[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the gene encoding bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A1) are known to cause Crigler-Najjar syndrome type II (CN-II). We previously encountered a patient with a nonsense mutation (Q331X) on one allele and with no other mutations in the promoter region or other exons, and proposed that CN-II is inherited as a dominant trait due to the formation of a heterologous subunit structure comprised of the altered UGT1A1 gene product (UGT1A1-p.Q331X) and the intact UGT1A1. Here, we investigated the molecular basis of CN-II in this case by expressing UGT1A1-p.Q331X in cells. UGT1A1-p.Q331X overexpressed in Escherichia coli or mammalian cells directly bound or associated with intact UGT1A1 in vitro or in vivo, respectively. Intact UGT1A1 was observed as a dimer using atomic force microscopy. Fluorescent-tagged UGT1A1-p.Q331X and intact UGT1A1 were colocalized in 293T cells, and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis showed that UGT1A1-p.Q331X was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) without rapid degradation. These findings support the idea that UGT1A1-p.Q331X and UGT1A1 form a dimer and provide an increased mechanistic understanding of CN-II.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 9 January 2014; doi:10.1038/jhg.2013.138.
Journal of Human Genetics 01/2014; · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TdIF1 was originally identified as a protein that directly binds to DNA polymerase TdT. TdIF1 is also thought to function in transcription regulation, because it binds directly to the transcriptional factor TReP-132, and to histone deacetylases HDAC1 and HDAC2. Here we show that TdIF1 recognizes a specific DNA sequence and regulates gene transcription. By constructing TdIF1 mutants, we identify amino acid residues essential for its interaction with DNA. An in vitro DNA selection assay, SELEX, reveals that TdIF1 preferentially binds to the sequence 5'-GNTGCATG-3' following an AT-tract, through its Helix-Turn-Helix and AT-hook motifs. We show that four repeats of this recognition sequence allow TdIF1 to regulate gene transcription in a plasmid-based luciferase reporter assay. We demonstrate that TdIF1 associates with the RAB20 promoter, and RAB20 gene transcription is reduced in TdIF1-knocked-down cells, suggesting that TdIF1 stimulates RAB20 gene transcription.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e66710. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA polymerase μ (pol μ) catalyzes nonhomologous end-joining in DNA double-stranded break repair. Pol μ consists of an amino-terminal BRCA1 carboxyl-terminal homology (BRCT) domain and a pol β-like region, which contains the catalytic site. By DNA cellulose column chromatography, using full-length pol μ and five different deletion mutants, we found that the amino-terminal region has double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)-binding activity. Pol μ without BRCT domain reduces the DNA polymerization activity when compared to full-length pol μ. Observation by atomic force microscopy showed that full-length pol μ binds to the ends and middle part of dsDNA. Pol μ lacking the amino-terminal region or with a mutation within the BRCT domain bound only to DNA ends, whereas the amino-terminal region with the BRCT domain bound to both the ends and the middle part of dsDNA (mpdDNA). Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase, which, like pol μ, belongs to the X family DNA polymerases, also bound to mpdDNA through its amino-terminal region.
Genes to Cells 08/2012; 17(9):790-806. · 2.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT), which template-independently synthesizes DNA during V(D)J recombination in lymphoid cells, is ubiquitylated by a BPOZ-2/Cul3 complex, as the ubiquitin ligase, and then degraded by the 26 S proteasome. We show here that TdT is ubiquitylated by the Cul3-based ubiquitylation system in vitro. Because TdT could also be ubiquitylated in the absence of Cul/BPOZ-2, we determined that it could also be directly ubiquitylated by the E2 proteins UbcH5a/b/c and UbcH6, E3-independently. Furthermore, the ubiquitylated TdT inhibited its nucleotidyltransferase activity.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e39511. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT) interacting factor 2 (TdIF2) is an acidic protein that binds to TdT. TdIF2 binds to DNA and core histones and contains an acidic-amino acid-rich region in its C-terminus. It has therefore been suggested to function as a histone chaperone within the nucleus. TdIF2 localized within the nucleolus in HEK 293T cells, and its N-terminal (residues 1-234) and C-terminal (residues 606-756) regions were crucial for the nucleolar localization. A chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed that TdIF2 associated with the promoter of human ribosomal RNA genes (hrDNAP), and an in vitro luciferase assay system showed that it promoted hrDNAP activity. Using the yeast two-hybrid system with TdIF2 as the bait, we isolated the cDNA encoding HIV Tat interactive protein 60 (Tip60), which has histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity, as a TdIF2-binding protein. TdIF2 bound to Tip60 in vitro and in vivo, inhibited the Tip60 HAT activity in vitro and co-localized with Tip60 within the nucleolus. In addition, TdIF2 promotes upstream binding factor (UBF) acetylation in vivo. Thus, TdIF2 might promote hrDNAP activity by suppressing Tip60's HAT activity and promoting UBF acetylation.
Genes to Cells 07/2011; 16(7):748-64. · 2.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We isolated human cDNA clone encoding Bood POZ containing gene type 2 (BPOZ-2) as a gene with a product that binds to TdT interacting factor 1 (TdIF1) using a yeast two-hybrid system. BPOZ-2 is an adaptor for E3 ligase CUL3 and participates in developmental processes. The binding between BPOZ-2 and TdIF1 was confirmed by GST pull-down and immunoprecipitation assays using specific antibodies against BPOZ-2 and TdIF1 in vitro and in vivo. Although when BPOZ-2 solely was expressed in COS7 cells, BPOZ-2 was observed mainly within the cytoplasm, co-transfection of pEGFP-BPOZ-2 and pDsRed-TdIF1 into COS7 cells resulted in co-localization of EGFP-BPOZ-2 and DsRed-TdIF1 within the nucleus. TdIF1 may recruit BPOZ-2 into the nucleus from the cytoplasm by directly binding to BPOZ-2. BPOZ-2 enhanced TdT ubiquitylation when TdIF1 was expressed together with BPOZ-2 in 293T cells, strongly suggesting that the recruitment of BPOZ-2 into the nucleus from the cytoplasm is significant for the TdT ubiquitylation within the nucleus.
Genes to Cells 11/2009; 14(12):1415-27. · 2.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bood POZ containing gene type 2 (BPOZ-2), which contains ankyrin repeats, NLS, BTB/POZ domains and LXXLL motifs, is an adaptor protein for the E3 ubiquitin ligase scaffold protein CUL3. We isolated a cDNA encoding eukaryotic elongation factor 1A1 (eEF1A1) as a BPOZ-2 binding protein by screening a human thymus cDNA library using a yeast two-hybrid system. eEF1A1 is essential for translation and is also involved in the 26S proteasome-dependent degradation of misfolded or unfolded proteins. The binding between BPOZ-2 and eEF1A1 was confirmed by pull-down and immunoprecipitation assays in vitro and in vivo, respectively. BPOZ-2 binds to eEF1A1 through the ankyrin repeats and both BTB/POZ domains in BPOZ-2 and Domains I and III in eEF1A1. BPOZ-2 and eEF1A1 over-expressed in HEK 293T cells co-localized as speckles within the cytoplasm. BPOZ-2 promoted eEF1A1 ubiquitylation and degradation, suggesting that eEF1A1 is a substrate of BPOZ-2. BPOZ-2 inhibited GTP binding to eEF1A1 and prevented translation in in vitro translation assay using rabbit reticulocytes.
Genes to Cells 07/2008; 13(6):593-607. · 2.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bood POZ containing gene type 2 (BPOZ-2) is involved in the growth suppressive effect of the phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN). We showed that BPOZ-2 is a human counterpart of yeast Btb3p, which is a putative adaptor for Pcu3p-based ubiquitin ligase. BPOZ-2 bound to E3 ligase CUL3 in vitro and in vivo. BPOZ-2 itself was ubiquitinated through the CUL3-based E3 ligase mainly within the nucleus and degraded by the 26S proteasome. Although BPOZ-2 was mainly expressed within the cytoplasm, it accumulated within the nucleus in the presence of the specific 26S proteasome inhibitor MG132. BPOZ-2 may be recruited to the nucleus from the cytoplasm. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT) was detected as a BPOZ-2-binding protein using a yeast two-hybrid system by screening a human thymus cDNA library. TdT, BPOZ-2, and CUL3 formed a ternary complex in vivo. TdT was ubiquitinated only within the nucleus and degraded by the 26S proteasome. The ubiqutination or degradation of TdT was markedly promoted by co-expression of BPOZ-2 and CUL3 or BPOZ-2 in 293T cells, respectively.
Genes to Cells 06/2008; 13(5):439-57. · 2.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: Bilirubin, a final degradation product of heme produced mainly in the spleen, is carried to the liver through its binding to albumin in the blood circulation. After its transport to hepatocytes, ligandin (glutathione S-transferase; GST) carries bilirubin to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) glucuronidates bilirubin for solubilization in the ER. Methods: By GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays, GSTA2, a member of the alpha-class of GST, was observed to directly bind to UGT1A1 through the region present inside the ER. Results: GSTA2 was detected in the microsomal fraction together with the cytosolic fraction after hepatocyte fractionation. Conclusion: These results strongly suggest that bilirubin is directly delivered to UGT1A1 from ligandin for glucuronidation.
Hepatology Research 05/2008; 38(4):402-9. · 2.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine expressed in many cell types. Although the TNFalpha gene expression in human hepatocytes has been detected previously, its regulation is not well understood yet. In this study, we demonstrated that TNFalpha gene expression in human hepatoma cell line, huH2-2, was activated as a function of cell density. TNFalpha mRNA expression was low in the low-density culture, while significantly high expression was detected in the high-density culture. Moreover, stability of TNFalpha mRNA was not changed by cell density, eliminating a possibility of post-transcriptional regulation. Antibody neutralization against human TNFalpha had no significant effect on the TNFalpha mRNA expression. A cellular factor for the TNFalpha gene expression is suggested to be accumulated in the high-density cells. Data indicate that the level of TNFalpha gene transcription is elevated by a cellular factor in a cell density-dependent manner without influencing the TNFalpha secretion under the present cell-culture conditions used.
International Journal of Oncology 01/2008; 31(6):1485-90. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TdT interacting factor 1 (TdIF1) was identified as a protein that binds to terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT) to negatively regulate TdT activity. TdT is a template-independent DNA polymerase that catalyzes the incorporation of deoxynucleotides to the 3'-hydroxyl end of DNA templates to increase the junctional diversity of immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor (TcR) genes. Here, using bioinformatics analysis, we identified the TdT binding, DNA binding and dimerization regions, and nuclear localization signal (NLS) in TdIF1. TdIF1 bound to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) through three DNA binding regions: residues 1-75, the AT-hook-like motif (ALM) and the predicted helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif. ALM in TdIF1 preferentially bound to AT-rich DNA regions. NLS was of the bipartite type and overlapped ALM. TdIF1 bound to the Pol beta-like region in TdT and blocked TdT access to DNA ends. In the presence of dsDNA, however, TdIF1 bound to dsDNA to release TdT from the TdIF1/TdT complex and to exhibit TdT activity, implying that active TdT released microenvironmentally concentrates around AT-rich DNA to synthesize DNA.
Genes to Cells 09/2007; 12(8):941-59. · 2.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cholesterol hemisuccinate (compound 5), which consists of succinic acid esterified to the beta-hydroxyl group of cholesterol, selectively and strongly inhibited the activities of mammalian DNA polymerases (pols) such as pol beta, pol lambda, and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT), which are family X pols, in vitro, and the IC50 values were 2.9, 6.3, and 6.5 microM, respectively. The compound moderately suppressed the activities of other mammalian pols such as pol A (i.e., pol gamma), pol B (i.e., pols alpha, delta, and epsilon), and pol Y (i.e., pols iota, eta, and kappa) with 50% inhibition observed at concentrations of 131, 89.2-98.0, and 120-125 microM, respectively. The compound had no influence on the activities of plant pols alpha and beta, prokaryotic pols and other DNA metabolic enzymes tested. Since other cholesterol-related compounds such as cholesterol, cholesteryl chloride, cholesteryl bromide, cholesteryl acetate, and cholesteryl-5alpha, 6alpha-epoxide (compounds 1-4 and 6, respectively) did not influence the activities of any enzymes tested, the hemisuccinate group of compound 5 could be important for inhibition of the pol X family. Surface plasmon resonance analysis demonstrated that compound 5 bound selectively to the C-terminal 31 kDa domain of pol beta and pol lambda containing a pol beta-like region. On the basis of these results, the inhibitory mechanism of compound 5 on the pol X family was discussed.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2007; 354(2):619-25. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although both CD28 and ICOS bind PI3K and provide stimulatory signal for T cell activation, unlike CD28, ICOS does not costimulate IL-2 secretion. CD28 binds both PI3K and Grb2, whereas ICOS binds only PI3K. We have generated an ICOS mutant, which can bind Grb2 by replacement of its PI3K binding motif YMFM with the CD28 YMNM motif, and shown that it induces significant activation of the IL-2 promoter. However, this mutant ICOS was insufficient to activate the NF-kappaB pathway. In this study, we show that Gads, but not Grb2, is essential for CD28-mediated NF-kappaB activation, and its binding to CD28 requires the whole CD28 cytoplasmic domain in addition to the YMNM motif. Mutagenesis experiments have indicated that mutations in the N-terminal and/or C-terminal PXXP motif(s) of CD28 significantly reduce their association with Gads, whereas their associations with Grb2 are maintained. They induced strong activity of the NFAT/AP-1 reporter comparable with the CD28 wild type, but weak activity of the NF-kappaB reporter. Grb2- and Gads-dominant-negative mutants had a strong effect on NFAT/AP-1 reporter, but only Gads-dominant-negative significantly inhibited NF-kappaB reporter. Our data suggest that, in addition to the PI3K binding motif, the PXXP motif in the CD28 cytoplasmic domain may also define a functional difference between the CD28- and ICOS-mediated costimulatory signals by binding to Gads.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2006; 177(2):1085-91. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (compound 1), a steroidal glycoside isolated from onion (Allium cepa L.) selectively inhibited the activity of mammalian DNA polymerase lambda (pol lambda) in vitro. The compound did not influence the activities of replicative DNA polymerases such as alpha, delta and epsilon, but also showed no effect even on the activity of pol beta which is thought to have a very similar three-dimensional structure to the pol beta-like region of pol lambda. Since parts of compound 1 such as beta-sitosterol (compound 2) and D-glucose (compound 3) did not influence the activities of any enzymes tested, the converted structure of compounds 2 and 3 might be important for pol lambda inhibition. The inhibitory effect of compound 1 on both intact pol lambda (i.e. residues 1-575) and a truncated pol lambda lacking the N-terminal BRCA1 C-terminus (BRCT) domain (133-575, del-1 pol lambda) was dose-dependent, and 50% inhibition was observed at a concentration of 9.1 and 5.4 microM, respectively. The compound 1-induced inhibition of del-1 pol lambda activity was non-competitive with respect to both the DNA template-primer and the dNTP substrate. On the basis of these results, the pol lambda inhibitory mechanism of compound 1 is discussed.
The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 06/2006; 99(2-3):100-7. · 3.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that phenolic compounds, petasiphenol and curcumin (diferuloylmethane), were a selective inhibitor of DNA polymerase lambda (pol lambda) in vitro. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular structural relationship of curcumin and 13 chemically synthesized derivatives of curcumin. The inhibitory effect on pol lambda (full-length, i.e. intact pol lambda including the BRCA1 C- terminal [BRCT] domain) by some derivatives was stronger than that by curcumin, and monoacetylcurcumin (compound 13) was the strongest pol lambda inhibitor of all the compounds tested, achieving 50% inhibition at a concentration of 3.9 microm. The compound did not influence the activities of replicative pols such as alpha, delta, and epsilon. It had no effect on pol beta activity either, although the three-dimensional structure of pol beta is thought to be highly similar to that of pol lambda. Compound 13 did not inhibit the activity of the C-terminal catalytic domain of pol lambda including the pol beta-like core, in which the BRCT motif was deleted from its N-terminal region. MALDI-TOF MS analysis demonstrated that compound 13 bound selectively to the N-terminal domain of pol lambda, but did not bind to the C-terminal region. Based on these results, the pol lambda-inhibitory mechanism of compound 13 is discussed.
Genes to Cells 04/2006; 11(3):223-35. · 2.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural (HMF), a pyrolysate of carbohydrate isolated from instant coffee (Coffea arabica L.), selectively inhibits the activities of mammalian DNA polymerase lambda (pol lambda) and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT) which are family X pols, in vitro. The compound influenced neither the activities of replicative DNA polymerases such as alpha, delta, and epsilon, nor even the activity of pol beta which is from the same family and thought to have a very similar three-dimensional structure to the pol beta-like region of pol lambda. Since parts of HMF such as furan, furfuryl alcohol, and 2-furaldehyde did not influence the activities of any enzymes tested, the substituted form of furan with a hyroxymethyl group and a formyl group might be important for the inhibition of pol lambda and TdT. The inhibitory effect of HMF on intact pol lambda (i.e., residues 1-575), a truncated pol lambda lacking the N-terminal BRCA1 C-terminus domain (133-575, del-1 pol lambda) and another truncated pol lambda lacking the N-terminal proline-rich region (245-575, del-2 pol lambda) was dose-dependent, and 50% inhibition was observed at a concentration of 26.1, 10.3, and 4.6 microM, respectively. The IC(50) value of HMF for TdT was the same as that for del-2 pol lambda (5.5 microM). The HMF-induced inhibition of both pol lambda and TdT activities was competitive with respect to both the DNA template-primer and the dNTP substrate. On the basis of these results, HMF was suggested to bind to the pol beta-like region of pol lambda and TdT.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 03/2006; 446(1):69-76. · 3.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N regions at the junction of V, D and J DNA segments are synthesized with large protein complexes including terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT) during V(D)J recombination in B- or T-cells. TdT directly binds to TdIF1, TdIF2, PCNA and the Ku70/86 heterodimer. Using a yeast two-hybrid system, we isolated a cDNA clone encoding the gene for TReP-132, which is involved in P450scc gene expression in steroid-hormone-producing cells or lymphoid cells. Interaction between TReP-132 and TdIF1 was confirmed by pull-down assay and immunoprecipitation assay using specific antibodies against TReP-132 both in vitro and in vivo. TdT also directly bound to TReP-132 through its confined N-terminal region. Furthermore, the co-expression of TdIF1 and TReP-132 or TdT and TReP-132 in COS7 cells showed that these proteins are co-localized within the nucleus. TReP-132 reduces TdT activity to 2.5% of its maximum value in the in vitro assay system using double-stranded DNA with a 3' protrusion as a primer. These findings suggest that TdT synthesizes N region under a negative control of TReP-132 during V(D)J recombination.
Genes to Cells 02/2006; 11(1):47-57. · 2.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tocotrienols, vitamin E compounds that have an unsaturated side chain with three double bonds, selectively inhibited the activity of mammalian DNA polymerase lambda (pol lambda) in vitro. These compounds did not influence the activities of replicative pols such as alpha, delta, and epsilon, or even the activity of pol beta which is thought to have a very similar three-dimensional structure to the pol beta-like region of pol lambda. Since delta-tocotrienol had the strongest inhibitory effect among the four (alpha- to delta-) tocotrienols, the isomer's structure might be an important factor in the inhibition of pol lambda. The inhibitory effect of delta-tocotrienol on both intact pol lambda (residues 1-575) and a truncated pol lambda lacking the N-terminal BRCA1 C-terminus (BRCT) domain (residues 133-575, del-1 pol lambda) was dose-dependent, with 50% inhibition observed at a concentration of 18.4 and 90.1microM, respectively. However, del-2 pol lambda (residues 245-575) containing the C-terminal pol beta-like region was unaffected. Tocotrienols also inhibited the proliferation of and formation of tubes by bovine aortic endothelial cells, with delta-tocotrienol having the greatest effect. These results indicated that tocotrienols targeted both pol lambda and angiogenesis as anti-cancer agents. The relationship between the inhibition of pol lambda and anti-angiogenesis by delta-tocotrienol was discussed.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2006; 339(3):949-55. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that a phenolic compound, curcumin (diferuloylmethane), was a selective inhibitor of DNA polymerase lambda (pol lambda) in vitro [Y. Mizushina, M. Hirota, C. Murakami, T. Ishidoh, S. Kamisuki, N. Shimazaki, M. Takemura, M. Perpelescu, M. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, F. Sugawara, O. Koiwai, K. Sakaguchi, Some anti-chronic inflammatory compounds are DNA polymerase lambda-specific inhibitors, Biochem. Pharmacol. 66 (2003) 1935-1944.]. We also found that monoacetylcurcumin ([1E,4Z,6E]-7-(4''-acetoxy-3''-methoxyphenyl)-5-hydroxy-1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-on), a chemically synthesized derivative of curcumin, was a stronger pol lambda inhibitor than curcumin, achieving 50% inhibition at a concentration of 3.9microM. Monoacetylcurcumin did not influence the activities of replicative pols such as alpha, delta, and epsilon, and showed no effect even on the activity of pol beta, the three-dimensional structure of which is thought to be highly similar to that of pol lambda. The compound-induced inhibition of pol lambda activity was non-competitive with respect to both the DNA template-primer and the dNTP substrate. Monoacetylcurcumin did not inhibit the activity of the C-terminal catalytic domain of pol lambda including the pol beta-like core, in which the BRCT motif was deleted. The compound did not influence the activities of prokaryotic pols or other mammalian DNA metabolizing enzymes such as calf primase of pol alpha, calf terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, human telomerase, human immunodeficiency virus type-1 reverse transcriptase, T7 RNA polymerase, T4 polynucleotide kinase, and bovine deoxyribonuclease I. Therefore, we concluded that monoacetylcurcumin is a selective inhibitor of pol lambda and could be used as a chromatographic ligand to purify pol lambda. We then made a monoacetylcurcumin-conjugated column with epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B. In the column, pol lambda of full length was selectively adsorbed and eluted.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2006; 337(4):1288-95. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies of mammalian terminal deoxyribonucleotidyltransferase (TdT) are facilitated by use of inhibitors that selectively knock down the activity of the enzyme. We have screened for selective inhibitors of TdT and identified a natural compound with this property in the Japanese vegetable, Arctium lappa. The compound has little effect on the activities of mammalian DNA polymerases, such as alpha, beta, delta or lambda polymerase, and prokaryotic DNA polymerases, such as Taq DNA polymerase, T4 DNA polymerase and Klenow fragment. H1- and C13-NMR spectroscopic analyses showed the compound to be baicalin, a compound previously reported as an anti-inflammatory or antipyretic agent. The IC50 value of baicalin to TdT was 18.6 microM. We also found that genistin, a baicalin derivative known to be antimutagenic, more selectively inhibited TdT activity than baicalin, although its IC50 value was weaker (28.7 microM). Genistin and baicalin also inhibited the activity of truncated TdT (the so-called pol beta core domain) in which the BRCT motif was deleted in its N-terminal region. In kinetic analyses, inhibition by either genistin or baicalin was competitive with the primer and non-competitive with the dNTP substrate. The compounds may, therefore, bind directly to the primer-binding site of TdT and simultaneously disturb dNTP substrate incorporation into the primer. Genistin and baicalin should prove to be useful agents for studying TdT.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 11/2005; 1725(3):298-304. · 4.66 Impact Factor