a three-gene panel, CDO1, HOXA9, and TAC1, which we subsequently validate in two independent cohorts of primary NSCLC samples. This 3-gene panel is 100% specific, showing no methylation in 75 TCGA normal and 7 primary normal samples and is 83-99% sensitive for NSCLC depending on the cohort. This degree of sensitivity and specificity may be of high value to diagnose the earliest stages of NSCLC. Addition of this 3-gene panel to other previously validated methylation biomarkers holds great promise in both early diagnosis and molecular staging of NSCLC.
    Clinical Cancer Research 01/2014; · 8.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: "Rush to surgery" among patients with worse symptoms, delays related to morbidity, and inclusion of patients with advanced disease in study populationshave produced a mixed picture of importance of time to treatment to survival of non-small cell lung cancer. Our objective was to assess the contribution of diagnosis to first surgery interval to survival among patients diagnosed in the community with early stage non-small cell lung cancer. Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins early stage lung cancer patients (N=174) diagnosed and treated from 2003 to 2009 and followed through 2011made up a prospective study of overall survival. Diagnosis to first surgery interval was examined overall; as two segments: referral interval and treatment interval; as short and longer intervals; and as a continuous variable. The majority of patients were older than 65 years (61%) and female (55%). The average mean referral and treatment delays were 61.2 and 5.9 days respectively. Cox method hazard analysis revealed older age (years) at diagnosis (HR=1.02 , 95% CI: 1.00-1.05), stage IIB (HR=2.17, 95% CI:1.12-4.21), large, being greater than 4 cm, (HR=3.68, 95%CI:1.05-12.93) or unknown tumor size (HR=4.45, 95% CI:1.21-16.38), and weeks from diagnosis to first surgery interval (HR=1.04, 95% CI: 1.00-1.09) predicted worse overall survival. The threshold period of less than 42 days from diagnosis to surgery did not reach statistical significance. Patients appear to benefit from rapid reduction of tumor burden with surgery. Reasons for delay were not available. Nevertheless, referral delay experienced in the community is unduly long. In addition to patient choices, an unconscious patient or physician bias that lung cancer is untreatable or an inevitable consequence of smoking may be operating and needs further investigation.
    The American journal of medicine 01/2014; · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Head and neck cancers (HNCs) represent a significant and ever-growing burden to the modern society, mainly due to the lack of early diagnostic methods. A significant number of HNCs is often associated with drinking, smoking, chewing beetle nut, and human papilloma virus (HPV) infections. We have analyzed DNA methylation patterns in tumor and normal tissue samples collected from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients who were smokers. We have identified novel methylation sites in the promoter of the mediator complex subunit 15 (MED15/PCQAP) gene (encoing a co-factor important for regulation of transcription initiation for promoters of many genes), hypermethylated specifically in tumor cells. Two clusters of CpG dinucleotides methylated in tumors, but not in normal tissue from the same patients, were identified. These CpG methylation events in saliva samples were further validated in a separate cohort of HNSCC patients (who developed cancer due to smoking or HPV infections) and healthy controls using methylation-specific PCR (MSP). We used saliva as a biological medium because of its non-invasive nature, close proximity to the tumors, easiness and it is an economically viable option for large-scale screening studies. The methylation levels for the two identified CpG clusters were significantly different between the saliva samples collected from healthy controls and HNSCC individuals (Welch's t-test returning P < 0.05 and Mann-Whitney test P < 0.01 for both). The developed MSP assays also provided a good discriminative ability with AUC values of 0.70 (P < 0.01) and 0.63 (P < 0.05). The identified novel CpG methylation sites may serve as potential non-invasive biomarkers for detecting HNSCC.
    Biomarker insights 01/2014; 9:53-60.
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    ABSTRACT: Novel insights in the biology of cancer have switched the paradigm of a "one-size-fits-all" cancer treatment to an individualized biology-driven treatment approach. In recent years, a diversity of biomarkers and targeted therapies has been discovered. Although these examples accentuate the promise of personalized cancer treatment, for most cancers and cancer subgroups no biomarkers and effective targeted therapy are available. The great majority of patients still receive unselected standard therapies with no use of their individual molecular characteristics. Better knowledge about the underlying tumor biology will lead the way toward personalized cancer treatment. In this review, we summarize the evidence for a promising cancer biomarker: checkpoint with forkhead and ring finger domains (CHFR). CHFR is a mitotic checkpoint and tumor suppressor gene, which is inactivated in a diverse group of solid malignancies, mostly by promoter CpG island methylation. CHFR inactivation has shown to be an indicator of poor prognosis and sensitivity to taxane-based chemotherapy. Here we summarize the current knowledge of altered CHFR expression in cancer, the impact on tumor biology and implications for personalized cancer treatment.
    CANCER AND METASTASIS REVIEW 12/2013; · 9.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

44k Citations
3,048.99 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1989–2014
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • • Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2013
    • Nankai University
      T’ien-ching-shih, Tianjin Shi, China
  • 2010–2013
    • Chinese PLA General Hospital (301 Hospital)
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2002–2013
    • Maastricht University
      • • Pathologie
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      Maestricht, Limburg, Netherlands
  • 1995–2013
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      • • Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center
      • • Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
      Baltimore, MD, United States
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2012
    • 307 Hospital of the Chinese People's Liberation Army
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2009–2011
    • Maastricht Universitair Medisch Centrum
      Maestricht, Limburg, Netherlands
    • Medical University of South Carolina
      • Hollings Cancer Center
      Charleston, SC, United States
  • 2008–2011
    • University Hospital RWTH Aachen
      Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • Oregon Health and Science University
      • Division of Hematology & Medical Oncology
      Portland, OR, United States
  • 2007
    • Centre for Cancer Biology
      Tarndarnya, South Australia, Australia
  • 2006
    • Vanderbilt University
      • Department of Neurological Surgery
      Nashville, MI, United States
  • 2004
    • Louisiana State University
      Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States
    • Tokyo Medical and Dental University
      • Department of Molecular Oncology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2002–2004
    • Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas
      • Molecular Pathology Programme
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2003
    • Instituto de Salud Carlos III
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 1998–2003
    • Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute
      • Respiratory Immunology and Asthma Program
      Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States
  • 2001
    • Fox Chase Cancer Center
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Sarcoma Oncology Center
      Santa Monica, California, United States
  • 1999
    • Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
    • Medical College of Wisconsin
      • Department of Surgery
      Milwaukee, WI, United States