Marius Volkmer

Klinikum St. Georg Leipzig, Leipzig, Saxony, Germany

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Publications (26)123.58 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: For ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients after myocardial infarction, a three-dimensional mapping system is often used. We report on our overall success rate of VT ablation using CARTO in 47 patients, with a subgroup analysis comparing VT mapping with the results of mapping that had to be performed during sinus rhythm or pacing (substrate mapping). A CARTO map was performed and VT ablation attempted using two strategies: Patients in the VT-mapping group had incessant VT (four patients) or inducible stable VT (18 patients) such that the circuit of the clinical VT could be reconstructed using CARTO. During VT, the critical area of slow conduction was identified using diastolic potentials and conventional concealed entrainment pacing. In contrast, patients in the substrate-mapping group had initially inducible VT. However, a complete VT map was not possible because of catheter-induced mechanical block (six patients) or because haemodynamics deteriorated during the ongoing VT (19 patients). Therefore, pathological myocardium was identified by fragmented, late- and/or low-amplitude (<1.5 mV) bipolar potentials during sinus rhythm or pacing, and the ablation site was primarily determined by pace mapping inside or at the border of this pathological myocardium. Acute ablation success in all patients with regard to non-inducibility of the clinical VT or any slower VT was 79% after a single ablation procedure, but increased to 95% after a mean of 1.2 ablation procedures. However, chronic success was 75%, when it was defined as freedom from any ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VT or VF) during a follow-up of 25+/-13 months. In the subgroup analysis, patients in the VT-mapping group were not significantly different from patients in the substrate-mapping group with regard to age (65+/-7 vs. 65+/-9 years), ejection fraction (30+/-7 vs. 30+/-8%), VT cycle length (448+/-81 vs. 429+/-82 ms), number of radiofrequency applications (17+/-9 vs. 14+/-6 applications), use of an irrigated tip catheter (23 vs. 32%), and ablation results. When using a CARTO-guided approach for VT ablation in patients with coronary artery disease, the freedom from any ventricular arrhythmia is high (75%), but leaves the patient at a 23% risk of developing fast VT/VF during follow-up. Mapping during sinus rhythm or pacing is as successful as mapping during VT.
    Europace 12/2006; 8(11):968-76. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The superior vena cava (SVC) is one of the sources of ectopies that can initiate atrial fibrillation (AF). We investigated by radiofrequency ablation the electrophysiological characteristics of the junction of the right atrium (RA) and the SVC and the feasibility of electrical disconnection of the SVC from the RA. Sixteen patients with paroxysmal AF after pulmonary vein isolation underwent electroanatomic mapping at the RA-SVC junction during sinus rhythm. Mapping showed sharp potentials (SVC potentials) inside the SVC. Activation spread from the earliest SVC potential (breakthrough) to the rest of the SVC. SVC potentials were found over a large amount of the circumference, suggesting widespread muscle coverage of the SVC. Breakthroughs from the RA to SVC were located anteriorly, laterally, posteriorly, and septally in 3, 4, 10, and 6 patients, respectively. The number of breakthroughs was 1.4+/-0.5 per patient. Radiofrequency energy was applied with the end point of electrical disconnection. All breakthroughs were eliminated with 3.1+/-1.7 applications per breakthrough without complications. SVC potentials can be recorded inside the SVC. There are specific breakthroughs from the RA to the SVC that can be identified by electroanatomic mapping. The electrical disconnection of the SVC from the RA is feasible.
    Circulation 10/2002; 106(11):1317-20. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Left atrial macroreentrant tachycardia (LAMRT) has not been characterized in detail. Twenty-eight patients with LAMRT, including 4 patients with ablated typical atrial flutter (AFL), underwent electroanatomic mapping of the left atrium (LA) between February 1999 and October 2001. LA maps were performed during LAMRT in 26 patients and during sinus rhythm in 2 patients. Electrically silent areas or continuous lines of double potentials were identified as acquired anatomic barriers in all patients. In 23 of 26 patients with LAMRT mapping, 42 reentry circuits with a protected isthmus were identified. The isthmus was 11.8+/-5.9 mm wide, with the maximal amplitude of 0.07 to 3.61 mV. Radiofrequency pulses terminated all LAMRTs in 23 patients and resulted in conduction block across the isthmus in 20 patients. In 2 patients with sinus mapping, all identified isthmuses were ablated. Additionally, AFL was induced and ablated in 6 patients. Atrial tachycardia recurred in 4 patients: 3 patients without validated block across the isthmus presented with recurrence of the same LAMRT, and 1 patient without ablated cavotricuspid isthmus presented with AFL. All tachycardias were abolished during a second procedure. Of 25 patients with identified isthmuses, 20 patients were without atrial arrhythmia and 5 had only atrial fibrillation during a median follow-up of 14 months. The reentry circuit with a protected isthmus can be identified in 89% patients with LAMRT by electroanatomic mapping. The isthmuses were amenable to radiofrequency applications in most patients. No atrial tachycardia recurred in any patients with isthmus block.
    Circulation 05/2002; 105(16):1934-42. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and impaired left ventricular ejection fraction have an increased risk of dying suddenly. Patients with recent onset of DCM (< or =9 months) and an ejection fraction < or =30% were randomly assigned to the implantation of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or control. The primary end point of the trial was all-cause mortality at 1 year of follow-up. The trial was terminated after the inclusion of 104 patients because the all-cause mortality rate at 1 year did not reach the expected 30% in the control group. In August 2000, the vital status of all patients was updated by contacting patients, relatives, or local registration offices. One hundred four patients were enrolled in the trial: Fifty were assigned to ICD therapy and 54 to the control group. Mean follow-up was 22.8+/-4.3 months, on the basis of investigators' follow-up. After 1 year, 6 patients were dead (4 in the ICD group and 2 in the control group). No sudden death occurred during the first and second years of follow-up. In August 2000, after a mean follow-up of 5.5+/-2.2 years, 30 deaths had occurred (13 in the ICD group and 17 in the control group). Cumulative survival was not significantly different between the two groups (93% and 80% in the control group versus 92% and 86% in the ICD group after 2 and 4 years, respectively). This trial did not provide evidence in favor of prophylactic ICD implantation in patients with DCM of recent onset and impaired left ventricular ejection fraction.
    Circulation 04/2002; 105(12):1453-8. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac arrest in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome can be due to ventricular fibrillation mediated by fast conduction over the accessory pathway during atrial fibrillation. However, if primary ventricular fibrillation is the reason for resuscitation, placement of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) would be indicated. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that in resuscitated patients with WPW syndrome, recurrences can be prevented by sole ablation of their accessory pathways. We performed a long-term follow-up study of 48 resuscitated patients with WPW syndrome who underwent successful accessory pathway ablation as their sole primary treatment. Cardiac arrest had occurred either spontaneously in 32 patients (group A) or after intravenous administration of antiarrhythmic drugs in 16 patients (group B) and was never associated with an acute myocardial infarction or other concomitant factors. All patients had normal left ventricular function at echocardiography. A total of 56 accessory AV pathways were ablated successfully with radiofrequency current (n = 55) or during surgery (n = 1) and were located at the left free wall (n = 35), right free wall (n = 8), or septal-paraseptal region (n = 13). Follow-up 5.0+/-1.9 years after ablation (range 0.2 to 7.9) was obtained in all 48 patients. All of the patients were alive, and none had a life-threatening arrhythmia or syncope after successful ablation of their accessory pathways. In resuscitated patients with WPW syndrome who have normal left ventricular function at echocardiography and no ECG abnormalities suggesting additional electrical disease, ablation of their overt accessory pathways prevented cardiac arrest recurrences; therefore, ICD placement is generally not indicated.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 04/2002; 13(3):231-6. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to investigate the electrocardiographic (ECG) characteristics for guiding catheter ablation in patients with repetitive monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (RMVT) originating from the aortic sinus cusp (ASC). Repetitive monomorphic ventricular tachycardia can originate from the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and ASC in patients with a left bundle branch block (LBBB) morphology and an inferior axis. Activation mapping and ECG analysis was performed in 15 patients with RMVT or ventricular premature contractions. The left main coronary artery (LMCA) was cannulated as a marker and for protection during radiofrequency delivery if RMVT originated from the left coronary ASC. During arrhythmia, the earliest ventricular activation was recorded from the superior septal RVOT in eight patients (group 1) and from the ASC in the remaining seven patients (group 2). The indexes of R-wave duration and R/S-wave amplitude were significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2 (31.8+/-13.5% vs. 58.3+/-12.1% and 14.9+/-9.9% vs. 56.7+/-29.5%, respectively; p < 0.01), despite similar QRS morphology. In five patients from group 2, RMVT originated from the left ASC, with a mean distance of 12.2+/-3.2 mm (range 7.3 to 16.1) below the ostium of the LMCA. In the remaining two patients, the RMVT origin was in the right ASC. All arrhythmias were successfully abolished. None of the patients had recurrence or complications during 9+/-3 months of follow-up. On the surface ECG, RMVT from the ASC has a QRS morphology similar to that of RVOT arrhythmias. The indexes of R-wave duration and R/S-wave amplitude can be used to differentiate between the two origins. Radiofrequency ablation can be safely performed within the left ASC with a catheter cannulating the LMCA.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 02/2002; 39(3):500-8. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An abnormal potential (retroPP) from the left posterior Purkinje network has been demonstrated during sinus rhythm (SR) in some patients with idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia (ILVT). We hypothesized that this potential can specifically be identified and be a critical substrate for ILVT. In 9 patients with ILVT and 6 control patients who underwent mapping of the left ventricle during SR using 3-dimensional electroanatomic mapping, an area with retroPP was found within the posterior Purkinje fiber network only in patients with ILVT. The earliest and latest retroPP was 185.4+/-57.4 and 465.2+/-37.3 ms after Purkinje potential; in the other patient with ILVT, an entire left ventricle mapping demonstrated a slow conduction area and passive retrograde activation along the posterior fascicle during ILVT. ILVT was noninducible in 3 patients after SR mapping. Diastolic potentials critical for ILVT during ILVT coincided with the earliest retroPP during SR in 7 patients. Mechanical termination of ILVT occurred in 5 patients. A single radiofrequency pulse was applied at the site with mechanical translation in 5 patients and the site with diastolic potential in 2 patients, and 3 radiofrequency pulses were delivered to the site with the earliest retroPP in the other 3 patients without inducible ILVT after SR mapping. No ILVT was inducible during control stimulation, and none recurred during follow-up of 9.1+/-5.1 months. In patients with ILVT, abnormal retroPP within the posterior Purkinje fiber network is a common finding. The earliest retroPP critical for ILVT substrate can be used for guiding successful ablation.
    Circulation 02/2002; 105(4):462-9. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Focal atrial tachycardias originate predominantly from the right atrium along the crista terminalis and less commonly from the left atrium. Successful catheter ablation usually can be performed via an endocardial approach. We report the case of a 34-year-old patient in whom a focal atrial tachycardia was successfully ablated 4 cm within the coronary sinus after extensive mapping of the left atrial endocardium and coronary sinus using the three-dimensional CARTO mapping system. Rarely, atrial tachycardia can originate from the coronary sinus musculature and require ablation inside the coronary sinus.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 02/2002; 13(1):68-71. · 3.48 Impact Factor
  • Journal of The American College of Cardiology - J AMER COLL CARDIOL. 01/2002; 39:348-348.
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives We sought to investigate the electrocardiographic (ECG) characteristics for guiding catheter ablation in patients with repetitive monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (RMVT) originating from the aortic sinus cusp (ASC).
    Journal of The American College of Cardiology - J AMER COLL CARDIOL. 01/2002; 39(3):500-508.
  • Circulation 03/2001; 103(6):913-4. · 15.20 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Tongji Medical University = Tong ji yi ke da xue xue bao 02/2001; 21(1):26-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Zusammenfassung In der Studie wurden 20 Patienten mit AV-Reentry-Tachykardie unter Einbezug einer mittelseptalen gelegenen atrioventriculären akzessorischen Leitungsbahn (MS) eingeschlossen, die seit 4 Jahren in unserem Elektrophysiologischen Untersuchungslabor mittels Katheters erfolgreich abladiert wurden. Die 20 Patienten hatten 26 akzessorische Leitungsbahnen. Daunter waren 21 MS (rechtsmittelseptal (RMS) zu linksmittelseptal (LMS) = 17: 4). 18 akzessorische Leitungsbahnen waren offen. Die Lokalisation der akzessorischen Leitungsbahnen wurde aufgrund der Stelle erfolgreich abladiert bestimmt. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, daß die RMS und LMS den gleichen Charakter in den meisten Ableitungen des EKGs hatten, und jedoch der wenige Unterschied bei diesen beiden akzessorischen Lritungsbahnen besteht. Wenn die positive Polarität der Delta-Welle in der Ableitung Vi bei der Patienten mit MS auftritt, muß sich überlegen, ob die Möglichkeit der Lokalisation der akzessorischen Leitungsbahn im Linksmittelseptum besteht.
    Journal of Tongji Medical University = Tong ji yi ke da xue xue bao 01/2001; 21(1):26-29.
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with anomalies of the heart frequently suffer from arrhythmias that either are associated with a congenital heart defect or result from the course of the disease. For most of the bradyarrhythmias, appropriate timing of the initiation of treatment is more challenging than its eventual execution. In the case of tachycardias, technical aspects of treatment require more attention because the often imperative impact such tachycardias have on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality determine intervention timing. Increasingly, interventional electrophysiology is turned to as a potentially definitive and substrate-related treatment because of antiarrhythmic drug therapy's failure to prevent arrhythmia recurrences and the potential detrimental side effects from drug therapy seen in this particular patient population. Using the experience gained during the past 10 years in the treatment of patients with arrhythmias but without associated structural heart disease, several groups reported their results and difficulties with the application of such therapy to patients with congenital heart defects. In this report, we summarize our hospital's experience with transcatheter radiofrequency current application for treatment of various types of tachyarrhythmias in 139 children and adults with congenital heart defects, emphasizing the current limitations of such therapy and addressing the potential benefits expected from future technology. Patient ages ranged from 5 months to 76 years (mean 25.3 +/- 17.7 years), including 56 children and adolescents less than 16 years of age. At least one attempt at surgical palliation or correction was made in 93 patients; the remaining 46 patients had no surgical intervention attempts. A total of 225 different tachycardias were found, 93 of which were based on a congenital arrhythmogenic substrate (e.g., an accessory pathway). Acquired substrates (e.g., scars or myocardial fibrosis) gave rise to the remaining 132 tachycardias. Radiofrequency current ablation (183 sessions) successfully treated 121 of 139 patients. Within a follow-up period of 21 months a recurrence of the intrinsically treated tachycardia was seen in 24 patients (10.7%); 13 of the 24 underwent a successful repeat session. There were no significant procedure-related complications. Young and adult patients with congenital heart disease can be safely and successfully treated for tachycardias with the use of radiofrequency current ablation. Because such treatment meets the specific needs of this patient group, early consideration for this therapy is recommended.
    Pediatric Cardiology 01/2000; 21(6):557-75. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Catheter ablative techniques to modify the substrate to maintain atrial fibrillation (AF) require the creation of continuous radiofrequency current-induced ablation lines. This study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of nonfluoroscopic mapping in this setting. A total of 45 consecutive patients with idiopathic AF were studied. The first 13 underwent ablation confined to the left atrium by creating a circular line isolating the pulmonary vein ostia and a second line connecting the former with the mitral annulus. Subsequently, 12 of these patients underwent a procedure confined to the right atrium (RA), where attempts were made to create an isthmus line between the inferior vena cava and the tricuspid annulus, an anterior line connecting the tricuspid annulus with the superior vena cava, and an intercaval line between the ostia of the inferior and superior venae cavae. In the last 32 patients, only the RA approach was performed. Technical difficulties prevented the creation of the intended left atrial line pattern: all patients experienced recurrences. A 100% recurrence rate was also observed after subsequent RA ablation, despite creation of a complete line pattern in 4 of 12 patients. Of the final 32 patients, AF recurred in 94%; a complete ablation line pattern had been achieved in 18 patients (56%), 16 of whom had recurrences. The electroanatomically-guided creation of extended radiofrequency current lesions is technically feasible only in the RA. However, procedural success in the RA does not suppress recurrences of AF in the majority of patients.
    Circulation 12/1999; 100(20):2085-92. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with congenital heart disease have an increased chance to suffer from brady- as well as tachyarrhythmias. The impact of these on quality of life, morbidity and mortality is more often imperative as compared to heart-healthy individuals. The substrate for these may be either congenital or acquired. Improvements of the surgical management of these patients have led, on the one hand, to improved survival rates with prolonged life expectancy within the last 2 decades, which on the other hand provided the basis for a higher rate of acquired cardiac arrhythmias. Together, this not only challenges diagnostics and therapy but also the prognostic relevance of these arrhythmias. The therapeutic strategies and prognostic markers have until now mostly been based on retrospective studies limited by the low number of patients and inhomogeneous patient selection. Despite these limitations, an increased risk of sudden cardiac death has been substantiated for certain patient groups, e.g., those operated on by the Mustard- or Senning procedures in patients with transposition of the great arteries and patients operated on with correction of the tetralogy of Fallot. However, until now it has not been possible to identify reliable markers for establishing the risk on an individual basis within these patient cohorts. For achieving reliable data on the symptomatic and prognostic effects of present-day--as well as new-coming--therapeutic strategies, it is mandatory to perform prospectively based, randomized multicenter studies. Furthermore, the well-appreciated synergism of hemodynamically and primarily of arrhythmia-based effects on prognosis could potentially be divided into their relative weight to better guide appropriate, substrate-related therapy. In addition, this should help to get better estimates of the risk for sudden cardiac death in different, etiologically homogeneous, groups of patients with congenital heart disease.
    Herz 07/1999; 24(4):315-34. · 0.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The treatment of drug-refractory atrial fibrillation (AF) remains one of the unsolved problems in cardiology. Surgical interventions have demonstrated that AF can be prevented by multiple incisions within both atria. Recently, this strategy has been translated into a catheter procedure. So far, the ablation approach is not based on individual electrophysiologic data, but constitutes only an anatomic approach. Further insight into the spatial and temporal distribution of the local electrograms during AF is needed. Electroanatomic maps acquired by sequential mapping over 45 seconds at each site during AF in six patients with paroxysmal AF were analyzed off-line. Electrograms were sampled at a mean of 36 +/- 12 sites in the left atrium of each patient. A total of 217 sites were sampled, of which 27.3% (59) represented type A (regular) AF, 9.7% (21) represented type B (totally irregular), and 63.1% (137) represented type C (mixture of type A and B) electrograms. The distribution was analyzed in 20 different segments of the left atrium, and a significantly higher incidence of type A electrograms was found in area 3 (upper lateral pulmonary vein) than at all other sites (P < 0.005). This observation needs further confirmation before any conclusion with regard to catheter ablation can be drawn, particularly because the analysis was based on bipolar recordings from a 4-mm tip electrode.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 08/1998; 9(8 Suppl):S57-62. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Supraventricular tachycardia is a frequent cause of disease in patients with congenital heart defects and has a potentially high impact on quality of life, morbidity and mortality of this patient cohort. Conventional treatment often fails to avoid recurrences of tachycardia in a long-term perspective. Potential side effects of antiarrhythmic drugs include aggravation of heart disease related disturbances of impulse generation and conduction properties or negative inotropic effects on haemodynamically impaired ventricular chambers. For these reasons, interventional electrophysiology is increasingly used for the treatment of supraventricular tachycardias in patients with congenital heart disease. Until March 1998 a total of 83 patients with congenital heart defects underwent an attempt for radiofrequency current treatment of supraventricular tachycardias. Among these were 36 children with an age of 5 months to 15 years (8.2 +/- 4.6 years) and 4.7 grown ups with an age of 17 to 76 years (39.3 +/- 14.3 years). In a natural course or preoperative status of the congenital heart disease were 35 patients, while palliative or corrective surgery was performed in 48 patients. Supraventricular tachycardia was based on a total of 63 congenital arrhythmogenic substrates, among them were 53 accessory pathways, 4 Mahaim fibres, 5 functionally dissociated AV-nodes and an anatomically doubled specific conduction system including 2 distinct AV-nodes in one case. In the remaining patients with tachycardia based on acquired arrhythmogenic substrates there were 45 incisional atrial reentrant tachycardias, 15 atrial flutters of the common type and 6 ectopic atrial tachycardias. In a total of 105 sessions 78 of the 83 patients were successfully treated with the use of radiofrequency current ablation. There were no significant procedure related complications. Radiofrequency current ablation can be carried out safely and successfully for the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia in young and adult patients with congenital heart disease. As such therapeutic strategy meets the specific requirements of this patient cohort, early consideration for this therapy is recommended.
    Herz 07/1998; 23(4):231-50. · 0.78 Impact Factor
  • Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie 03/1998; 9 Suppl 1:53-5.
  • Herz 01/1998; 23(4):231-250. · 0.78 Impact Factor