[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate care processes and outcomes among children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes treated in hospital-based multidisciplinary paediatric diabetes centres. Our retrospective cross-sectional study among 12 Belgian centres included data from 974 patients with type 1 diabetes, aged 0-18 years. Questionnaires were used to collect data on demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as process of care completion and outcomes of care in 2008. Most patients lived with both biological or adoption parents (77 %) and had at least one parent of Belgian origin (78 %). Nearly all patients (≥95 %) underwent determination of HbA(1c) and BMI. Screening for retinopathy (55 %) and microalbuminuria (73 %) was less frequent, but rates increased with age and diabetes duration. Median HbA(1c) was 61 mmol/mol (7.7 %) [interquartile range 54-68 mmol/mol (7.1-8.4 %)] and increased with age and insulin dose. HbA(1c) was higher among patients on insulin pump therapy. Median HbA(1c) significantly differed between centres [from 56 mmol/mol (7.3 %) to 66 mmol/mol (8.2 %)]. Incidence of severe hypoglycaemia was 30 per 100 patient-years. Admissions for ketoacidosis had a rate of 3.2 per 100 patient-years. Patients not living with both biological or adoption parents had higher HbA(1c) and more admissions for ketoacidosis. Parents' country of origin was not associated with processes and outcomes of care. Conclusion: Outcomes of care ranked well compared to other European countries, while complication screening rates were intermediate. The observed centre variation in HbA(1c) remained unexplained. Outcomes were associated with family structure, highlighting the continuing need for strategies to cope with this emerging challenge.
European Journal of Pediatrics 08/2012; · 1.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few data are available about parental concerns and psychosocial functioning of young children born small for gestational age (SGA) treated with growth hormone (GH). The present study focused on the perception of short stature and the concerns and expectations of the parents regarding GH treatment.
Forty prepubertal short SGA children, randomized into a GH-treated and a GH-untreated group, and their parents were evaluated by a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview at start and after 2 years of follow-up.
Before start, 85% of the parents were concerned about short stature, 76% expected an increase in adult height of > or =10 cm and 81% expected a positive impact on well-being. Half of the parents expressed fears regarding GH treatment. After 2 years, more parents of treated children reported obvious growth and physical changes, and fewer parents reported teasing because of short stature. An improvement of well-being was reported by half of the parents of treated and untreated children. Fears about GH treatment disappeared almost completely.
The perspective of GH treatment induced major adult height expectations. In treated children, the physical effects of GH treatment became obvious, teasing because of short stature decreased and initial concerns about short stature and GH therapy decreased.
Hormone Research 01/2008; 69(6):334-42. · 2.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Children born small for gestational age (SGA) are not only at risk for short stature, but also for neurodevelopmental and behavioral problems. In this study, we analyzed the effects of high-dose GH therapy on cognitive development and psychosocial functioning in 34 prepubertal (3-8 years) short SGA children, equally randomized into a GH-treated group (TRG) and an untreated group (UTRG).
At start and after 2 years, children underwent standardized tests measuring the intellectual abilities (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised); their parents completed a standardized questionnaire evaluating psychosocial functioning (Child Behavior Checklist; CBCL).
At start, total IQ scores were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the SGA group than in the general population: 32% of the SGA patients had scores below 85. After 2 years, IQ scores remained unchanged in the TRG, but increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the UTRG. After exclusion of children with developmental problems, however, no significant changes in IQ scores occurred in the UTRG as well as the TRG. At baseline, 24% (8/34) children had problematic CBCL total problems scores, equally distributed among the two groups; no significant changes in the different subscale scores occurred after 2 years.
No beneficial effect of 2 years of GH therapy on cognitive and behavioral profile could be observed in a cohort of rather young short SGA children presenting a variable degree of developmental delay and behavioral problems. Subsequent follow-up could reveal potential long-term effects of GH therapy on development and behavior.
European Journal of Endocrinology 03/2007; 156(2):195-201. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the availability of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) all children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) living in Belgium are offered rhGH treatment after approval by a peer-review board. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence and demographic features of childhood GHD in Belgium during the period 1986-2001 and we compared them with the data from other countries.
Diagnostic, demographic and baseline auxological data of 714 children diagnosed as having GHD between 1986 and 2001 were retrieved from the database of the Belgian Study Group for Paediatric Endocrinology.
The prevalence of GHD in Belgium was estimated to be 1/5600. The origin of GHD was idiopathic (idGHD) in 41% of the patients, congenital (congGHD) in 20% and acquired (acqGHD) in 35%. During the first 4 years (1986-1989) more patients were classified as idGHD; thereafter the distribution between the three aetiology groups did not change. In all groups, boys outnumbered girls but this preponderance was especially pronounced in congGHD patients (male:female=4:1) with a central malformation that associates an anterior pituitary hypoplasia, a missing, fine or normal pituitary stalk and an ectopic posterior pituitary. Thirteen percent of the patients with idGHD, 50% with congGHD and 52% with acqGHD had multiple pituitary deficiencies. Patients with congGHD were the youngest (mean+/-s.d. age: 6.5+/-4.7 years) and were the shortest (-3.0+/-1.3 standard deviation score (SDS)) at the start of rhGH treatment. There was no time trend over the studied period for age and height at onset of GH therapy.
In Belgium, the prevalence of childhood GHD can be estimated as 1/5600 which is comparable to other recent surveys. The yearly number of new patients for the different aetiologies and the auxological parameters have remained relatively constant over the last 16 years.
European Journal of Endocrinology 08/2004; 151(1):67-72. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The growth response to recombinant hGH (rhGH) treatment and final height of 61 Belgian children (32 boys) with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (GHD) were studied.
Two patient groups were compared: Group 1 with spontaneous puberty (n = 49), Group 2 with induced puberty (n = 12). The patients were treated with daily subcutaneous injections of rhGH in a dose of 0.5-0.7 IU/kg/week (0.17-0.23 mg/kg/week) from the mean +/- SD age of 11.9 +/- 3.1 years during 5.1 +/- 2.1 years.
rhGH treatment induced a doubling of the height velocity during the first year and resulted in a normalisation of height in 53 (87%) patients. Final height was -0.7 +/- 1.1 SDS, being 170.4 +/- 7.2 cm in boys and 158.0 +/- 6.4 cm in girls. Corrected for mid-parental height, final height was 0.0 +/- 1.1 SDS. Ninety-two percent of the patients attained an adult height within the genetically determined target height range. Although height gain during puberty was smaller in the patients with induced puberty (boys: 17.1 +/- 7.0 cm vs. 27.5 +/- 6.6 cm (p < 0.005); girls: 9.6 +/- 7.4 cm vs. 22.2 +/- 6.1 cm (p < 0.005)), no differences in final height after adjustment for mid-parental height were found between patients with spontaneous or induced puberty.
We conclude that patients with idiopathic GHD treated with rhGH administered as daily subcutaneous injections in a dose of 0.5-0.7 IU/kg/week reach their genetic growth potential, resulting in a normalisation of height in the majority of them, irrespective of spontaneous or induced puberty.
Hormone Research 01/2001; 55(2):88-94. · 2.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Forty prepubertal subjects (25 boys and 15 girls) with idiopathic short stature, aged 3.8-14.6 yr, were randomly allocated to receive sc injections of recombinant human GH (hGH) 6 days/week at a dose of 3 IU (1.25 mg)/m2.day either in the morning or in the evening. After 6 months of therapy, each subject was switched over to the other schedule of injection. After 12 months, treatment was stopped, and the subjects were followed for 6 months. For the whole group, regardless of the time of injection, height velocity (centimeters per yr) was 4.3 +/- 0.9 before hGH treatment, 8.3 +/- 1.9 during the first 6 months of treatment, and 6.9 +/- 1.6 during the last 6 months of treatment. Thirty-three of 38 subjects (87%) who completed 12 months of therapy presented an increase in height velocity greater than 2 cm/yr. Two patients (5%) developed antibodies to hGH and were among the nonresponders. There was no significant difference in growth response according to the schedule of injections. GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) testing was performed before and after 6 and 12 months of hGH therapy. When the last hGH injection was performed 12 h before the GHRH test, there was a 36% decrease in the maximum GH response (P less than 0.01) and a 33% decrease (P less than 0.01) in the GH secretory area compared to those before therapy. When the last hGH injection was performed 24 h or more before the GHRH test, no significant differences were observed. Insulin-like growth factor-I levels were not significantly different when measured 12 or 24 h after hGH. During the 6 months after discontinuation of hGH therapy, catch-down growth was observed in 44% of the subjects. We conclude that the schedule of injection does not influence the growth response, which wanes after 6 months; this waning effect is not related to declining insulin-like growth factor-I levels or GH autofeedback, suggesting a peripheral mechanism. Likewise, the catch-down phenomenon after hGH is discontinued is not related to a persistent diminution of pituitary responsiveness to GHRH.