[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prolonged accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in ER stress-mediated apoptosis. Cyclophilins are protein chaperones that accelerate the rate of protein folding through their peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity. In this study, we demonstrated that ER stress activates the expression of the ER-localized cyclophilin B (CypB) gene through a novel ER stress response element. Overexpression of wild-type CypB attenuated ER stress-induced cell death, whereas overexpression of an isomerase activity-defective mutant, CypB/R62A, not only increased Ca(2+) leakage from the ER and ROS generation, but also decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in cell death following exposure to ER stress-inducing agents. siRNA-mediated inhibition of CypB expression rendered cells more vulnerable to ER stress. Finally, CypB interacted with the ER stress-related chaperones, Bip and Grp94. Taken together, we concluded that CypB performs a crucial function in protecting cells against ER stress via its PPIase activity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As solid tumors outgrow the surrounding vasculature, they encounter microenvironments with a limited supply of nutrients. Therefore, in order to survive, tumor cells need to adapt to glucose-deprived environments. In the present study, we examined the signaling pathways that lead to cancer cell survival in response to glucose deprivation. We primarily focused on the roles of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), its upstream kinase LKB1 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Herein, we showed that in DU145 human prostate carcinomas, glucose deprivation activated JNK with biphasic kinetics. We demonstrated that the early phase of JNK activation promoted cell survival, whereas the late phase of JNK activation induced apoptosis. Our data further showed that AMPK relayed a survival signal transmitted by early activation of JNK and that the sustained AMPK signal in turn inhibited the proapoptotic property of JNK via a negative feedback mechanism involving reactive oxygen species. We induced this negative feedback inhibition by expressing LKB1 ectopically in DU145 cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrated how AMPK controls the molecular mechanism underlying the differential biological functions of JNK, and they also provided a novel explanation for the antiapoptotic role of LKB1.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of energy homeostasis. Kainic acid (KA), a prototype excitotoxin is known to induce brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in brain. In this study, we examined the role of AMPK in KA-induced BDNF expression in C6 glioma cells. We showed that KA and KA receptor agonist induced activation of AMPK and KA-induced AMPK activation was blocked by inhibition of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) beta. We then showed that inhibition of AMPK by compound C, a selective inhibitor of AMPK, or small interfering RNA of AMPKalpha1 blocked KA-induced BDNF mRNA and protein expression. Inhibition of AMPK blocked KA-induced phosphorylation of CaMKII and I kappaB kinase (IKK) in C6 cells. Finally, we showed that inhibition of AMPK reduced DNA binding and transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in KA-treated cells. These results suggest that AMPK mediates KA-induced BDNF expression by regulating NF-kappaB activation.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 08/2008; 371(3):495-500. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We reported previously that endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) function as myogenic signaling molecules. It has also been determined that excess ROS induce electrophile-response element (EpRE)-driven gene expression via activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Nonetheless, the relationship between the metabolism of ROS (eg, H(2)O(2)) through glutathione (GSH) up-regulation, GSH-dependent reduction of H(2)O(2), and Nrf2-dependent gene regulation is not well established. Therefore, we attempted to determine whether H(2)O(2) controls the intracellular GSH redox state via the Nrf2-glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL)/glutathione reductase (GR)-GSH signaling pathway. In our experiments, enhanced H(2)O(2) generation was accompanied by an increase in both total GSH levels and the GSH/GSSG ratio during muscle differentiation. Both GCL and GR transcriptional expression levels were markedly increased during muscle differentiation but reduced by catalase treatment. Nrf2 protein expression and nuclear translocation increased during myogenesis. The inhibition of GCL, GR, and Nrf2 both by inhibitors and by RNA interference blocked muscle differentiation. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulated the expression of the GCL C (a catalytic subunit) and GR genes via the induction of Nrf2 nuclear translocation and expression. In conclusion, endogenous H(2)O(2) generated during muscle differentiation not only functions as a signaling molecule, but also regulates the GSH redox state via activation of the Nrf2-GCL/GR-GSH signaling pathway downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.
American Journal Of Pathology 07/2008; 172(6):1529-41. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) plays a central role in the cellular adaptive response to hypoxic conditions, which are closely related to pathophysiological conditions, such as cancer. Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the regulation of hypoxic and non-hypoxic induction of HIF-1 under various conditions, the role of ROS is quite controversial, and the mechanism underlying the HIF-1 regulation by ROS is not completely understood yet. Here, we investigated the biochemical mechanism for the ROS-induced HIF-1 by revealing a novel role of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the upstream signal components. AMPK plays an essential role as energy-sensor under adenosine triphosphate-deprived conditions. Here we report that ROS induced by a direct application of H(2)O(2) and menadione to DU145 human prostate carcinoma resulted in accumulation of HIF-1alpha protein by attenuation of its degradation and activation of its transcriptional activity in an AMPK-dependent manner. By way of contrast, AMPK was required only for the transcriptional activity of HIF-1 under hypoxic condition, revealing a differential role of AMPK in these two stimuli. Furthermore, our data show that inhibition of AMPK enhances HIF-1alpha ubiquitination under ROS condition. Finally, we show that the regulation of HIF-1 by AMPK in response to ROS is under the control of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and Janus kinase 2 pathways. Collectively, our findings identify AMPK as a key determinant of HIF-1 functions in response to ROS and its possible role in the sophisticated HIF-1 regulatory mechanisms.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although Panax ginseng has been widely used in oriental countries for pharmacological effects such as anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, adaptogenic and anti-fatigue activities, the active ingredient is not yet fully identified. In our preliminary studies, protopanaxadiol ginsenosides showed the insulin secretion-stimulating activity. In HIT-T15 cells, Rg3 enhanced the insulin secretion in a concentration dependent manner. This effect, however, was almost completely abolished in the presence of diazoxide (K+ channel opener) or nifedipine (Ca2+ channel blocker). Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was also performed using ICR mice and Rg3 suppressed the blood glucose levels from rising by enhancing an insulin secretion at 30 min after administration. From these studies, we may conclude that Rg3 lowered the plasma glucose level by stimulating an insulin secretion and this action was presumably associated with ATP sensitive K+ channel. Next, to explore the hypothesis that ginsenoside Rg3 epimers may exhibit differential effects, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion activity and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were compared between 20(S)- and 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3. 5 microM of 20(S)-Rg3 enhanced the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by 58% compared to the control, but 20(R)-Rg3 did not show any effect. In C2C12 myotubes, 20(S)- and 20(R)-Rg3 both markedly phosphorylated AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), although 20(R)-Rg3 showed a little less effect. Taken together, our results suggest that ginsenoside Rg3 epimers showed differential activities, and 20(S)-Rg3 epimer exhibited the higher pharmacological effects in insulin secretion and AMPK activation than 20(R)-Rg3. The novel characteristics of 20(S)-Rg3 may be a valuable candidate for anti-diabetic agent.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cisplatin is one of the most effective and widely used chemotherapeutic agents. However, one of the most salient limitations to the clinical application of cisplatin is the acquired or intrinsic drug resistance exhibited by some tumors. In the present study, we have assessed the potential of an intracellular energy balancing system as a target for augmentation of cisplatin sensitivity in tumors. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates the energy balance system by monitoring intracellular energy status. Here we demonstrate that AMPK is rapidly activated by cisplatin in AGS and HCT116 cancer cells. The inhibition of AMPK in those cells and in xenografts of HCT116 resulted in a remarkable increase in cisplatin-induced apoptosis, which was associated with hyper-induction of the tumor suppressor p53. We further showed that ERK, but not ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (ATM- and Rad3-related) kinases, was involved in the hyper-induction of p53 by the inhibition of cisplatin-induced AMPK. By way of contrast, cisplatin did not induce AMPK activation in HeLa cells, which appear to have a relatively high sensitivity to cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity, but expression of the constitutive active form of AMPK in HeLa cells resulted in a significant increase of cell viability after cisplatin treatment. Collectively, our data suggest that AMPK performs a pivotal function for protection against the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin, thereby implying that AMPK is one of the cellular factors determining the cellular sensitivity to cisplatin. On the basis of these observations, we propose that a strategy combining cisplatin and AMPK inhibition could be developed into a novel chemotherapeutic modality.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2008; 283(7):3731-42. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), the key transcription factor of hypoxia-inducible genes, is known to be involved in inflammation and immune response, but little is known about the regulation of HIF-1 during microglial activation. Thus, we examined effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on HIF-1 activation and its signaling mechanism in BV2 microglial cells. LPS induced HIF-1alpha mRNA and protein expression as well as HIF-1 transcriptional activation. Moreover, HIF-1alpha knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased LPS-induced expression of hypoxia responsive genes, VEGF, iNOS, and COX-2. We then showed that LPS-induced HIF-1alpha mRNA expression was blocked by an antioxidant, NADPH oxidase inhibitors, and siRNA of gp91phox, a subunit of NADPH oxidase. In addition, we showed that specific pharmacological inhibitors of PI 3-kinase and protein kinase C decreased LPS-induced HIF-1alpha mRNA expression. Finally, we showed that inhibition of transcription factor Sp1 by mithramycin A or Sp1 siRNA decreased LPS-induced HIF-1alpha mRNA and protein expression. Consistently, LPS increased Sp1 DNA binding and its transcriptional activity. Taken together, these results suggest that LPS induces HIF-1alpha mRNA expression and activation via NADPH oxidase and Sp1 in BV2 microglia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is well known that the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) represses insulin gene expression and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. However, how this effect is achieved and the effects of AMPK activation on glucolipotoxicity-induced beta-cell dysfunction have not been elucidated. We investigate whether BETA2 gene expression are involved in the AMPK-mediated regulation of insulin gene expression in normal and dysfunctional beta-cells. BETA2 gene expression and protein levels were significantly decreased by AICAR treatment and those were associated with the suppression of BETA2 promoter activity and DNA binding activity. These results demonstrate that the expressions of BETA2 and insulin gene are positively regulated by glucose and negatively by AMPK. Therefore, AMPK may function as a key molecule, which conveys extracellular metabolic signals into the cells and finely tunes expression of beta-cell specific transcription factors in response to glucose level.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2008; 365(4):614-20. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolic disorders such as obesity are major obstacles in improving the average life span. Therefore, a therapeutic approach using natural compounds has been proposed as a novel strategy for preventing metabolic disorders. Ginsenoside Rh2 is one of the ginsenosides that exert anti-diabetes, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects. However, the anti-obesity effects of Ginsenoside Rh2 remain unclear. Here, we investigated the anti-obesity ability of ginsenoside Rh2 using cell culture systems. Ginsenoside Rh2 effectively inhibited adipocyte differentiation via PPAR-gamma inhibition. Next, to find specific target molecules based on this result, we used cell culture systems to examine whether AMPK activation was involved in the anti-obesity ability of ginsenoside Rh2 since several published papers have indicated that AMPK signaling is involved in the regulation of metabolic disorders. Ginsenoside Rh2 significantly activated AMPK in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, we also examined the effect of AMPK on lipolysis molecules such as CPT-1 and UCP-2 by using an AMPK inhibitor. Ginsenoside Rh2 effectively induced CPT-1 and UCP-2 and this induction was abolished by AMPK inhibitor treatment. Moreover, we observed that ROS is an important upstream signal for AMPK activation during ginsenoside Rh2 treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that ginsenoside Rh2 is the most effective candidate for preventing metabolic disorders such as obesity and that it acts via the AMPK signaling pathway. Thus, AMPK signaling might contribute toward improving human health.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2008; 364(4):1002-8. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the in vitro effects of acteoside on the proliferation, cell cycle regulation and differentiation of HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells. Acteoside inhibited the proliferation of HL-60 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner with an IC50, approximately 30 microM. DNA flow cytometric analysis indicated that acteoside blocked cell cycle progression at the G1 phase in HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells. Among the G1 phase cell cycle-related proteins, the levels of cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK)2, CDK6, cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 and cyclin E were reduced by acteoside, whereas the steady-state level of CDK4 was unaffected. The protein and mRNA levels of CDK inhibitors (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors), such as p21(CIP1/WAF1) and p27(KIP1), were gradually increased after acteoside treatment in a time-dependent manner. In addition, acteoside markedly enhanced the binding of p21(CIP1/WAF1) and p27(KIP1) to CDK4 and CDK6, resulting in the reduction of CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 activities. Moreover, the hypophosphorylated form of retinoblastoma increased, leading to the enhanced binding of protein retinoblastoma (pRb) and E2F1. Our results further suggest that acteoside is a potent inducer of differentiation of HL-60 cells based on biochemical activities and the expression level of CD14 cell surface antigen. In conclusion, the onset of acteoside-induced G1 arrest of HL-60 cells prior to the differentiation appears to be tightly linked to up-regulation of the p21(CIP1/WAF1) and p27(KIP1) levels and decreases in the CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 activities. These findings, for the first time, reveal the mechanism underlying the anti-proliferative effect of acteoside on human promyelocytic HL-60 cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Role of c-Src in muscle differentiation has been controversial. Here, we investigated if c-Src positively or negatively regulates muscle differentiation, using H9c2 and C2C12 cell lines. Inhibition of c-Src by treatment with PP1 and SU6656, pharmacologic inhibitors of Src family kinases, or by expression of a dominant negative c-Src, all induced muscle differentiation in proliferation medium (PM). In differentiating cells in differentiation medium (DM), c-Src activity gradually decreased and reached basal level 3 days after induction of differentiation. Inhibition of c-Src suppressed Raf/MEK/ERK pathway but activated p38 MAPK. Inhibition of p38 MAPK did not affect c-Src activity in PM. However, it reactivated Raf/MEK/ERK pathway in c-Src-inhibited cells regardless of PM or DM. Concomitant inhibition of c-Src and p38 MAPK activities blocked muscle differentiation in both media. In conclusion, suppression of c-Src activity stimulates muscle differentiation by activating p38 MAPK uni-directionally.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 10/2007; 465(1):197-208. · 3.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the RhoA/Rho kinase (RhoA/ROK) pathway has been extensively investigated, its roles and downstream signaling pathways are still not well understood in myogenic processes. Therefore, we examined the effects of RhoA/ROK on myogenic processes and their signaling molecules using H9c2 and C2C12 cells. Increases in RhoA/ROK activities and serine phosphorylation levels of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 (Ser307 and Ser636/639) and IRS-2 were found in proliferating myoblasts, whereas IRS-1/2 tyrosine phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase activity increased during the differentiation process. ROK strongly bound to IRS-1/2 in proliferation medium but dissociated from them in differentiation medium (DM). ROK inactivation by a ROK inhibitor, Y27632, or a dominant-negative ROK, decreased IRS-1/2 serine phosphorylation with increases in IRS-1/2 tyrosine phosphorylation and PI 3-kinase activity, which led to muscle differentiation even in proliferation medium. Inhibition of ROK also enhanced differentiation in DM. ROK activation by a constitutive active ROK blocked muscle differentiation with the increased IRS-1/2 serine phosphorylation, followed by decreases in IRS-1/2 tyrosine phosphorylation and PI 3-kinase activity in DM. Interestingly, fibroblast growth factor-2 added to DM also blocked muscle differentiation through RhoA/ROK activation. Fibroblast growth factor-2 blockage of muscle differentiation was reversed by Y27632. Collectively, these results suggest that the RhoA/ROK pathway blocks muscle differentiation by phosphorylating IRS proteins at serine residues, resulting in the decreased IRS-1/2 tyrosine phosphorylation and PI 3-kinase activity. The absence of the inhibitory effects of RhoA/ROK in DM due to low concentrations of myogenic inhibitory growth factors seems to allow IRS-1/2 tyrosine phosphorylation, which stimulates muscle differentiation via transducing normal myogenic signaling.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes and obesity, represent major health risks in industrialized countries. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has become the focus of a great deal of attention as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic syndromes, because AMPK has been demonstrated to mediate, at least in part, the effects of a number of physiological and pharmacological factors that exert beneficial effects on these disorders. Thus, the identification of a compound that activates the AMPK pathway would contribute significantly to the treatment and management of such syndromes. In service of this goal, we have screened a variety of naturally occurring compounds and have identified one compound, cryptotanshinone, as a novel AMPK pathway activator. Cryptotanshinone was originally isolated from the dried roots of Salvia militorrhiza, an herb that is used extensively in Asian medicine and that is known to exert beneficial effects on the circulatory system. For the first time, in the present study, we have described the potent antidiabetic and antiobesity effects of cryptotanshinone, both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings suggest that the activation of the AMPK pathway might contribute to the development of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes and obesity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclophilin A (CypA) has been reported to be overexpressed in cancer cells, especially in solid tumors. To determine the role of CypA in tumorigenesis, we investigated the induction of CypA as well as the role it plays in cancer cells. Here, we have shown that induction of CypA is associated with hypoxia in a variety of cells, including DU145 human prostate cancer cell line. Our analysis of the CypA promoter clearly showed that CypA up-regulation is mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha transcription factor. Interestingly, overexpression of CypA prevented hypoxia- and cisplatin-induced apoptosis, and this was associated with the suppression of reactive oxygen species generation and depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential, whereas small interfering RNA-based CypA knockdown aggravated these factors. These results suggest that CypA is important in tumorigenesis, especially in tumor apoptosis.
Cancer Research 05/2007; 67(8):3654-62. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: trans-Resveratrol (t-RVT), a naturally occurring polyphenol found in Polygonum cuspidatum, grape, and red wine, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and cancer chemopreventive properties. However antidiabetic effect of t-RVT has not yet been reported. In this study, we show that t-RVT increases glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), uncovering an antidiabetic potential of t-RVT for the first time. AMPK plays a central role in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, and hence it is considered a novel therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome such as type 2 diabetes. t-RVT significantly induced glucose uptake in C2C12 cells, via AMPK activation, but not a phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3 kinase) signal pathway. The induced glucose uptake was attenuated by pretreatment with a pharmacological inhibitor for AMPK, indicating that the effect of t-RVT primarily depends on AMPK activation. However, in the presence of insulin, t-RVT also potentiated the effect of insulin on glucose uptake via AMPK activation, which led to further activation of PI-3 kinase/Akt signal pathway.
Experimental and Molecular Medicine 05/2007; 39(2):222-9. · 2.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: EGCG [(-)epigallocatechin-3-gallate], a green tea-derived polyphenol, has been shown to suppress cancer cell proliferation, and interfere with the several signaling pathways and induce apoptosis. Practically, there is emerging evidence that EGCG has a potential to increase the efficacy of chemotherapy in patients. We hypothesized that EGCG may exert cell cytotoxicity through modulating AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) followed by the decrease in COX-2 expression. EGCG treatment to colon cancer cells resulted in a strong activation of AMPK and an inhibition of COX-2 expression. The decreased COX-2 expression as well as prostaglandin E(2) secretion by EGCG was completely abolished by inhibiting AMPK by an AMPK inhibitor, Compound C. Also, the activation of AMPK was accompanied with the reduction of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and glucose transporter, Glut-1 in EGCG-treated cancer cells. These findings support the regulatory role of AMPK in COX-2 expression in EGCG-treated cancer cells. Furthermore, we have found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an upstream signal of AMPK, and the combined treatment of EGCG and chemotherapeutic agents, 5-FU or Etoposide, exert a novel therapeutic effect on chemo-resistant colon cancer cells. AMPK, a molecule of newly defined cancer target, was shown to control COX-2 in EGCG-treated colon cancer cells.
Cancer Letters 04/2007; 247(1):115-21. · 4.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of energy homeostasis and its activation during T cell receptor stimulation has recently been reported. In this study, we examined the role of AMPK in interleukin (IL)-2 production in T cells. Inhibition of AMPK by compound C, a specific inhibitor of AMPK or small interfering RNA of AMPKalpha1 suppressed IL-2 production in Jurkat T cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated with PMA plus ionomycin (PMA/Io) or with monoclonal anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28. We then showed that AMPK inhibition reduced PMA/Io-induced IL-2 mRNA expression and IL-2 promoter activation. Moreover, inhibition of AMPK suppressed transcriptional activation of NF-AT and AP-1, but not NF-kappaB, in PMA/Io-activated Jurkat cells. Finally, we found that compound C inhibited PMA/Io-induced phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and GSK-3beta but not of ERK. These results suggest that AMPK mediates IL-2 production by regulating NF-AT and AP-1activation during T cell stimulation.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2007; 351(4):986-92. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to examine the effect of low and high concentrations of H2O2 on cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis, and AMPK signaling pathways in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Nontoxic doses of H2O2 (10 microM) induced cancer cell proliferation, whereas the toxic level of 1,000 microM H2O2 induced apoptosis. The stimulation of cell proliferation was accompanied with an increase in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and apoptosis induced by high-dose H2O2 was correlated with the activation of AMPK and negatively correlated with COX-2 expression. These results suggest that ROS at nontoxic levels can stimulate cancer cell growth by regulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and/or COX-2, and the abundant exogenous ROS linked to the growth inhibition through modulating AMPK signaling pathways.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 01/2007; 1091:102-9. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic and experimental evidences indicate that selenium, an essential trace element, can reduce the risk of a variety of cancers. Protection against certain types of cancers, particularly colorectal cancers, is closely associated with pathways involving cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). We found that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which functions as a cellular energy sensor, mediates critical anticancer effects of selenium via a COX-2/prostaglandin E(2) signaling pathway. Selenium activated AMPK in tumor xenografts as well as in colon cancer cell lines, and this activation seemed to be essential to the decrease in COX-2 expressions. Transduction with dominant-negative AMPK into colon cancer cells or application of cox-2(-/-)-negative cells supported the evidence that AMPK is an upstream signal of COX-2 and inhibits cell proliferation. In HT-29 colon cancer cells, carcinogenic agent 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) that led to COX-2 expression and selenium blocked the TPA-induced ERK and COX-2 activation via AMPK. We also showed the role of a reactive oxygen species as an AMPK activation signal in selenium-treated cells. We propose that AMPK is a novel and critical regulatory component in selenium-induced cancer cell death, further implying AMPK as a prime target of tumorigenesis.
Cancer Research 11/2006; 66(20):10057-63. · 8.65 Impact Factor