Julian Barling

University of British Columbia - Vancouver, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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Publications (139)257.32 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While there is a large body of research on the effects of being a direct target of workplace aggression, there is far less research on the vicarious experience of aggression at work, despite the fact that more people experience workplace aggression vicariously (i.e., observe it or hear about it) than they do directly. In this study, we develop and test a model of the effects of direct and vicarious exposure to aggression that is directed at employees by customers. Structural equation modeling provided support for the proposed model, in which direct and vicarious workplace aggression influences the perceived risk of future workplace aggression, which in turn affects organizational attachment (affective commitment and turnover intentions) and individual well-being (psychological and physical). Conceptual research and policy implications are discussed.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence 02/2014; · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity is associated with a range of physical and psychological health benefits. In North America the majority of adolescents are insufficiently active. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the prospective relationship between adolescents' perceptions of transformational leadership displayed by their school physical education teachers and their own physical activity behaviors, both with respect to within-class physical activity (WCPA) and also leisure time physical activity (LTPA). METHOD: The study used a prospective observational design. Using multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM), we examined the extent to which adolescents' affective attitudes mediated the effects of teachers' behaviors on adolescents' physical activity responses. Two thousand nine hundred and forty-eight adolescents (M age = 14.33, SD = 1.00, N female = 1,641, 55.7 %) from 133 Grade 8-10 classes in British Columbia (Canada) provided ratings of their physical education teachers' behaviors midway through the school year. Two months later, students completed measures of affective attitudes, WCPA, and LTPA. RESULTS: The results indicated that adolescents' perceptions of transformational teaching explained significant variance in both WCPA and LTPA, and these effects were fully mediated by adolescents' affective attitudes (total indirect effect: b = 0.581, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that transformational leadership behaviors displayed by physical education teachers may be an important source of adolescent enjoyment of physical education as well as health-enhancing physical activity involvement within school and outside of school.
    International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 06/2013; · 2.63 Impact Factor
  • Amy M. Christie, Julian Barling
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    ABSTRACT: The question of whether pay structures should be compressed or dispersed remains unanswered. We argue that pay dispersion can yield uncertainty regarding others' intentions and behaviors; as a result, individuals take a greater risk trusting their group members as pay spreads widen. Accordingly, we explore the conditions under which individuals are more willing to take this risk by viewing their group members as trustworthy even when pay is dispersed. Specifically, preferences for how relationships and resources should be structured in groups should help to determine when pay dispersion relates to trustworthiness perceptions. We hypothesise that the cross-level interaction between preferences for communal sharing (Level 1)—that is, the extent to which individuals prefer communal, egalitarian structures in their groups—and pay dispersion (Level 2) is associated with trust perceptions. Data drawn from a sample of university professors support our hypothesised cross-level interaction, and show that when pay dispersion is greater, individuals perceive their group members as more trustworthy only when they have weak preferences for communal sharing. Our results signify the importance of individual attributes to understanding pay dispersion's effects, and show that trust is fostered when preferences and pay conditions are aligned.
    Applied Psychology 06/2013; · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While much is understood about the outcomes of different leadership styles, less is known about the antecedents of leadership, particularly with regards to how leaders' own psychological well-being impacts leadership behaviors. Using conservation of resources theory as a framework, we investigated the relationship between leaders' depleted resources and their leadership behaviors. Conceptualizing depressive symptoms, anxiety, and workplace alcohol consumption as resource depletion, we predicted that depletion would be associated with lower levels of transformational leadership, and higher levels of abusive supervision, and when taken together, would further exacerbate these effects on leadership behaviors. In a study of 172 leader–subordinate pairs, leaders' depressive symptoms, anxiety, and workplace alcohol consumption separately predicted lower transformational leadership, and higher abusive supervision. Furthermore, partial support was found for an exacerbating effect on transformational leadership and abusive supervision.
    The Leadership Quarterly 01/2013; · 2.70 Impact Factor
  • Colette Hoption, Julian Barling, Nick Turner
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to investigate leaders' use of humor as an expression of how they value themselves relative to others. The paper suggests that humor can minimize or exacerbate the status differences between leaders and followers. The paper hypothesizes that leaders' use of self- or in-group-deprecating humor would be positively associated with ratings of transformational leadership as they minimize those distinctions, whereas leaders' use of aggressive humor would be negatively associated with ratings of transformational leadership because it exacerbates status distinctions. Design/methodology/approach ‐ A total of 155 undergraduates (58 males, 97 females; M age=20 years, SD=1.31) were assigned randomly to one of four conditions, each depicting a different type of humor in a leader's speech. Findings ‐ Leaders using self-deprecating humor were rated higher on individualized consideration (a factor of transformational leadership) than those that used aggressive humor. Research limitations/implications ‐ The authors encourage future field research on the role of humor as an expression of leaders' self- versus other-orientation. Originality/value ‐ Humor and work might seem inconsistent, but this study demonstrates how leadership can use humor to improve leader-follower relationships. Furthermore, it contributes to our understanding of self-deprecating humor which has received scant attention relative to other forms of humor.
    Leadership &amp Organization Development Journal 01/2013; 34(1).
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    ABSTRACT: We focus on the differential outcomes associated with experiencing workplace aggression and sexual harassment by a supervisor. To do so, we identify and empirically address several issues within current workplace aggression and sexual harassment research, including the need to (a) conceptualize their multidimensional nature, (b) contrast comparable dimensions between the two, (c) recognize and control for covictimization, and (d) consider the role of target gender. Data were analyzed using multiple regression and dominance analyses on a sample of 467 employed women (M age = 40 years). Results showed that all forms of sexual harassment were more strongly associated with work withdrawal and psychological well-being than comparable forms of workplace aggression. Nonphysical workplace aggression accounted for more of the variance in attitudinal outcomes (job, coworker and supervisor satisfaction, intent to quit, commitment) than nonphysical sexual harassment. Sexual harassment accounted for more of the variance than workplace aggression in all outcomes when the harassment and aggression involved some form of threatened or actual physical contact. Conceptual and methodological issues are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 10/2012; 17(4):398-408. · 2.07 Impact Factor
  • Colette Hoption, Amy Christie, Julian Barling
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    ABSTRACT: Although the importance of followership has been discussed in organizational literature, negative connotations attached to the follower label persist, including followers’ lack of ability and power. In two studies, we found evidence for negative effects of the follower label. Participants who were labeled a follower (Study 1), or self-labeled as followers in their jobs (Study 2), reported lower positive affect, and in turn, fewer extra-role behaviors. These findings suggest that followers might be at risk for reinforcing their negative stereotypes by avoiding opportunities to show their abilities and demonstrate their independence. Recommendations for leaders and opportunities for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
    Zeitschrift für Psychologie. 01/2012; 220(4):221.
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between employees’ perceptions of their managers’ transformational leadership style and employees’ psychological well-being was examined in two studies. In Study 1, trust in the leader fully mediated the positive relationship between perceptions of managers’ transformational leadership and employee psychological well-being in a cross-sectional sample (n=436). Study 2 (n=269) (1) replicated the mediated effect found in Study 1; (2) extended the model by showing that active management-by-exception and laissez-faire behaviours negatively affected employee psychological well-being by reducing trust in the manager; and (3) excluded the possibility that these results were accounted for by individual differences or liking of the manager. Theoretical and practical applications, as well as directions for future research are discussed.
    Work and Stress 01/2012; 26(1):39-55. · 3.00 Impact Factor
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    Sheldene Simola, Julian Barling, Nick Turner
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research on the moral foundations of transformational leadership has focused primarily on stage of justice reasoning; this study focuses on developmental mode of care reasoning. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted on data coded from interviews with a sample of Canadian public sector managers (N = 58) and survey responses from their subordinates (N = 119). Results indicated that managers’ developmental mode of care reasoning significantly and positively predicted subordinates’ reports of transformational (but not transactional) leadership, with significant differences in follower reports of transformational leadership between those using more versus less advanced modes of care reasoning. Conceptual implications for understanding transformational leadership and the ethics of leadership, directions for future research, and suggestions for leadership interventions are discussed.
    Journal of Business Ethics 01/2012; 108(2). · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    AMY CHRISTIE, JULIAN BARLING, NICK TURNER
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    ABSTRACT: A model of pseudo-transformational leadership was tested in 4 experiments. Pseudo-transformational leadership is defined by self-serving, yet highly inspirational leadership behaviors, unwillingness to encourage independent thought in subordinates, and little caring for one's subordinates more generally. Study 1 (N = 167) used vignettes to differentiate among transformational, pseudo-transformational, and laissez-faire leadership styles. Study 2 (N = 179) replicated this model using ratings of characters in the film 12 Angry Men (Fonda, Rose, & Lumet, 1957). Study 3 (N = 120) tested the model, controlling for participant perceptions of leader affect and prototypical leadership behaviors. Study 4 (N = 127) extended the ecological validity of the model and range of outcomes. Across the studies, support was obtained for the model.
    Journal of Applied Social Psychology 12/2011; 41(12):2943 - 2984. · 0.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We draw upon transformational leadership theory to develop an instrument to measure transformational parenting for use with adolescents. First, potential items were generated that were developmentally appropriate and evidence for content validity was provided through the use of focus groups with parents and adolescents. We subsequently provide evidence for several aspects of construct validity of measures derived from the Transformational Parenting Questionnaire (TPQ). Data were collected from 857 adolescents (M(age) = 14.70 years), who rated the behaviors of their mothers and fathers. The results provided support for a second-order measurement model of transformational parenting. In addition, positive relationships between mothers' and fathers' transformational parenting behaviors, adolescents' self-regulatory efficacy for physical activity and healthy eating, and life satisfaction were found. The results of this research support the application of transformational leadership theory to parenting behaviors, as well as the construct validity of measures derived from the TPQ.
    Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 10/2011; 33(5):688-709. · 2.45 Impact Factor
  • Julian Barling, Bill Wade, Clive Fullagar
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    ABSTRACT: The adequacy of Mowday, Porter & Steers' (1982) model of organizational commitment for predicting both company and union commitment was assessed. Data were obtained from 100 members of a white-collar union. Two months before this study, they had taken part in a three-week strike and were still involved in a dispute with management. Measures of company and union commitment were regressed separately on work experiences (job satisfaction, job involvement and perceived organizational climate) and personal characteristics (educational level, sex, company and union tenure). In neither of the multiple regression analyses did the same predictor account for a significant portion of the variance in both union and company commitment. Job satisfaction, organizational climate and job involvement were significant predictors of company commitment, accounting for 17.8 per cent of the variance. Union tenure was the only significant predictor (5.3 per cent of the variance) of union commitment. The emergence of divergent predictors of company and union commitment suggests the need for greater specificity within the literature on ‘organizational commitment’. Consistent with the differing nature and function of unions and companies, it may be more appropriate to construct separate models of company and union commitment.
    Journal of Occupational Psychology. 08/2011; 63(1):49 - 61.
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    ABSTRACT: Based on transformational leadership theory, we generate and test a teacher development intervention designed to modify physical education teachers' transformational teaching behaviors, and their adolescent students' self-determined motivation, self-efficacy, and intentions to be physically active. Using a randomised control group design (11 teachers, 286 students in the experimental group; 16 teachers, 395 students in the control group), the intervention involved a 1-day experiential workshop with a booster session 2 months later, and with post-test measurements at 2- and 4-months post-workshop. After controlling for baseline measures, adolescents in the intervention condition rated their teachers as displaying significantly higher levels of transformational teaching, and reported significantly higher levels of self-determined motivation, self-efficacy, and intentions to be physically active than those in the control group at the first post-test. Significant between-group differences in students' reports of transformational teaching and their own self-determined motivation remained at the second post-test measurement.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being 06/2011; 3(2):127 - 150. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    Morris B Mendelson, Nick Turner, Julian Barling
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – Prior research has demonstrated the positive effects of high involvement work systems on various outcomes but none to date has conducted a comparative test of alternative, plausible models of these systems. This paper aims to address this issue. Design/methodology/approach – A test of five high involvement work system models was conducted. The models were tested using employee perceptions of the presence and effectiveness of the organizational practices included in these systems, whereas a majority of prior studies have measured high involvement work practices based on managers' perceptions only. Measures of eight high involvement work practices (i.e. employment security, selective hiring, extensive training, contingent compensation, teams and decentralized decision making, information sharing, reduced status distinctions, transformational leadership) were used to compare the fit of these five models using confirmatory factor analysis. 317 non-management employees from five Canadian organizations participated. Participants rated both the extent to which they perceived their organizations to have implemented each of the practices and the perceived effectiveness of these practices. Participants' work attitudes (i.e. affective commitment, continuance commitment, job satisfaction) were used to assess the concurrent validity of the tested models. Findings – For both the perceived presence and effectiveness models, confirmatory factor analyses suggested the superiority of a second-order model, demonstrating concurrent validity with participants' positive (i.e. affective commitment, job satisfaction) and negative (i.e. continuance commitment) attitudes. Originality/value – This is the first study to conduct a comparative test of five alternative models of high involvement work systems and one of the few studies to address employee perception of these practices.
    Personnel Review 02/2011; 40(1). · 0.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We draw from transformational leadership theory (Bass & Riggio, 2006) to develop a reliable and valid measure of transformational teaching, for use within school-based physical education contexts. In Phase 1, we utilized established instrument development procedures, involving teachers, students, and experts in transformational leadership theory to ensure that items exhibited sound content validity, and were developmentally appropriate. In Phase 2, multilevel confirmatory factor analytic procedures with 2761 adolescents supported the factorial validity of the Transformational Teaching Questionnaire. In Phase 3, concurrent validity of the TTQ was supported by positive relationships between transformational teaching and adolescent self-determined motivation and positive affect.
    Journal of Health Psychology 11/2010; 15(8):1123-34. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reports an error in "Comparing perceived injustices from supervisors and romantic partners as predictors of aggression" by Kathryne E. Dupré, Nick Turner, Julian Barling and Chris B. Stride (Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, np). Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/ a0020520), the order of authorship was listed incorrectly. The correct order of authorship follows: Kathryne E. Dupré, Julian Barling, Nick Turner, and Chris B. Stride All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2010-19351-001.) To examine the predictive effects of perceived injustice in two different interpersonal relationships (i.e., working relationship with a supervisor, romantic relationship with a partner) on aggression enacted in those relationships, we computed a series of multilevel regressions on 62 heterosexual couples with all 124 partners employed part-time and working for different supervisors. Higher levels of perceived supervisor injustice predicted higher supervisor-directed aggression, whereas higher levels of perceived partner injustice predicted lower supervisor-directed aggression. An interaction between perceived partner injustice and anger predicted higher levels of partner-directed aggression. Implications and recommendations for future research on the relationship specificity of perceived injustice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 10/2010; 15(4):370. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the predictive effects of perceived injustice in two different interpersonal relationships (i.e., working relationship with a supervisor, romantic relationship with a partner) on aggression enacted in those relationships, we computed a series of multilevel regressions on 62 heterosexual couples with all 124 partners employed part-time and working for different supervisors. Higher levels of perceived supervisor injustice predicted higher supervisor-directed aggression, whereas higher levels of perceived partner injustice predicted lower supervisor-directed aggression. An interaction between perceived partner injustice and anger predicted higher levels of partner-directed aggression. Implications and recommendations for future research on the relationship specificity of perceived injustice are discussed.
    Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 10/2010; 15(4):359-70. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    Amy M Christie, Julian Barling
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    ABSTRACT: Status structures in organizations are ubiquitous yet largely ignored in organizational research. We offer a conceptualization of team status inequality, or the extent to which status positions on a team are dispersed. Status inequality is hypothesized to be negatively related to individual performance and physical health for low-status individuals when uncooperative behavior is high. Trajectories of the outcomes across time are also explored. Analyses using multilevel modeling largely support our hypotheses in a sample of National Basketball Association players across six time points from 2000 to 2005.
    Journal of Applied Psychology 09/2010; 95(5):920-34. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    M Sandy Hershcovis, Julian Barling
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    ABSTRACT: In 2 studies, we investigated victim attributions (Study 1) and outcomes (Study 2) for workplace aggression and sexual harassment. Drawing on social categorization theory, we argue that victims of workplace aggression and sexual harassment may make different attributions about their mistreatment. In Study 1, we investigated victim attributions in an experimental study. We hypothesized that victims of sexual harassment are more likely than victims of workplace aggression to depersonalize their mistreatment and attribute blame to the perpetrator or the perpetrator's attitudes toward their gender. In contrast, victims of workplace aggression are more likely than victims of sexual harassment to personalize the mistreatment and make internal attributions. Results supported our hypotheses. On the basis of differential attributions for these 2 types of mistreatment, we argue that victims of workplace aggression may experience stronger adverse outcomes than victims of sexual harassment. In Study 2, we compared meta-analytically the attitudinal, behavioral, and health outcomes of workplace aggression and sexual harassment. Negative outcomes of workplace aggression were stronger in magnitude than those of sexual harassment for 6 of the 8 outcome variables. Implications and future directions are discussed.
    Journal of Applied Psychology 09/2010; 95(5):874-88. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the extent to which the safety performance (i.e., self-reported safety compliance and safety participation) of employees with 2 jobs was predicted by their respective supervisors' transformational leadership behaviors. We compared 2 within-person models: a context-specific model (i.e., transformational leadership experienced by employees in 1 context related to those same employees' safety performance only in that context) and a context-spillover model (i.e., transformational leadership experienced by employees in 1 context related to those same employees' safety performance in the same and other contexts). Our sample comprised 159 "moonlighters" (73 men, 86 women): employees who simultaneously hold 2 different jobs, each with a different supervisor, providing within-person data on the influence of different supervisors on employee safety performance across 2 job contexts. Having controlled for individual differences (negative affectivity and conscientiousness) and work characteristics (e.g., hours worked and length of relationship with supervisor), the context-specific model provided the best fit to the data among alternative nested models. Implications for the role of transformational leadership in promoting workplace safety are discussed.
    Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 07/2010; 15(3):279-90. · 2.07 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
257.32 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • School of Kinesiology
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 1985–2013
    • Queen's University
      • • School of Business
      • • Department of Psychology
      Kingston, Ontario, Canada
  • 1987–2012
    • Queens University of Charlotte
      New York, United States
    • Stony Brook University
      • Department of Psychology
      Stony Brook, New York, United States
  • 2010
    • Memorial University of Newfoundland
      • Faculty of Business Administration
      Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada
    • University of Manitoba
      • Asper School of Business
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    • Trent University
      Peterborough, Ontario, Canada
  • 2009–2010
    • Wilfrid Laurier University
      • School of Business & Economics
      Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
  • 2008–2010
    • University of Alberta
      • Department of Strategic Management and Organization
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 1988–2010
    • Queen's University Belfast
      Béal Feirste, N Ireland, United Kingdom
  • 2000
    • Saint Mary's University
      Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
  • 1990
    • Queen Margaret University
      • Division of Psychology and Sociology
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1979–1990
    • University of the Witwatersrand
      • Department of Psychology
      Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa