ABSTRACT: ObjectiveTo evaluate the ability of three indices derived from the airway pressure curve for titrating positive end-expiratory pressure
(PEEP) to minimize mechanical stress while improving lung aeration assessed by computed tomography (CT).
DesignProspective, experimental study.
SettingUniversity research facilities.
InterventionsAnimals were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated with tidal volume of 7mlkg−1. In non-injured lungs (n=6), PEEP was set at 16cmH2O and stepwise decreased until zero. Acute lung injury was then induced either with oleic acid (n=6) or surfactant depletion (n=6). A recruitment maneuver was performed, the PEEP set at 26cmH2O and decreased stepwise until zero. CT scans were obtained at end-expiratory and end-inspiratory pauses. The elastance of
the respiratory system (Ers), the stress index and the percentage of volume-dependent elastance (%E
2) were estimated.
Measurements and main resultsIn non-injured and injured lungs, the PEEP at which Ers was lowest (8–4 and 16–12cmH2O, respectively) corresponded to the best compromise between recruitment/hyperinflation. In non-injured lungs, stress index
2 correlated with tidal recruitment and hyperinflation. In injured lungs, stress index and %E
2 suggested overdistension at all PEEP levels, whereas the CT scans evidenced tidal recruitment and hyperinflation simultaneously.
ConclusionDuring ventilation with low tidal volumes, Ers seems to be useful for guiding PEEP titration in non-injured and injured lungs,
while stress index and %E
2 are useful in non-injured lungs only. Our results suggest that Ers can be superior to the stress index and %E
2 to guide PEEP titration in focal loss of lung aeration.
Intensive Care Medicine 04/2012; 34(12):2291-2299. · 5.40 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: We studied the occurrence of intraoperative tidal alveolar recruitment/derecruitment, exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), and lung dysfunction in patients with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).
We performed a prospective observational physiological study at a university hospital. Respiratory mechanics, shunt, and eNO were assessed in moderate COPD patients undergoing on-pump (n = 12) and off-pump (n = 8) CABG and on-pump controls (n = 8) before sternotomy (baseline), after sternotomy and before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), and following CPB before and after chest closure. Respiratory system resistance (R (rs)), elastance (E (rs)), and stress index (to quantify tidal recruitment) were estimated using regression analysis. eNO was measured with chemiluminescence.
Mechanical evidence of tidal recruitment/derecruitment (stress index <1.0) was observed in all patients, with stress index <0.8 in 29% of measurements. Rrs in on-pump COPD was larger than in controls (p < 0.05). Ers increased in controls from baseline to end of surgery (19.4 ± 5.5 to 27.0 ± 8.5 ml cm H(2)O(-1), p < 0.01), associated with increased shunt (p < 0.05). Neither Ers nor shunt increased significantly in the COPD on-pump group. eNO was comparable in the control (11.7 ± 7.0 ppb) and COPD on-pump (9.9 ± 6.8 ppb) groups at baseline, and decreased similarly by 29% at end of surgery(p < 0.05). Changes in eNO were not correlated to changes in lung function.
Tidal recruitment/derecruitment occurs frequently during CABG and represents a risk for ventilator-associated lung injury. eNO changes are consistent with small airway injury, including that from tidal recruitment injury. However, those changes are not correlated with respiratory dysfunction. Controls have higher susceptibility to develop complete lung derecruitment.
Beiträge zur Klinik der Tuberkulose 09/2011; 189(6):499-509. · 1.90 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Lung mechanics, histology, oxygenation and type-III procollagen (PCIII) mRNA were studied aiming to evaluate the need to readjust ventilatory pattern when going from two- to one-lung ventilation (OLV). Wistar rats were assigned to three groups: the left lung was not ventilated while the right lung received: (1) tidal volume (V(T))=5 ml/kg and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)=2 cm H(2)O (V5P2), (2) V(T)=10 ml/kg and PEEP=2 cm H(2)O (V10P2), and (3) V(T)=5 ml/kg and PEEP=5 cm H(2)O (V5P5). At 1-h ventilation, V5P2 showed hypoxemia, alveolar collapse and impaired lung function. Higher PEEP minimized these changes and prevented hypoxemia. Although high V(T) prevented hypoxemia and maintained a higher specific compliance than V5P2, a morphologically inhomogeneous parenchyma and higher PCIII expression resulted. In conclusion, the association of low V(T) and an adequate PEEP level could be useful to maintain arterial oxygenation without inducing a possible inflammatory/remodeling response.
Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology 08/2011; 179(2-3):198-204. · 2.24 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Cyanobacterial blooms that generate microcystins (MCYSTs) are increasingly recognized as an important health problem in aquatic ecosystems. We have previously reported the impairment of pulmonary structure and function by microcystin-LR (MCYST-LR) exposure as well as the pulmonary improvement by intraperitoneally injected (i.p.) LASSBio 596. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the usefulness of LASSBio 596 per os on the treatment of pulmonary and hepatic injuries induced by MCYST-LR. Swiss mice received an intraperitoneal injection of 40 μl of saline (CTRL) or a sub-lethal dose of MCYST-LR (40 μg/kg). After 6 h the animals received either saline (TOX and CTRL groups) or LASSBio 596 (50 mg/kg, LASS group) by gavage. Eight hours after the first instillation, lung impedance (static elastance, elastic component of viscoelasticity and resistive, viscoelastic and total pressures) was determined by the end-inflation occlusion method. Left lung and liver were prepared for histology. In lung and hepatic homogenates MCYST-LR, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were determined by ELISA. LASSBio 596 per os (LASS mice) kept all lung mechanical parameters, polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells, pro-inflammatory mediators, and alveolar collapse similar to control mice (CTRL), whereas in TOX these findings were higher than CTRL. Likewise, liver structural deterioration (hepatocytes inflammation, necrosis and steatosis) and inflammatory process (high levels of pro-inflammatory mediators) were less evident in the LASS than TOX group. LASS and CTRL did not differ in any parameters studied. In conclusion, orally administered LASSBio 596 prevented lung and hepatic inflammation and completely blocked pulmonary functional and morphological changes induced by MCYST-LR.
Toxicon 06/2011; 58(2):195-201. · 2.51 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To explore whether 1) conventional pressure support ventilation improves lung function and attenuates the pulmonary inflammatory response compared to pressure-controlled ventilation and 2) random variation of pressure support levels (noisy pressure support ventilation) adds further beneficial effects to pressure support ventilation.
Three-arm, randomized, experimental study.
University hospital research facility.
Twenty-four juvenile pigs.
Acute lung injury was induced by surfactant depletion. Animals were randomly assigned to 6 hrs of mechanical ventilation (n = 8 per group) with either 1) pressure-controlled ventilation, 2) pressure support ventilation, or 3) noisy pressure support ventilation. During noisy pressure support ventilation, the pressure support varied randomly, with values following a normal distribution. In all groups, the driving pressures were set to achieve a mean tidal volume of 6 mL/kg. At the end of experiments, animals were killed and lungs extracted for histologic and biochemical analysis.
Respiratory, gas-exchange, and hemodynamics variables were assessed hourly. The diffuse alveolar damage and the inflammatory response of lungs were quantified. Pressure support ventilation and noisy pressure support ventilation improved gas exchange and were associated with reduced histologic damage and interleukin-6 concentrations in lung tissue compared to pressure-controlled ventilation. Noisy pressure support ventilation further improved gas exchange and decreased the inspiratory effort while reducing alveolar edema and inflammatory infiltration compared to pressure support ventilation.
In this model of acute lung injury, pressure support ventilation and noisy pressure support ventilation attenuated pulmonary inflammatory response and improved gas exchange as compared to pressure-controlled ventilation. Noisy pressure support ventilation further improved gas exchange, reduced the inspiratory effort, and attenuated alveolar edema and inflammatory infiltration as compared to conventional pressure support ventilation.
Critical care medicine 01/2011; 39(4):746-55. · 6.37 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: There is an increasing interest in biphasic positive airway pressure with spontaneous breathing (BIPAP+SBmean), which is a combination of time-cycled controlled breaths at two levels of continuous positive airway pressure (BIPAP+SBcontrolled) and non-assisted spontaneous breathing (BIPAP+SBspont), in the early phase of acute lung injury (ALI). However, pressure support ventilation (PSV) remains the most commonly used mode of assisted ventilation. To date, the effects of BIPAP+SBmean and PSV on regional lung aeration and ventilation during ALI are only poorly defined.
In 10 anesthetized juvenile pigs, ALI was induced by surfactant depletion. BIPAP+SBmean and PSV were performed in a random sequence (1 h each) at comparable mean airway pressures and minute volumes. Gas exchange, hemodynamics, and inspiratory effort were determined and dynamic computed tomography scans obtained. Aeration and ventilation were calculated in four zones along the ventral-dorsal axis at lung apex, hilum and base.
Compared to PSV, BIPAP+SBmean resulted in: 1) lower mean tidal volume, comparable oxygenation and hemodynamics, and increased PaCO2 and inspiratory effort; 2) less nonaerated areas at end-expiration; 3) decreased tidal hyperaeration and re-aeration; 4) similar distributions of ventilation. During BIPAP+SBmean: i) BIPAP+SBspont had lower tidal volumes and higher rates than BIPAP+SBcontrolled; ii) BIPAP+SBspont and BIPAP+SBcontrolled had similar distributions of ventilation and aeration; iii) BIPAP+SBcontrolled resulted in increased tidal re-aeration and hyperareation, compared to PSV. BIPAP+SBspont showed an opposite pattern.
In this model of ALI, the reduction of tidal re-aeration and hyperaeration during BIPAP+SBmean compared to PSV is not due to decreased nonaerated areas at end-expiration or different distribution of ventilation, but to lower tidal volumes during BIPAP+SBspont. The ratio between spontaneous to controlled breaths seems to play a pivotal role in reducing tidal re-aeration and hyperaeration during BIPAP+SBmean.
Critical care (London, England) 03/2010; 14(2):R34. · 4.61 Impact Factor
Critical care medicine 01/2010; 38(1):347-8; author reply 348. · 6.37 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Spontaneous breathing (SB) activity may improve gas exchange during mechanical ventilation mainly by the recruitment of previously collapsed regions. Pressure support ventilation (PSV) and biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP) are frequently used modes of SB, but little is known about the mechanisms of improvement of lung function during these modes of assisted mechanical ventilation. We evaluated the mechanisms behind the improvement of gas exchange with PSV and BIPAP.
Five pigs (25-29.3 kg) were mechanically ventilated in supine position, and acute lung injury (ALI) was induced by surfactant depletion. After stabilization, BIPAP was initiated with lower continuous positive airway pressure equal to 5 cm H2O and the higher continuous positive airway pressure titrated to achieve a tidal volume between 6 and 8 mL/kg. The depth of anesthesia was reduced, and when SB represented > or = 20% of total minute ventilation, PSV and BIPAP + SB were each performed for 1 h (random sequence). Whole chest helical computed tomography was performed during end-expiratory pauses and functional variables were obtained. Pulmonary blood flow (PBF) was marked with IV administered fluorescent microspheres, and spatial cluster analysis was used to determine the effects of each ventilatory mode on the distribution of PBF.
ALI led to impairment of lung function and increase of poorly and nonaerated areas in dependent lung regions (P < 0.05). PSV and BIPAP + SB similarly improved oxygenation and reduced venous admixture compared with controlled mechanical ventilation (P < 0.05). Despite that, a significant increase of nonaerated areas in dependent regions with a concomitant decrease of normally aerated areas was observed during SB. In five of six lung clusters, redistribution of PBF from dependent to nondependent, better aerated lung regions were observed during PSV and BIPAP + SB.
In this model of ALI, the improvements of oxygenation and venous admixture obtained during assisted mechanical ventilation with PSV and BIPAP + SB were explained by the redistribution of PBF toward nondependent lung regions rather than recruitment of dependent zones.
Anesthesia and analgesia 09/2009; 109(3):856-65. · 3.08 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Noisy ventilation with variable Vt may improve respiratory function in acute lung injury.
To determine the impact of noisy ventilation on respiratory function and its biological effects on lung parenchyma compared with conventional protective mechanical ventilation strategies.
In a porcine surfactant depletion model of lung injury, we randomly combined noisy ventilation with the ARDS Network protocol or the open lung approach (n = 9 per group).
Respiratory mechanics, gas exchange, and distribution of pulmonary blood flow were measured at intervals over a 6-hour period. Postmortem, lung tissue was analyzed to determine histological damage, mechanical stress, and inflammation. We found that, at comparable minute ventilation, noisy ventilation (1) improved arterial oxygenation and reduced mean inspiratory peak airway pressure and elastance of the respiratory system compared with the ARDS Network protocol and the open lung approach, (2) redistributed pulmonary blood flow to caudal zones compared with the ARDS Network protocol and to peripheral ones compared with the open lung approach, (3) reduced histological damage in comparison to both protective ventilation strategies, and (4) did not increase lung inflammation or mechanical stress.
Noisy ventilation with variable Vt and fixed respiratory frequency improves respiratory function and reduces histological damage compared with standard protective ventilation strategies.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 02/2009; 179(8):684-93. · 11.08 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To describe and evaluate the effects of the new noisy pressure support ventilation (noisy PSV) on lung physiologic variables.
Crossover design with four modes of mechanical ventilation.
Experimental research facility of a university hospital.
A total of 12 pigs weighing 25.0-36.5 kg.
Animals were anesthetized, the trachea was intubated, and lungs were ventilated with a mechanical ventilator (volume-controlled mode). Acute lung injury was then induced by surfactant depletion. Biphasic intermittent airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation (BIPAP/APRV) was initiated, and anesthesia depth was decreased to allow spontaneous breathing. After that, each animal was ventilated with four different modes of assisted mechanical ventilation (1 hr each, Latin squares sequence): 1) PSV, 2) PSV combined with intermittent sighs (PSV + Sighs), 3) BIPAP/APRV + spontaneous breathing, and 4) noisy PSV with random variation of pressure support (normal distribution). The mean level of pressure support was set identical in all PSV forms.
We found that noisy PSV increased tidal volume variability compared with PSV and PSV + Sighs (19% vs. 5% and 7%, respectively, p < .05) independently from the inspiratory effort; improved oxygenation and reduced venous admixture but did not affect the amount of nonaerated lung tissue as compared with other assisted ventilation modes; reduced mean airway pressure at comparable minute ventilation; redistributed pulmonary blood flow toward nondependent lung regions similar to other PSV forms, whereas BIPAP/APRV + spontaneous breathing did not; and reduced the inspiratory effort and cardiac output in comparison with BIPAP/APRV + spontaneous breathing.
In the surfactant depletion model of acute lung injury, the new noisy PSV increased the variability of the respiratory pattern and improved oxygenation by a redistribution of perfusion toward the ventilated nondependent lung regions with simultaneous lower mean airway pressure, comparable minute ventilation, and no increase in the inspiratory effort or cardiac output.
Critical care medicine 03/2008; 36(3):818-27. · 6.37 Impact Factor