[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Efficient transmission of Plasmodium species between humans and Anopheles mosquitoes is a major contributor to the global burden of malaria. Gametocytogenesis, the process by which parasites switch from asexual replication within human erythrocytes to produce male and female gametocytes, is a critical step in malaria transmission and Plasmodium genetic diversity. Nothing is known about the pathways that regulate gametocytogenesis and only few of the current drugs that inhibit asexual replication are also capable of inhibiting gametocyte development and blocking malaria transmission. Here we provide genetic and pharmacological evidence indicating that the pathway for synthesis of phosphatidylcholine in Plasmodium falciparum membranes from host serine is essential for parasite gametocytogenesis and malaria transmission. Parasites lacking the phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase enzyme, which catalyzes the limiting step in this pathway, are severely altered in gametocyte development, are incapable of producing mature-stage gametocytes, and are not transmitted to mosquitoes. Chemical screening identified 11 inhibitors of phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase that block parasite intraerythrocytic asexual replication and gametocyte differentiation in the low micromolar range. Kinetic studies in vitro as well as functional complementation assays and lipid metabolic analyses in vivo on the most promising inhibitor NSC-158011 further demonstrated the specificity of inhibition. These studies set the stage for further optimization of NSC-158011 for development of a class of dual activity antimalarials to block both intraerythrocytic asexual replication and gametocytogenesis.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes respiratory tract infections in young children, and significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly, imunosuppressed and immunocompromised patients, and patients with chronic lung diseases. Recently, we reported the pulmonary surfactant phospholipid, palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG), inhibited RSV infection in vitro and in vivo, by blocking viral attachment to epithelial cells. Simultaneous application of POPG along with an RSV challenge to mice, markedly attenuated infection and associated inflammatory responses. Based on these findings, we expanded our studies to determine if POPG is effective for prophylaxis and post-infection treatment for RSV infection. In vitro application of POPG at concentrations of 0.2-1.0 mg/ml at 24hrs after RSV infection of HEp-2 cells, suppressed interleukin-8 production up to 80% and reduced viral plaque formation by 2-6 log units. In vivo, the turnover of POPG in mice is relatively rapid, making post-infection application impractical. Intranasal administration of POPG (0.8-3.0 mg), 45 min before RSV inoculation in mice, reduced viral infection by 1 log unit, suppressed inflammatory cell appearance in the lung, and suppressed virus elicited interferon-γ production. These findings demonstrate that POPG is effective for short-term protection of mice against subsequent RSV infection, and has potential for application in humans.
The Journal of Lipid Research 06/2013; · 4.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nuclear factor-kappa B (NFkB) is a ubiquitous transcription factor that mediates pro-inflammatory responses required for host control of many microbial pathogens; on the other hand, NFkB has been implicated in the pathogenesis of other inflammatory and infectious diseases. Mice with genetic disruption of the p50 subunit of NFkB are more likely to succumb to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). However, the role of NFkB in host defense in humans is not fully understood. We sought to examine the role of NFkB activation in the immune response of human macrophages to MTB. Targeted pharmacologic inhibition of NFkB activation using BAY 11-7082 (BAY, an inhibitor of IkBa kinase) or an adenovirus construct with a dominant-negative IkBa significantly decreased the number of viable intracellular mycobacteria recovered from THP-1 macrophages four and eight days after infection. The results with BAY were confirmed in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and alveolar macrophages. NFkB inhibition was associated with increased macrophage apoptosis and autophagy, which are well-established killing mechanisms of intracellular MTB. Inhibition of the executioner protease caspase-3 or of the autophagic pathway significantly abrogated the effects of BAY. We conclude that NFkB inhibition decreases viability of intracellular MTB in human macrophages via induction of apoptosis and autophagy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is increasing interest in the application of nanotechnology to solve the difficult problem of therapeutic administration of pharmaceuticals. Nanodiscs, composed of a stable discoidal lipid bilayer encircled by an amphipathic membrane scaffold protein that is an engineered variant of the human Apo A-I constituent of high-density lipoproteins, have been a successful platform for providing a controlled lipid composition in particles that are especially useful for investigating membrane protein structure and function. In this communication, we demonstrate that nanodiscs are effective in suppressing respiratory syncytial viral (RSV) infection both in vitro and in vivo when self-assembled with the minor pulmonary surfactant phospholipid palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylglycerol (POPG). Preparations of nanodiscs containing POPG (nPOPG) antagonized interleukin-8 production from Beas2B epithelial cells challenged by RSV infection, with an IC50 of 19.3 μg/mL. In quantitative in vitro plaque assays, nPOPG reduced RSV infection by 93%. In vivo, nPOPG suppressed inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung, as well as IFN-γ production in response to RSV challenge. nPOPG also completely suppressed the histopathological changes in lung tissue elicited by RSV and reduced the amount of virus recovered from lung tissue by 96%. The turnover rate of nPOPG was estimated to have a halftime of 60-120 minutes (m), based upon quantification of the recovery of the human Apo A-I constituent. From these data, we conclude that nPOPG is a potent antagonist of RSV infection and its inflammatory sequelae both in vitro and in vivo.
International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2013; 8:1417-1427. · 3.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In yeast, a protein complex termed the ER-Mitochondria Encounter Structure (ERMES) tethers mitochondria to the endoplasmic reticulum. ERMES proteins are implicated in a variety of cellular functions including phospholipid synthesis, mitochondrial protein import, mitochondrial attachment to actin, polarized mitochondrial movement into daughter cells during division, and maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The mitochondrial-anchored Gem1 GTPase has been proposed to regulate ERMES functions. Here, we show that ERMES and Gem1 have no direct role in the transport of phosphatidylserine (PS) from the ER to mitochondria during the synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), as PS to PE conversion is not affected in ERMES or gem1 mutants. In addition, we report that mitochondrial inheritance defects in ERMES mutants are a secondary consequence of mitochondrial morphology defects, arguing against a primary role for ERMES in mitochondrial association with actin and mitochondrial movement. Finally, we show that ERMES complexes are long-lived, and do not depend on the presence of Gem1. Our findings suggest that the ERMES complex may have primarily a structural role in maintaining mitochondrial morphology.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human coronavirus strain 229E (HCoV-229E) commonly causes upper respiratory tract infections. However, lower respiratory tract infections can occur in some individuals, indicating that cells in the distal lung are susceptible to HCoV-229E. This study determined the virus susceptibility of primary cultures of human alveolar epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages (AMs). Fluorescent antibody staining indicated that HCoV-229E could readily infect AMs, but no evidence was found for infection in differentiated alveolar epithelial type II cells and only a very low level of infection in type II cells transitioning to the type I-like cell phenotype. However, a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE) was readily infected. The innate immune response of AMs to HCoV-229E infection was evaluated for cytokine production and interferon (IFN) gene expression. AMs secreted significant amounts of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES/CCL5) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (MIP-1β/CCL4) in response to HCoV-229E infection, but these cells exhibited no detectable increase in IFN-β or interleukin-29 in mRNA levels. AMs from smokers had reduced secretion of TNF-α compared with non-smokers in response to HCoV-229E infection. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) and SP-D are part of the innate immune system in the distal lung. Both surfactant proteins bound to HCoV-229E, and pre-treatment of HCoV-229E with SP-A or SP-D inhibited infection of 16HBE cells. In contrast, there was a modest reduction in infection in AMs by SP-A, but not by SP-D. In summary, AMs are an important target for HCoV-229E, and they can mount a pro-inflammatory innate immune response to infection.
Journal of General Virology 11/2011; 93(Pt 3):494-503. · 3.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 23-megabase genome of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of severe human malaria, contains ∼5300 genes, most of unknown function or lacking homologs in other organisms. Identification of these gene functions will help in the discovery of novel targets for the development of antimalarial drugs and vaccines. The P. falciparum genome is unusually A+T-rich, which hampers cloning and expressing these genes in heterologous systems for functional analysis. The large repertoire of genetic tools available for Saccharomyces cerevisiae makes this yeast an ideal system for large scale functional complementation analyses of parasite genes. Here, we report the construction of a cDNA library from P. knowlesi, which has a lower A+T content compared with P. falciparum. This library was applied in a yeast complementation assay to identify malaria genes involved in the decarboxylation of phosphatidylserine. Transformation of a psd1Δpsd2Δdpl1Δ yeast strain, defective in phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis, with the P. knowlesi library led to identification of a new parasite phosphatidylserine decarboxylase (PkPSD). Unlike phosphatidylserine decarboxylase enzymes from other eukaryotes that are tightly associated with membranes, the PkPSD enzyme expressed in yeast was equally distributed between membrane and soluble fractions. In vitro studies reveal that truncated forms of PkPSD are soluble and undergo auto-endoproteolytic maturation in a phosphatidylserine-dependent reaction that is inhibited by other anionic phospholipids. This study defines a new system for probing the function of Plasmodium genes by library-based genetic complementation and its usefulness in revealing new biochemical properties of encoded proteins.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2011; 287(1):222-32. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Influenza A virus (IAV) is a worldwide public health problem causing 500,000 deaths each year. Palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) is a minor component of pulmonary surfactant, which has recently been reported to exert potent regulatory functions upon the innate immune system. In this article, we demonstrate that POPG acts as a strong antiviral agent against IAV. POPG markedly attenuated IL-8 production and cell death induced by IAV in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells. The lipid also suppressed viral attachment to the plasma membrane and subsequent replication in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Two virus strains, H1N1-PR8-IAV and H3N2-IAV, bind to POPG with high affinity, but exhibit only low-affinity interactions with the structurally related lipid, palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine. Intranasal inoculation of H1N1-PR8-IAV in mice, in the presence of POPG, markedly suppressed the development of inflammatory cell infiltrates, the induction of IFN-γ recovered in bronchoalveolar lavage, and viral titers recovered from the lungs after 5 days of infection. These findings identify supplementary POPG as a potentially important new approach for treatment of IAV infections.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 11/2011; 46(4):479-87. · 4.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surfactant protein A (SP-A) regulates a variety of immune cell functions. We determined the ability of SP-A derived from normal and asthmatic subjects to modulate the inflammatory response elicited by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a pathogen known to exacerbate asthma. Fourteen asthmatic and 10 normal control subjects underwent bronchoscopy with airway brushing and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Total SP-A was extracted from BAL. The ratio of SP-A1 to total SP-A (SP-A1/SP-A) and the binding of total SP-A to M. pneumoniae membranes were determined. Airway epithelial cells from subjects were exposed to either normal or asthmatic SP-A before exposure to M. pneumoniae. IL-8 protein and MUC5AC mRNA were measured. Total BAL SP-A concentration did not differ between groups, but the percentage SP-A1 was significantly increased in BAL of asthmatic compared with normal subjects. SP-A1/SP-A significantly correlated with maximum binding of total SP-A to M. pneumoniae, but only in asthma. SP-A derived from asthmatic subjects did not significantly attenuate IL-8 and MUC5AC in the setting of M. pneumoniae infection compared with SP-A derived from normal subjects. We conclude that SP-A derived from asthmatic subjects does not abrogate inflammation effectively, and this dysfunction may be modulated by SP-A1/SP-A.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure is an epidemiological risk factor for tuberculosis, although the biological basis has not been elucidated.
We exposed C57BL/6 mice to CS for 14 weeks and examined their ability to control an aerosol infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Erdman.
CS-exposed mice had more M. tuberculosis isolated from the lungs and spleens after 14 and 30 d, compared with control mice. The CS-exposed mice had worse lung lesions and less lung and splenic macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) producing interleukin12 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). There were significantly more interleukin 10-producing macrophages and DCs in the spleens of infected CS-exposed mice than in non-CS-exposed controls. CS-exposed mice also showed a diminished influx of interferon γ-producing and TNF-α-producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) effector and memory T cells into the lungs and spleens. There was a trend toward an increased number of viable intracellular M. tuberculosis in macrophages isolated from humans who smoke compared with nonsmokers. THP-1 human macrophages and primary human alveolar macrophages exposed to CS extract, nicotine, or acrolein showed an increased burden of intracellular M. tuberculosis.
CS suppresses the protective immune response to M. tuberculosis in mice, human THP-1 cells, and primary human alveolar macrophages.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 02/2011; 203(9):1240-8. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a human pathogen causing respiratory infections that are also associated with serious exacerbations of chronic lung diseases. Membranes and lipoproteins from M. pneumoniae induced a 4-fold increase in arachidonic acid (AA) release from RAW264.7 and a 2-fold increase in AA release from primary human alveolar macrophages. The bacterial lipoprotein mimic and TLR2/1 agonist Pam3Cys and the TLR2/6 agonist MALP-2 produced effects similar to those elicited by M. pneumoniae in macrophages by inducing the phosphorylation of p38(MAPK) and p44/42(ERK1/2) MAP kinases and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. M. pneumoniae induced the generation of prostaglandins PGD(2) and PGE(2) from RAW264.7 cells and thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)) from human alveolar macrophages. Anti-TLR2 antibody completely abolished M. pneumoniae-induced AA release and TNFα secretion from RAW264.7 cells and human alveolar macrophages. Disruption of the phosphorylation of p44/42(ERK1/2) or inactivation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2)α (cPLA(2)α) completely inhibited M. pneumoniae-induced AA release from macrophages. The minor pulmonary surfactant phospholipid, palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG), antagonized the proinflammatory actions of M. pneumoniae, Pam3Cys, and MALP-2 by reducing the production of AA metabolites from macrophages. The effect of POPG was specific, insofar as saturated PG, and saturated and unsaturated phosphatidylcholines did not have significant effect on M. pneumoniae-induced AA release. Collectively, these data demonstrate that M. pneumoniae stimulates the production of eicosanoids from macrophages through TLR2, and POPG suppresses this pathogen-induced response.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2011; 286(10):7841-53. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary surfactant D (SP-D) has important regulatory functions for innate immunity and has been implicated as a biomarker for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesized that COPD patients would have reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid SP-D levels compared to healthy smoking and non-smoking controls.
BAL SP-D and phospholipids were quantified and corrected for dilution in 110 subjects (65 healthy never smokers, 23 smokers with normal spirometry, and 22 smokers with COPD).
BAL SP-D was highest in never smokers (mean 51.9 μg/mL ± 7.1 μg/mL standard error) compared to both smokers with normal spirometry (16.0 μg/mL ± 11.8 μg/mL) and subjects with COPD (19.1 μg/mL ± 12.9 μg/mL; P < 0.0001). Among smokers with COPD, BAL SP-D correlated significantly with FEV1% predicted (R = 0.43; P < 0.05); however, the strongest predictor of BAL SP-D was smoking status. BAL SP-D levels were lowest in current smokers (12.8 μg/mL ± 11.0 μg/mL), intermediate in former smokers (25.2 μg/mL ± 14.2 μg/mL; P < 0.008), and highest in never smokers. BAL phospholipids were also lowest in current smokers (6.5 nmol ± 1.5 nmol), intermediate in former smokers (13.1 nmol ± 2.1 nmol), and highest in never smokers (14.8 nmol ± 1.1 nmol; P < 0.0001).
These data suggest that smokers, and especially current smokers, exhibit significantly reduced BAL SP-D and phospholipids compared to nonsmokers. Our findings may help better explain the mechanism that leads to the rapid progression of disease and increased incidence of infection in smokers.
BMC Pulmonary Medicine 10/2010; 10:53. · 2.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutathione (GSH) transport is vital for maintenance of intracellular and extracellular redox balance. Only a few human proteins have been identified as transporters of GSH, glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and/or GSH conjugates (GS-X). Human epithelial MDA1586, A549, H1975, H460, HN4, and H157 cell lines were exposed to 2',5'-dihydroxychalcone, which induces a GSH efflux response. A real-time gene superarray for 84 proteins found in families that have a known role in GSH, GSSG, and/or GS-X transport was employed to help identify potential GSH transporters. ABCG2 was identified as the only gene in the array that closely corresponded with the magnitude of 2',5'-dihydroxychalcone (2',5'-DHC)-induced GSH efflux. The role of human ABCG2 as a novel GSH transporter was verified in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae galactose-inducible gene expression system. Yeast expressing human ABCG2 had 2.5-fold more extracellular GSH compared with those not expressing ABCG2. GSH efflux in ABCG2-expressing yeast was abolished by the ABCG2 substrate methotrexate (10 microM), indicating competitive inhibition. In contrast, 2',5'-DHC treatment of ABCG2-expressing yeast increased extracellular GSH levels in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum 3.5-fold increase in GSH after 24 h. In addition, suppression of ABCG2 with short hairpin RNA or ABCG2 overexpression in human epithelial cells decreased or increased extracellular GSH levels, respectively. Our data indicate that ABCG2 is a novel GSH transporter.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2010; 285(22):16582-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of hospitalization for respiratory tract infection in young children. It is also a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly individuals and in persons with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Currently, no reliable vaccine or simple RSV antiviral therapy is available. Recently, we determined that the minor pulmonary surfactant phospholipid, palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG), could markedly attenuate inflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharide through direct interactions with the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) interacting proteins CD14 and MD-2. CD14 and TLR4 have been implicated in the host response to RSV. Treatment of bronchial epithelial cells with POPG significantly inhibited interleukin-6 and -8 production, as well as the cytopathic effects induced by RSV. The phospholipid bound RSV with high affinity and inhibited viral attachment to HEp2 cells. POPG blocked viral plaque formation in vitro by 4 log units, and markedly suppressed the expansion of plaques from cells preinfected with the virus. Administration of POPG to mice, concomitant with viral infection, almost completely eliminated the recovery of virus from the lungs at 3 and 5 days after infection, and abrogated IFN-gamma (IFN-gamma) production and the enhanced expression of surfactant protein D (SP-D). These findings demonstrate an important approach to prevention and treatment of RSV infections using exogenous administration of a specific surfactant phospholipid.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2010; 107(1):320-5. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The phosphoethanolamine methyltransferase, PfPMT, of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, a member of a newly identified family of phosphoethanolamine methyltransferases (PMT) found solely in some protozoa, nematodes, frogs, and plants, is involved in the synthesis of the major membrane phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine. PMT enzymes catalyze a three-step S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methylation of the nitrogen atom of phosphoethanolamine to form phosphocholine. In P. falciparum, this activity is a limiting step in the pathway of synthesis of phosphatidylcholine from serine and plays an important role in the development, replication and survival of the parasite within human red blood cells.
We have employed an enzyme-coupled methylation assay to screen for potential inhibitors of PfPMT. In addition to hexadecyltrimethylammonium, previously known to inhibit PfPMT, two compounds dodecyltrimethylammonium and amodiaquine were also found to inhibit PfPMT activity in vitro. Interestingly, PfPMT activity was not inhibited by the amodiaquine analog, chloroquine, or other aminoquinolines, amino alcohols, or histamine methyltransferase inhibitors. Using yeast as a surrogate system we found that unlike wild-type cells, yeast mutants that rely on PfPMT for survival were sensitive to amodiaquine, and their phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis was inhibited by this compound. Furthermore NMR titration studies to characterize the interaction between amoidaquine and PfPMT demonstrated a specific and concentration dependent binding of the compound to the enzyme.
The identification of amodiaquine as an inhibitor of PfPMT in vitro and in yeast, and the biophysical evidence for the specific interaction of the compound with the enzyme will set the stage for the development of analogs of this drug that specifically inhibit this enzyme and possibly other PMTs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enzymes of the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) family add fatty acyl chains to a diverse range of protein and lipid substrates. A chromosomal translocation disrupting human MBOAT1 results in a novel syndrome characterized by male sterility and brachydactyly. We have found that the Drosophila homologues of MBOAT1, Oysgedart (Oys), Nessy (Nes), and Farjavit (Frj), are lysophospholipid acyltransferases. When expressed in yeast, these MBOATs esterify specific lysophospholipids preferentially with unsaturated fatty acids. Generating null mutations for each gene allowed us to identify redundant functions for Oys and Nes in two distinct aspects of Drosophila germ cell development. Embryos lacking both oys and nes show defects in the ability of germ cells to migrate into the mesoderm, a process guided by lipid signals. In addition, oys nes double mutant adult males are sterile due to specific defects in spermatid individualization. oys nes mutant testes, as well as single, double, and triple mutant whole adult animals, show an increase in the saturated fatty acid content of several phospholipid species. Our findings suggest that lysophospholipid acyltransferase activity is essential for germline development and could provide a mechanistic explanation for the etiology of the human MBOAT1 mutation.
Molecular biology of the cell 10/2009; 20(24):5224-35. · 5.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), derived from Gram-negative bacteria, is a major cause of acute lung injury and respiratory distress syndrome. Pulmonary surfactant is secreted as a complex mixture of lipids and proteins onto the alveolar surface of the lung. Surfactant phospholipids are essential in reducing surface tension at the air-liquid interface and preventing alveolar collapse at the end of the respiratory cycle. In the present study, we determined that palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol, which are minor components of pulmonary surfactant, and synthetic dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol regulated the inflammatory response of alveolar macrophages. The anionic lipids significantly inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from rat and human alveolar macrophages and a U937 cell line by reducing the LPS-elicited phosphorylation of multiple intracellular protein kinases. The anionic lipids were also effective at attenuating inflammation when administered intratracheally to mice challenged with LPS. Binding studies revealed high affinity interactions between the palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol and the Toll-like receptor 4-interacting proteins CD14 and MD-2. Our data clearly identify important anti-inflammatory properties of the minor surfactant phospholipids at the environmental interface of the lung.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2009; 284(38):25488-500. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The lung is constantly challenged during normal breathing by a myriad of environmental irritants and infectious insults. Pulmonary host defense mechanisms maintain homeostasis between inhibition/clearance of pathogens and regulation of inflammatory responses that could injure the airway epithelium. One component of this defense mechanism, surfactant protein-A (SP-A), exerts multifunctional roles in mediating host responses to inflammatory and infectious agents. SP-A has a bacteriostatic effect on Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp), which occurs by binding surface disaturated phosphatidylglycerols. SP-A can also bind the Mp membrane protein, MPN372. In this study, we investigated the role of SP-A during acute phase pulmonary infection with Mp using mice deficient in SP-A. Biologic responses, inflammation, and cellular infiltration, were much greater in Mp infected SP-A(-/-) mice than wild-type mice. Likewise, physiologic responses (airway hyperresponsiveness and lung compliance) to Mp infection were more severely affected in SP-A(-/-) mice. Both Mp-induced biologic and physiologic changes were attenuated by pharmacologic inhibition of TNF-alpha. Our findings demonstrate that SP-A is vital to preserving lung homeostasis and host defense to this clinically relevant strain of Mp by curtailing inflammatory cell recruitment and limiting an overzealous TNF-alpha response.
The Journal of Immunology 07/2009; 182(12):7818-27. · 5.52 Impact Factor