[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is a severe invasive infection characterized by the sudden onset of shock, multi-organ failure, and high mortality. In Japan, appropriate notification measures based on the Infectious Disease Control law are mandatory for cases of STSS caused by β-haemolytic streptococcus. STSS is mainly caused by group A streptococcus (GAS). Although an average of 60–70 cases of GAS-induced STSS are reported annually, 143 cases were recorded in 2011. To determine the reason behind this marked increase, we characterized the emm genotype of 249 GAS isolates from STSS patients in Japan from 2010 to 2012 and performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The predominant genotype was found to be emm1, followed by emm89, emm12, emm28, emm3, and emm90. These six genotypes constituted more than 90% of the STSS isolates. The number of emm1, emm89, emm12, and emm28 isolates increased concomitantly with the increase in the total number of STSS cases. In particular, the number of mefA-positive emm1 isolates has escalated since 2011. Thus, the increase in the incidence of STSS can be attributed to an increase in the number of cases associated with specific genotypes.
Epidemiology and Infection 03/2014; 143(4):1-9. DOI:10.1017/S0950268814001265 · 2.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Group G Streptococcus strains isolated from patients with severe invasive infections in the period 2002-2008 were surveyed and their prevalence compared with that observed in the period 1995-2001 in Japan. Strains with genotypes stg485, stg6792, stc36, stg6, and stg652 were isolated in both periods, whereas various new genotypes appeared in 2002-2008 and some genotypes found in 1995-2001 were not found subsequently, thus indicating a change in the prevalent genotyped strains causing severe invasive streptococcal infections.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As part of an epidemiological study on legionellosis, we attempted to isolate Legionella spp. from hot spring water samples, and were able to isolate Legionella micdadei from 3 (5.5%) of 55 samples. All of these isolates were able to grow within Acanthamoeba sp., suggesting that the isolates will be pathogens. We also confirmed that the K-2 strain from hot spring water grew in guinea pig monocytes. Sensitivity tests using 10 drugs showed that the isolates were most sensitive to imipenem, with the MIC90 of 0.032 microg/ml, were least sensitive to minocycline, with the MIC90 of 4 microg/ml, and were not sensitive to low amounts of other drugs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thirteen Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis isolates possessing Lancefield's group A antigen recovered from people in Japan during 2000 to 2004 were genotyped. The results indicate that a conserved clone has persisted and spread within Japan, and two different emm types were observed within members of this clone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We surveyed emm genotypes of group A streptococcus (GAS) isolates from patients with severe invasive streptococcal infections during 2001-2005 and compared their prevalence with that of the preceding 5 years. Genotype emm1 remained dominant throughout 2001 to 2005, but the frequency rate of this type decreased compared with the earlier period. Various other emm types have appeared in recent years indicating alterations in the prevalent strains causing severe invasive streptococcal infections. The cover of the new 26-valent GAS vaccine fell from 93.5% for genotypes of isolates from 1996-2000 to 81.8% in 2001-2005.
Epidemiology and Infection 11/2007; 135(7):1227-9. DOI:10.1017/S0950268807007984 · 2.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, we have performed T typing of Streptococcus pyogenes strains isolated from patients with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) in Japan, and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin (SPE) typing for epidemiological examination. In this study, we conducted a drug sensitivity test using these strains, and investigated the results of gene analysis by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of S. pyogenes strains derived from patients with STSS, the patient's family, and patients other than those with STSS. To clarify the relationship between the host and bacterial factors, we investigated the association between clinical symptoms and T typing of the isolated strains/production of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin. There were no strains resistant to beta-lactams, and only 1 strain was resistant to multiple agents other than beta-lactams. The PFGE pattern of T1 type strains was classified into 2 ; the pattern was consistent between the strains derived from patients with STSS and those derived from the patient's family. The PFGE pattern of T3 type strains was classified into 5 (IV) ; Pattern I, which was most frequently observed, was detected in both the strains derived from patients with STSS/non-STSS. However, Patterns II and III were detected only in the strains derived from patients with non-STSS. Patterns IV and V were detected only in the strains derived from patients with STSS. When examining the association between clinical symptoms and bacterial factors, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) was associated with T1-SPE B-producing strains, and pharyngitis was associated with T3-SPE A-producing strains. In the future, the relationship between the host and bacterial factors should be further investigated.
Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases 05/2005; 79(4):260-9. DOI:10.11150/kansenshogakuzasshi1970.79.260
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanism of high level tetracycline resistance in T serotypes 4 and 11 group A streptococcal (GAS) isolates was examined in 61 tetracycline-resistant isolates in Japan. PCR and sequencing analyses revealed that the T serotype/emm genotype, T4/4 isolates carried tet(O) genes, which were genetically homogenous. The T11/11 and T11/89 isolates carried different subtypes of tet(M) genes, which were present on transposons Tn916 and Tn1545, respectively. In addition, these T11 isolates may have obtained the tet(M) gene after the 1990s, because resistance to tetracycline in T11 isolates was rarely found before then. These results strongly suggested that the T4 and T11 GAS isolates acquired tetracycline-resistance via different molecular mechanisms.
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 03/2005; 25(2):142-7. DOI:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2004.09.014 · 4.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed antimicrobial susceptibility against 211 Streptococcus pyogenes strains isolated from patients with severe invasive group A streptococcal infections. Overall, 3.8, 1.4, 1.4, and 0.5% of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, telithromycin, and ciprofloxacin, respectively, and 10.4% had intermediate resistance to ciprofloxacin. All isolates were susceptible to ampicillin and cefotaxime.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNase B is a major nuclease and a possible virulence factor in Streptococcus pyogenes. The allelic diversity of streptococcal DNase B (sdaB) gene was investigated in 83 strains with 14 emm genotypes. Of the 15 alleles identified, 11 alleles carried only synonymous nucleotide substitutions. On the other hand, 4 alleles had a non-synonymous substitution other than synonymous substitutions, resulting in the substitution of a single amino acid. The distribution of each allele was generally emm genotype-specific. Only sdaB7 was found in both emm2 and emm4. The promoter region was highly conserved and DNase B protein was similarly expressed in all alleles.
Microbiology and Immunology 02/2005; 49(10):925-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1348-0421.2005.tb03684.x · 1.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two nosocomial outbreaks of sepsis caused by Serratia marcescens, which occurred in Tokyo were the following cases. CASE A: In July 1999, 10 inpatients admitted to the third floor ward of the General Hospital A, developed sudden onset of high fever, coagulation disorders (disseminated intravascular coagulation), and acute renal failure, of which 5 died. Twenty-one strains of Serratia marcescens were isolated from the inpatient's blood and urine, nurse fingers and environmental samples from floor and cooling tower. Serratia infection was strongly suspected as the cause of sepsis. These cases were defined as "inpatients who developed fever 38 degrees C or more during July 26 to 29 and from whom S. marcescens was isolated by blood culture". Ten isolates were detected from the blood. In order to investigate the background of S. marcescens isolation in the hospital and to compare molecular and biochemical characteristics of S. marcescens, cultures were attempted from samples of other inpatients and staffs and hospital environment. Those were classified into 9 groups by various different typings: biotyping with Api Rapid 20; susceptibility typing of antimicrobial agents tested; pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing of SpeI- or Xba I-restricted chromosome. All 10 isolates causing sepsis were found to be in the same group. CASE B: In January 2002, 24 inpatients, admitted to Neurosurgical Hospital B, developed sudden onset of high fever, of which 7 died. S. marcescens was isolated from a towel, environmental samples and inpatients. These cases were defined as "inpatients who developed fever of 38.5 degrees C and S. marcescens isolated by blood culture". Twelve strains were isolated from the blood samples in 12 cases. In order to investigate the background of S. marcescens isolation in the hospital, cultures were attempted from other inpatient's urine and environmental samples from medical tape, Tshake and a towel. These isolates were classified into 3 groups by the previous typings; biotyping with Api Rapid 20; susceptibility typing of antimicrobial agents tested; and PFGE typing. All 12 isolates in 12 cases were found to be in the same group. These cases of 2 nosocomial outbreaks of sepsis were defined as "in-patient who developed high fever and S. marcescens isolated by blood culture". However in both cases transmission routes of Serratia infection remain unknown by field investigation.
Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases 05/2004; 78(4):295-304. DOI:10.11150/kansenshogakuzasshi1970.78.295
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate clinical and microbiological features of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), clinical, epidemiological, and bacteriological data obtained from 250 patients between 1992 and 2001 were analyzed. Among these 250 cases, 16 cases were excluded from the study because the causative microorganism were not Streptococcus pyogenes. 234 strains of S. pyogenes obtained from the aforementioned 234 cases were tested for T-type by a serological method, and for streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin (SPE) by in vitro productivity of the toxin as well as molecular genetic methods. The number of patients was 141 (56.4%) for males, and 107 (42.8%) for females. The highest frequency of STSS was observed in those patients in their sixties in both sexes. The overall mortality rate was 43.2%. The mortality rate for male was 36.9%, and 52.3% for female. Bacteriological studies revealed that most common T types were T1 and T3. These strains consisted 54.3% of the strains collected. Among strains of T1 type, 98.8% possessed genes of spe A, and 46.1% were shown to produce SPE A in vitro. Among strains of T3 type, 82.9% possessed spe A gene, and all of these strains were shown to produce the toxin in vitro. It is concluded that certain strains of S. pyogenes, such as those with T1, or T3 type, and those with spe A gene or in vitro production of SPE A, are the most frequent cause of STSS. Although infections caused by such bacteria are quite common, STSS rarely occurs in most such patients. Additional factors, such as host factors, may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of STSS.
Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases 02/2004; 78(1):10-7. DOI:10.11150/kansenshogakuzasshi1970.78.10
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We surveyed T serotypes and emm genotypes of Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome (TSLS) patients. T1 (emm1) remained dominant through 1992 to 2000, but the dominant T3 (emm3.1) strains from 1992 to 1995 disappeared during 1996-2000. Strains of several emm genotypes emerged during 1996-2000, indicating alterations in the prevalent strains causing TSLS.
Epidemiology and Infection 07/2003; 130(3):569-72. · 2.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the 20-year period between 1979-1998, a total of 4,176 strains of hemolytic streptococci have been isolated from 20,118 healthy primary school children and little children in Tokyo Metropolitan (Tokubetsuku, Tama and Tosho). Culture of throat swabs every November and the following February during the 20-year period were made and serological grouping and typing for isolates were done by T agglutination method. The results were as follows. 1) Serological group of hemolytic streptococci isolated from children were 3,188 strains (76.3%) for isolates of group A out of total strains of 4,176, 569 strains (13.6%) for isolates group B, 63 strains (1.5%) for isolates of group C and 356 strains (8.5%) for isolates of group G. 2) The most dominant was T12 during 1979-1998, and other relatively frequent serotypes were T28, T1, T4, T6 in that order. These ranks of and the main epidemic serotypes showed a similar trend in the 3 areas. 3) The isolation rates of group A streptococci were 15.9% in Tokubetsuku, 17.1% in Tama and 14.9% in Tosho. The average of 3 areas were 15.8%. 4) The epidemic cases seemed to be caused by group A streptococci were 20 cases, their isolated serotype were 7 cases by T28, 5 cases by T12, 4 cases by T6, 2 cases by T4, each 1 case by T1 and T25. 5) A total of 2,927 strains of group A streptococci were examined for drug sensitivity. All strains were sensitive to beta-lactam group of antibiotics (benzylpenicillin and cephaloridine). Resistant (MIC > or = 25 micrograms/ml) to TC, CP and EM etc. were 740 strains (25.3%) in this study. The incidence of resistant strains were to TC 493 strains (66.6%) out of 740 strains, 81 strains (10.9%) for TC.CP, 72 strains (9.7%) for EM and 66 strains (8.9%) for TC.CP.EM.OL.LCM. TC resistant strains have not varied much through the whole period, but CP and EM resistant strains were very variable by year. Many resistant strains to TC were T4, to EM and multiple drug resistant were T12. 6) The rates of isolates of the same type of group A streptococci in school child individual during for the tests taken twice a year were 12.3%, indicating group A streptococci, according to the duration of the carrier state, seems to be a short period.
Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases 05/2001; 75(4):314-25. DOI:10.11150/kansenshogakuzasshi1970.75.314
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibrinogen binding activities in culture supernates of group A streptococci were detected by dot blot assay using horseradish peroxidase conjugated human fibrinogen. Various intensities in colored dots were seen in 63 of 70 strains isolated from pharyngitis patients in 1992. Strong binding activities in all of 16 strains were partially sensitive to trypsin digestion. The binding activities in the concentrated culture supernate of M-type 4 strain SS91 were analysed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Intense colored bands and faint ones were seen in the position corresponding to 89K, 66K, 59K, 49K, 42KDa and 77K, 53K, 51K, 44KDa, respectively. Only one band at 42KDa remained after trypsin digestion.
Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases 06/1994; 68(5):686-90. DOI:10.11150/kansenshogakuzasshi1970.68.686
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As an epidemiological survey for streptococcal infection, antibiotic sensitivity test and T-serotyping were made on 2,735 strains of group A hemolytic streptococci isolated from clinical specimens and healthy pupils between 1986 through 1988 in Japan. Most dominant serotype in clinical isolates was T-4 (26.8%) and it was followed T-12 (25.5%), T-1 (11.2%) and T-3 (8.5%), on the other hand, dominant serotypes of the isolates from healthy pupils were T-12 (30.4%), T-1 (19.3%), T-4 (15.3%) and T-28 (13.4%). All of the isolates tested were sensitive to the beta-lactam antibiotics which was found as same as consequence of the previous surveys. However 36.4% to tetracycline, 2.1% to chloramphenicol and 1.4% to oleandomycin of the clinical isolates were resistant. Similarly, 16.2% to tetracycline, 2.3% to chloramphenicol 1.7% to oleandomycin, of the isolates from healthy pupils were resistant. Multi-resistant strains were found 1.4% in clinical isolates and 1.7% in the isolates from healthy pupils. Relation between distribution of multiresistant strain and T-serotypes was found. In T-12, multiresistant strains were encountered at a relatively high rate compared with other serotypes, representing 3.5% in clinical isolates and 5.6% in the isolates from healthy pupils. However this tendency was decreased than previous surveys, while incidence of tetracycline resistant strains in T-4 remained at high level, representing about 94% as same as in the past.
Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases 09/1991; 65(8):919-27. DOI:10.11150/kansenshogakuzasshi1970.65.919