Jannette M Dufour

Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, Texas, United States

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Publications (30)118 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Immune-privileged Sertoli cells (SCs) exhibit long-term survival after allotransplantation or xenotransplantation, suggesting they can be used as a vehicle for cell based gene therapy. Previously, we demonstrated that SCs engineered to secrete insulin using an adenoviral vector normalized blood glucose levels in diabetic mice. However, the expression of insulin was transient and the use of immune compromised mice did not address the question of whether SCs can stably express insulin in immune competent animals. Thus, the objective of the current study was to use a lentiviral vector to achieve stable expression of insulin in SCs and test the ability of these cells to survive after allotransplantation. A mouse SC line transduced with a recombinant lentiviral vector containing furin-modified human proinsulin cDNA (MSC-EhI-Zs), maintained stable insulin expression in vitro. Allotransplantation of MSC-EhI-Zs cells into diabetic BALB/c mice demonstrated 88% and 75% graft survival at 20 and 50 days post-transplantation, respectively. Transplanted MSC-EhI-Zs cells continued to produce insulin mRNA throughout the study (i.e. 50 days); however, insulin protein was only detected in patches of cells within the grafts. Consistent with low insulin protein detection, there was no significant change in blood glucose levels in the transplant recipients. Nevertheless, MSC-EhI-Zs cells isolated from the grafts continued to express insulin protein in culture. Collectively, this demonstrates MSC-EhI-Zs cells stably expressed insulin and survived allotransplantation without immunosuppression. This further strengthens the use of SCs as targets for cell based gene therapy for the treatment of numerous chronic diseases, especially those that require basal protein expression.
    Biology of Reproduction 04/2014; · 4.03 Impact Factor
  • Gurvinder Kaur, Lea Ann Thompson, Jannette M Dufour
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    ABSTRACT: Testicular germ cells, which appear after the establishment of central tolerance, express novel cell surface and intracellular proteins that can be recognized as 'foreign antigens' by the host's immune system. However, normally these germ cells do not evoke an auto-reactive immune response. The focus of this manuscript is to review the evidence that the Blood-Testis-Barrier (BTB)/Sertoli cell (SC) barrier along with the SCs ability to modulate the immune response is vital for protecting auto-antigenic germ cells. In normal testis, the BTB/SC barrier protects the majority of the auto-antigenic germ cells by limiting access by the immune system and sequestering these 'new antigens'. SCs also modulate testis immune cells (induce regulatory immune cells) by expressing several immunoregulatory factors, thereby creating a local tolerogenic environment optimal for survival of nonsequesetred auto-antigenic germ cells. Collectively, the fortress created by the BTB/SC barrier along with modulation of the immune response is pivotal for completion of spermatogenesis and species survival.
    Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 03/2014; · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    Gurvinder Kaur, Lea Ann Thompson, Jannette M. Dufour
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    ABSTRACT: Testicular germ cells, which appear after the establishment of central tolerance, express novel cell surface and intracellular proteins that can be recognized as ‘foreign antigens’ by the host's immune system. However, normally these germ cells do not evoke an auto-reactive immune response. The focus of this manuscript is to review the evidence that the Blood-Testis-Barrier (BTB)/Sertoli cell (SC) barrier along with the SCs ability to modulate the immune response is vital for protecting auto-antigenic germ cells. In normal testis, the BTB/SC barrier protects the majority of the auto-antigenic germ cells by limiting access by the immune system and sequestering these ‘new antigens’. SCs also modulate testis immune cells (induce regulatory immune cells) by expressing several immunoregulatory factors, thereby creating a local tolerogenic environment optimal for survival of nonsequesetred auto-antigenic germ cells. Collectively, the fortress created by the BTB/SC barrier along with modulation of the immune response is pivotal for completion of spermatogenesis and species survival.
    Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 01/2014; · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Traditionally it was believed that Sertoli cells (SC) stop proliferating at puberty and become terminally differentiated quiescent cells. However, recent studies have challenged this dogma. In this study, we transplanted nondividing SC isolated from 23-27 days-old post-pubertal rats transduced with a recombinant adenoviral vector (containing furin modified human proinsulin cDNA) in diabetic SCID mice. Immunostaining the grafts for cell proliferation markers, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and MKI67 revealed that transplanted SC within the grafts were proliferating. Possible causes for resumption of proliferation of SC could be viral transduction, cell isolation and culture, higher abdominal temperature at the transplant site, and/or transplantation. To test for these possible causes, double immunofluorescence was performed for GATA4 (SC marker) and MKI67. None of the SC were positive for MKI67 in tissue collected during SC isolation and culture, or at higher temperature. However, nontransduced SC stained positive for MKI67 after transplantation into rats, suggesting viral transduction is not a key factor for induction of SC proliferation. Interestingly, resumption in proliferative ability of nondividing SC was temporary, as SC stopped proliferation within 14 days of transplantation and did not proliferate thereafter. Quantification of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeled SC demonstrated that 7% to 9% of the total transplanted SC were proliferating in the grafts. These data indicate for the first time that nondividing SC resumed proliferation after transplantation, and further validates previous findings that SC are not terminally differentiated. Hence, transplantation of SC could provide a useful model to study the regulation of SC proliferation in vivo.
    Biology of Reproduction 11/2013; · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    Gurvinder Kaur, Payal Mital, Jannette M Dufour
    Animal reproduction 01/2013;
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    Gurvinder Kaur, Jannette M Dufour
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    ABSTRACT: Cell lines are often used in place of primary cells to study biological processes. However, care must be taken when interpreting the results as cell lines do not always accurately replicate the primary cells. In this article, we will briefly talk about advantages and disadvantages of cell lines and then discuss results using the mouse Sertoli cell line, MSC-1, compared with primary mouse Sertoli cells. MSC-1 cells resemble Sertoli cells morphologically and possess several biochemical markers associated with Sertoli cells. Studies have demonstrated that the function and regulation of retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) is similar between MSC-1 and rat Sertoli cells. However, MSC-1 cells lack some of the immune privilege properties associated with primary Sertoli cells, including survival in animals with a fully functional immune system. Therefore, it has to be kept in mind that cell lines do not behave identically with primary cells and should not be used to replace primary cells. In order to strengthen the findings, key control experiments using primary cells should always be performed.
    Spermatogenesis. 01/2012; 2(1):1-5.
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    Gurvinder Kaur, Charles R Long, Jannette M Dufour
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    ABSTRACT: Sertoli cells are immune privileged cells, important for controlling the immune response to male germ cells as well as maintaining the tolerogenic environment in the testis. Additionally, ectopic Sertoli cells have been shown to survive and protect co-grafted cells when transplanted across immunological barriers. The survival of ectopic Sertoli cells has led to the idea that they could be used in cell based gene therapy. In this review, we provide a brief overview of testis immune privilege and Sertoli cell transplantation, factors contributing to Sertoli cell immune privilege, the challenges faced by viral vector gene therapy, the use of immune privileged cells in cell based gene therapy and describe several recent studies on the use of genetically engineered Sertoli cells to provide continuous delivery of therapeutic proteins.
    Spermatogenesis. 01/2012; 2(1):23-31.
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    ABSTRACT: The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is known for its ability to create an immune privilege site in the seminiferous epithelium, but less is known of the blood-epididymal barrier (BEB). It is already established that the fully functional BTB and BEB are much more complex and consist of anatomical/physical (tight junctions, basolateral and apical membranes), physiological and immunological components, which are all necessary to make a functioning barrier in the testis and epididymis. However, comparative data for metazoans suggest that an effective Sertoli cell barrier is not entirely necessary for the development of germ cells during spermatogenesis or that our knowledge about the barrier structure/function in metazoans is still immature. This chapter compares the unique barrier formed by the Sertoli cells of the testis to that formed by the apical junctional complexes of the epididymal epithelium.
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology 01/2012; 763:237-59. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary Sertoli cells isolated from mouse testes survive when transplanted across immunological barriers and protect cotransplanted allogeneic and xenogeneic cells from rejection in rodent models. In contrast, the mouse Sertoli cell line (MSC-1) lacks immunoprotective properties associated with primary Sertoli cells. In this study, enriched primary Sertoli cells or MSC-1 cells were transplanted as allografts into the renal subcapsular area of naive BALB/c mice, and their survival in graft sites was compared. While Sertoli cells were detected within the grafts with 100% graft survival throughout the 20-day study, MSC-1 cells were rejected between 11 and 14 days, with 0% graft survival at 20 days posttransplantation. Nonetheless, the mechanism for primary Sertoli cell survival and immunoprotection remains unresolved. To identify immune factors or functional pathways potentially responsible for immune privilege, gene expression profiles of enriched primary Sertoli cells were compared with those of MSC-1 cells. Microarray analysis identified 2369 genes in enriched primary Sertoli cells that were differentially expressed at ±4-fold or higher levels than in MSC-1 cells. Ontological analyses identified multiple immune pathways, which were used to generate a list of 340 immune-related genes. Three functions were identified in primary Sertoli cells as potentially important for establishing immune privilege: suppression of inflammation by specific cytokines and prostanoid molecules, slowing of leukocyte migration by controlled cell junctions and actin polymerization, and inhibition of complement activation and membrane-associated cell lysis. These results increase our understanding of testicular immune privilege and, in the long-term, could lead to improvements in transplantation success.
    Biology of Reproduction 09/2011; 86(1):1-14. · 4.03 Impact Factor
  • Payal Mital, Barry T Hinton, Jannette M Dufour
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    ABSTRACT: The terms blood-testis barrier (BTB) or blood-epididymis barrier (BEB), are often described as Sertoli cell-Sertoli cell tight junctions (TJs) or TJs between the epithelial cells in the epididymis, respectively. However, in reality, the BTB and BEB are much more complex than just the TJ. The focus of this minireview is to remind readers that the complete BTB and BEB are comprised of three components: anatomical, physiological, and immunological. The TJs form the anatomical (physical) barrier that restricts passage of molecules and cells from entering or exiting the lumen. The physiological barrier is comprised of transporters that regulate movement of substances in or out of the lumen, thus creating a microenvironment, which is critical for the proper development and maturation of germ cells. The immunological barrier limits access by the immune system and sequesters the majority of the autoantigenic germ cells. Combined with the overall immune-privilege of the testis, this suppresses detrimental immune responses against the autoantigenic germ cells. These three components on their own do not create a complete functional barrier; instead, it is the interaction between all three components that create a barrier of maximal competence.
    Biology of Reproduction 01/2011; 84(5):851-8. · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immune-privileged Sertoli cells survive long term after allogeneic or xenogeneic transplantation without the use of immunosuppressive drugs, suggesting they could be used as a vehicle to deliver therapeutic proteins. As a model to test this, we engineered Sertoli cells to transiently produce basal levels of insulin and then examined their ability to lower blood glucose levels after transplantation into diabetic SCID mice. Mouse and porcine Sertoli cells transduced with a recombinant adenoviral vector containing furin-modified human proinsulin cDNA expressed insulin mRNA and secreted insulin protein. Transplantation of 5-20 million insulin-expressing porcine Sertoli cells into diabetic SCID mice significantly decreased blood glucose levels in a dose-dependent manner, with 20 million Sertoli cells decreasing blood glucose levels to 9.8 ± 2.7 mM. Similar results were obtained when 20 million insulin-positive, BALB/c mouse Sertoli cells were transplanted; blood glucose levels dropped to 6.3 ± 2.4 mM and remained significantly lower for 5 days. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate Sertoli cells can be engineered to produce and secrete a clinically relevant factor that has a therapeutic effect, thus supporting the concept of using immune-privileged Sertoli cells as a potential vehicle for gene therapy.
    Cell Transplantation 01/2010; 19(12):1645-57. · 4.42 Impact Factor
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    Payal Mital, Gurvinder Kaur, Jannette M Dufour
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    ABSTRACT: The testis as an immune-privileged site allows long-term survival of allogeneic and xenogeneic transplants. Testicular Sertoli cells (SCs) play a major role in this immunoprotection and have been used to create an ectopic immune-privileged environment that prolongs survival of co-transplanted allogeneic and xenogeneic cells, including pancreatic islets and neurons. Extended survival of such grafts testifies to the immunoprotective properties of SCs. However, there is still variability in the survival rates of the co-grafted cells and rarely are 100% of the grafts protected. This emphasizes the need to learn more about what is involved in creating the optimal immunoprotective milieu. Several parameters including organization of the SCs into tubule-like structures and the production of immunomodulatory factors by SCs, specifically complement inhibitors, cytokines, and cytotoxic lymphocyte inhibitors, are likely important. In addition, an intricate interplay between several of these factors may be responsible for providing the most ideal environment for protection of the co-transplants by SCs. In this review, we will also briefly describe a novel use for the immune-privileged abilities of SCs; engineering them to deliver therapeutic proteins for the treatment of diseases like diabetes and Parkinson's disease. In conclusion, further studies and more detailed analysis of the mechanisms involved in creating the immune-protective environment by SCs may make their application in co-transplantation and as engineered cells clinically feasible.
    Reproduction 12/2009; 139(3):495-504. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sertoli cells are important for maintenance of the immune privileged environment of the testis and prolong survival of cotransplanted cells. The objective of the current study was to examine the immunoprotective properties of a mouse Sertoli cell line (MSC-1) in order to identify a Sertoli cell line that could be used to aid in investigation of the immunoprotective abilities of Sertoli cells. BALB/c islets were cotransplanted with 0-9 million primary BALB/c Sertoli cells or MSC-1 cells into diabetic C3H or BALB/c mice and protection of grafted islets was examined by monitoring blood glucose levels and immunohistochemical analysis. Additionally, expression of potential immunoprotective factors in MSC-1 cells was examined. Cotransplantation of islets with 3 million primary Sertoli cells significantly prolonged islet allograft survival (61.1 +/- 6.9 days; p < 0.05) compared with control mice that received allogeneic islets alone (26.9 +/- 2.1 days). Grafts collected from normoglycemic C3H mice at 100 days posttransplant contained insulin-positive beta-cells adjacent to allogeneic Sertoli cells arranged in tubule-like structures. In contrast, cotransplantation of islet allografts with MSC-1 cells did not prolong islet survival (average 29.8 +/- 3.3 days) regardless of the number of MSC-1 cells transplanted and the rejected grafts contained very few beta-cells and randomly arranged MSC-1 cells. The lack of islet cell survival was not due to detrimental effects of MSC-1 cells because syngneic islets cotransplanted with MSC-1 cells were functional throughout the study. MSC-1 cells were found to express known Sertoli cell-expressed, immunoprotective factors, clusterin, Fas ligand, and transforming growth factor-beta1, suggesting additional factors may be involved in Sertoli cell immune privilege. These data indicate the MSC-1 cell line lacks the immunoprotective properties associated with primary Sertoli cells. Further study of this cell line could be useful in examining the mechanisms that enable Sertoli cells to provide immune privilege.
    Cell Transplantation 02/2008; 17(5):525-34. · 4.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sertoli cells (SC) protect islet allografts from immune destruction in diabetic rodents. In this study, we examined the difference between successful and rejected islet/SC cografts in order to further improve this procedure for optimal extension of islet allograft survival. We cotransplanted 500 BALB/c islets with 1-8 million BALB/c SC under the kidney capsule of diabetic BALB/c, C3H-HeJ, and C57BL/6 mice. Cotransplantation of islets with up to 8 million SC was not detrimental to long-term islet graft function in syngeneic mice. However, large numbers of SC were detrimental to islet graft survival in allogeneic mice with the optimal dose for cotransplantation of 4 or 1 million SC in C3H-HeJ or C57BL/6 mice, respectively. Examination of successful grafts, from euglycemic recipients, revealed the presence of SC arranged in tubule structures with islets surrounding these tubules. Cellular infiltrate in successful grafts revealed CD4 T cells and macrophages along the periphery and within the grafts, and very few CD8 T cells. Conversely, examination of unsuccessful grafts, harvested from hyperglycemic recipients at the time of rejection, revealed the presence of SC arranged randomly with islets adjacent to the Sertoli cells, when present, and massive CD4 and CD8 T cell as well as macrophage cell infiltration. Prolongation of islet allograft survival appeared to be a function of SC transplant mass and recipient genetic background. A consequence of long-term graft acceptance is the formation of SC tubule structures, which may be an additional requirement for optimal protection of islet allografts.
    Cell Transplantation 02/2008; 16(10):1029-38. · 4.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sertoli cells have long since been recognized for their ability to suppress the immune system and protect themselves as well as other cell types from harmful immune reaction. However, the exact mechanism or product produced by Sertoli cells that affords this immunoprotection has never been fully elucidated. We examined the effect of mouse Sertoli cell-conditioned medium on human granzyme B-mediated killing and found that there was an inhibitory effect. We subsequently found that a factor secreted by Sertoli cells inhibited killing through the inhibition of granzyme B enzymatic activity. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that this factor formed an SDS-insoluble complex with granzyme B. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectroscopic analysis of the complex identified a proteinase inhibitor, serpina3n, as a novel inhibitor of human granzyme B. We cloned serpina3n cDNA, expressed it in Jurkat cells, and confirmed its inhibitory action on granzyme B activity. Our studies have led to the discovery of a new inhibitor of granzyme B and have uncovered a new mechanism used by Sertoli cells for immunoprotection.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2006; 177(8):5051-8. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fibroblast-like cells emerging from cultured human pancreatic endocrine and exocrine tissue have been reported. Although a thorough phenotypic characterization of these cells has not yet been carried out, these cells have been hypothesized to be contaminating fibroblasts, mesenchyme and/or possibly beta-cell progenitors. In this study, we expanded fibroblast-like cells from adult human exocrine pancreas following islet isolation and characterized these cells as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) based on their cell surface antigen expression and ability to differentiate into mesoderm. Analysis by flow cytometry demonstrated that pancreatic MSCs express cell surface antigens used to define MSCs isolated from bone marrow such as CD13, CD29, CD44, CD49b, CD54, CD90 and CD105. In addition, utilizing protocols used to differentiate MSCs isolated from other somatic tissues, we successfully differentiated pancreatic MSCs into: (1) osteocytes that stained positive for alkaline phosphatase, collagen, mineralization (calcification) and expressed osteocalcin, (2) adipocytes that contained lipid inclusions and expressed fatty acid binding protein 4 and (3) chondrocytes that expressed aggrecan. We also demonstrated that pancreatic MSCs are multipotent and capable of deriving cells of endodermal origin. Pancreatic MSCs were differentiated into hepatocytes that stained positive for human serum albumin and expressed endoderm and liver-specific genes such as GATA 4 and tyrosine aminotransferase. In addition, preliminary protocols used to differentiate these cells into insulin-producing cells resulted in the expression of genes necessary for islet and beta-cell development such as Pax4 and neurogenin 3. Therefore, multipotent MSCs residing within the adult exocrine pancreas could represent a progenitor cell, which when further manipulated could result in the production of functional islet beta-cells.
    Laboratory Investigation 03/2006; 86(2):141-53. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sertoli cells protect cotransplanted cells from allogeneic and xenogeneic rejection. Additionally, neonatal porcine Sertoli cells (NPSCs) survive long-term as xenografts in nonimmunosuppressed rodents. This has led to the hypothesis that NPSCs could be used to prevent cellular rejection in clinical transplantation, thereby eliminating the need for chronic immunosuppression. Prior to transplantation of NPSCs in humans it is necessary to determine whether they are also protected from humoral-mediated xenograft rejection. The presence of Gal alpha(1,3)Gal beta(1,4)GlcNAc-R (alphaGal epitope) as well as binding of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM to NPSCs was examined by immunocytochemical and fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. alphaGal was detected on 88.5% +/- 3.0% of NPSCs. Consistent with this, 71.7% +/- 1.0% and 65.4% +/- 5.2% of NPSCs were bound by IgG and IgM, respectively. When cultured NPSCs underwent an in vitro cytotoxicity assay by incubation with human AB serum plus complement, no increase in cellular lysis was observed, while controls--porcine aorta endothelial cells--were shown to contain > 60% dead cells. Finally, activation of the complement cascade was examined by immunohistochemistry. C3 and C4 were deposited on the surface of the NPSC membrane, indicating activation of complement. Although the complement cascade was activated, the membrane attack complex (MAC) was not formed. These data demonstrate that despite expression of alphaGal, binding of xenoreactive antibodies, and the activation of complement, NPSCs survive human antibody and complement-mediated lysis by preventing MAC formation. This suggests that NPSCs may be able to survive humoral-mediated rejection in a clinical situation.
    Biology of Reproduction 06/2005; 72(5):1224-31. · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neonatal porcine islets (NPIs) are able to grow and to reverse hyperglycemia after transplantation in immunoincompetent mice. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of allogeneic NPI grafts to achieve normoglycemia in a pancreatectomized diabetic pig. NPIs were isolated from pancreases of 1- to 3-day-old pigs, cultured, and then transplanted via the portal vein into the liver of totally pancreatectomized pigs (mean body weight, 20.8 kg). Each pig received NPIs consisting of 3.1 +/- 0.3 x 10(6) beta-cells/kg (12,476 +/- 1,146 islet equivalent/kg). The six pigs that were given cyclosporine and sirolimus achieved normoglycemia by day 14 without insulin therapy. Three pigs died of surgical complications shortly after transplantation, whereas the other three remained insulin independent up to day 69. Of seven nonimmunosuppressed recipients, four pigs became normoglycemic by day 14 without insulin treatment, with two of the animals remaining normoglycemic long term. Well-preserved insulin-positive cells were found in the graft at the end of follow-up with a significant increase in insulin content in long-term survivors of both groups. This study demonstrates for the first time that allogeneic NPIs can reverse hyperglycemia in totally pancreatectomized diabetic pigs.
    Diabetes 05/2005; 54(4):1032-9. · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phthalates have been shown to elicit contrasting effects on the testis and the liver, causing testicular degeneration and promoting abnormal hepatocyte proliferation and carcinogenesis. In the present study, we compared the effects of phthalates on testicular and liver cells to better understand the mechanisms by which phthalates cause testicular degeneration. In vivo treatment of rats with di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) caused a threefold increase of germ cell apoptosis in the testis, whereas apoptosis was not changed significantly in livers from the same animals. Western blot analyses revealed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha is equally abundant in the liver and the testis, whereas PPAR gamma and retinoic acid receptor (RAR) alpha are expressed more in the testis. To determine whether the principal metabolite of DEHP, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), or a strong peroxisome proliferator, 4-chloro-6(2,3-xylindino)-2-pyrimidinylthioacetic acid (Wy-14,643), have a differential effect in Sertoli and liver cells by altering the function of RAR alpha and PPARs, their nuclear trafficking patterns were compared in Sertoli and liver cells after treatment. Both MEHP and Wy-14,643 increased the nuclear localization of PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma in Sertoli cells, but they decreased the nuclear localization of RAR alpha, as previously shown. Both PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma were in the nucleus and cytoplasm of liver cells, but RAR alpha was predominant in the cytoplasm, regardless of the treatment. At the molecular level, MEHP and Wy-14,643 reduced the amount of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase (activated MAPK) in Sertoli cells. In comparison, both MEHP and Wy-14,643 increased phosphorylated MAPK in liver cells. These results suggest that phthalates may cause contrasting effects on the testis and the liver by differential activation of the MAPK pathway, RAR alpha, PPAR alpha, and PPAR gamma in these organs.
    Biology of Reproduction 04/2005; 72(3):745-54. · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical islet transplantation in liver has achieved normoglycemia. However, this site may not be ideal for islet survival. To create a more optimal site for islet transplantation, we have developed a construct with biodegradable scaffolds. Islets were seeded in scaffolds and transplanted into the epididymal fat pad of diabetic BALB/c mice. Controls included islets transplanted underneath the kidney capsule or into the fat pad without scaffolds. All animals with islets in scaffolds or the kidney became normoglycemic and maintained this metabolic state. When islets were transplanted without scaffolds the time to achieve normoglycemia was significantly increased and less than 45% of mice survived. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed on the scaffold and kidney groups with similar blood glucose levels and area under the curve values between the groups. Grafts were removed at more than 100 days posttransplantation and all animals became hyperglycemic. There was no significant difference in insulin content between the grafts and all grafts were well vascularized with insulin-positive beta cells. Therefore, islets in scaffolds function and restore diabetic animals to normoglycemic levels, similar to islets transplanted underneath the kidney capsule, suggesting scaffolds can be used to create a site for islet transplantation.
    Tissue Engineering 01/2005; 11(9-10):1323-31. · 4.25 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

475 Citations
118.00 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2014
    • Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
      • Department of Cell Biology and Biochemistry
      Lubbock, Texas, United States
  • 2003–2011
    • Washington State University
      • School of Molecular Biosciences
      Pullman, WA, United States
  • 2002–2005
    • University of Alberta
      • • Surgical Medical Research Institute (SMRI)
      • • Department of Surgery
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada