[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Propionibacterium acnes is a critical component in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, stimulating the production of various inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, important in the local inflammatory response found in acne. This study explored the role of P. acnes and its ability to induce matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in primary human monocytes and how this induction is regulated by retinoids. MMP-1- and MMP-9-expressing cells were present in perifollicular and dermal inflammatory infiltrates within acne lesions, suggesting their role in acne pathogenesis. In vitro, we found that P. acnes induced MMP-9 and MMP-1 mRNA, and the expression of MMP-9, but not of MMP-1, was found to be Toll-like receptor 2-dependent. P. acnes induced the mRNA expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, the main regulator of MMP-9 and MMP-1. Treatment of monocytes with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) significantly decreased baseline MMP-9 expression. Furthermore, co-treatment of monocytes with ATRA and P. acnes inhibited MMP-9 and MMP-1 induction, while augmenting TIMP-1 expression. These data indicate that P. acnes-induced MMPs and TIMPs may be involved in acne pathogenesis and that retinoic acid modulates MMP and TIMP expression, shifting from a matrix-degradative phenotype to a matrix-preserving phenotype.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the regulation of T-cell homing receptors in infectious disease by evaluating the cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA) in human leprosy. We found that CLA-positive cells were enriched in the infectious lesions associated with restricting the growth of the pathogen Mycobacterium leprae, as assessed by the clinical course of infection. Moreover, CLA expression on T cells isolated from the peripheral blood of antigen-responsive tuberculoid leprosy patients increased in the presence of M. leprae (2.4-fold median increase; range 0.8-6.1, n = 17), but not in unresponsive lepromatous leprosy patients (1.0-fold median increase; range 0.1-2.2, n = 10; P < 0.005). Mycobacterium leprae specifically up-regulated the skin homing receptor, CLA, but not alpha(4)/beta(7), the intestinal homing receptor, which decreased on T cells of patients with tuberculoid leprosy after antigen stimulation (2.2-fold median decrease; range 1.6-3.4, n = 3). Our data indicate that CLA expression is regulated during the course of leprosy infection and suggest that T-cell responsiveness to a microbial antigen directs antigen-specific T cells to the site of infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A key target of many intracellular pathogens is the macrophage. Although macrophages can generate antimicrobial activity, neutrophils have been shown to have a key role in host defense, presumably by their preformed granules containing antimicrobial agents. Yet the mechanism by which neutrophils can mediate antimicrobial activity against intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been a long-standing enigma. We demonstrate that apoptotic neutrophils and purified granules inhibit the growth of extracellular mycobacteria. Phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils by macrophages results in decreased viability of intracellular M. tuberculosis. Concomitant with uptake of apoptotic neutrophils, granule contents traffic to early endosomes, and colocalize with mycobacteria. Uptake of purified granules alone decreased growth of intracellular mycobacteria. Therefore, the transfer of antimicrobial peptides from neutrophils to macrophages provides a cooperative defense strategy between innate immune cells against intracellular pathogens and may complement other pathways that involve delivery of antimicrobial peptides to macrophages.
The Journal of Immunology 09/2006; 177(3):1864-71. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.180.1.664-a · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Langerhans cells (LC) are a unique subset of dendritic cells (DC), present in the epidermis and serving as the first line of defense against pathogens invading the skin. To investigate the role of human LCs in innate immune responses, we examined TLR expression and function of LC-like DCs derived from CD34+ progenitor cells and compared them to DCs derived from peripheral blood monocytes (monocyte-derived DC; Mo-DC). LC-like DCs and Mo-DCs expressed TLR1-10 mRNAs at comparable levels. Although many of the TLR-induced cytokine patterns were similar between the two cell types, stimulation with the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) triggered significantly higher amounts of the IFN-inducible chemokines CXCL9 (monokine induced by IFN-gamma) and CXCL11 (IFN-gamma-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant) in LC-like DCs as compared with Mo-DCs. Supernatants from TLR3-activated LC-like DCs reduced intracellular replication of vesicular stomatitis virus in a type I IFN-dependent manner. Finally, CXCL9 colocalized with LCs in skin biopsy specimens from viral infections. Together, our data suggest that LCs exhibit a direct antiviral activity that is dependent on type I IFN as part of the innate immune system.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2006; 177(1):298-305. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.177.1.298 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The expression and activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) was investigated in leprosy, a spectral disease in which clinical manifestations correlate with the type of immune response mounted toward Mycobacterium leprae. TLR2-TLR1 heterodimers mediated cell activation by killed M. leprae, indicating the presence of triacylated lipoproteins. A genome-wide scan of M. leprae detected 31 putative lipoproteins. Synthetic lipopeptides representing the 19-kD and 33-kD lipoproteins activated both monocytes and dendritic cells. Activation was enhanced by type-1 cytokines and inhibited by type-2 cytokines. In addition, interferon (IFN)-gamma and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) enhanced TLR1 expression in monocytes and dendritic cells, respectively, whereas IL-4 downregulated TLR2 expression. TLR2 and TLR1 were more strongly expressed in lesions from the localized tuberculoid form (T-lep) as compared with the disseminated lepromatous form (L-lep) of the disease. These data provide evidence that regulated expression and activation of TLRs at the site of disease contribute to the host defense against microbial pathogens.
Nature Medicine 06/2003; 9(5):525-32. DOI:10.1038/nm864 · 27.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine how distinct receptors of the immune system can contribute to innate immunity, we investigated the pattern of Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1) and TLR2 expression in human lymphoid tissue. We found that TLR1 and TLR2 were co-expressed on cells of the innate immune system, including macrophages and dendritic cells. In addition, TLR1 and TLR2 were expressed in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue on tonsillar crypt epithelium. Of the lymphoid tissue examined, spleen expressed the highest levels of TLR2. Although TLR1- and TLR2-positive cells were in close proximity to T lymphocytes in vivo, lymphocytes themselves were devoid of TLR1 and TLR2 expression. The co-expression of TLR1 and TLR2 on myeloid cells in lymphoid tissue provides the host with the ability to respond to a variety of microbial ligands at sites conducive to the generation of an immune response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the factors that contributes to the pathogenesis of acne is Propionibacterium acnes; yet, the molecular mechanism by which P. acnes induces inflammation is not known. Recent studies have demonstrated that microbial agents trigger cytokine responses via Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We investigated whether TLR2 mediates P. acnes-induced cytokine production in acne. Transfection of TLR2 into a nonresponsive cell line was sufficient for NF-kappa B activation in response to P. acnes. In addition, peritoneal macrophages from wild-type, TLR6 knockout, and TLR1 knockout mice, but not TLR2 knockout mice, produced IL-6 in response to P. acnes. P. acnes also induced activation of IL-12 p40 promoter activity via TLR2. Furthermore, P. acnes induced IL-12 and IL-8 protein production by primary human monocytes and this cytokine production was inhibited by anti-TLR2 blocking Ab. Finally, in acne lesions, TLR2 was expressed on the cell surface of macrophages surrounding pilosebaceous follicles. These data suggest that P. acnes triggers inflammatory cytokine responses in acne by activation of TLR2. As such, TLR2 may provide a novel target for treatment of this common skin disease.
The Journal of Immunology 09/2002; 169(3):1535-41. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.169.3.1535 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The generation of cell-mediated immunity against intracellular infection involves the production of IL-12, a critical cytokine required for the development of Th1 responses. The biologic activities of IL-12 are mediated through a specific, high affinity IL-12R composed of an IL-12Rbeta1/IL-12Rbeta2 heterodimer, with the IL-12Rbeta2 chain involved in signaling via Stat4. We investigated IL-12R expression and function in human infectious disease, using the clinical/immunologic spectrum of leprosy as a model. T cells from tuberculoid patients, the resistant form of leprosy, are responsive to IL-12; however, T cells from lepromatous patients, the susceptible form of leprosy, do not respond to IL-12. We found that the IL-12Rbeta2 was more highly expressed in tuberculoid lesions compared with lepromatous lesions. In contrast, IL-12Rbeta1 expression was similar in both tuberculoid and lepromatous lesions. The expression of IL-12Rbeta2 on T cells was up-regulated by Mycobacterium leprae in tuberculoid but not in lepromatous patients. Furthermore, IL-12 induced Stat4 phosphorylation and DNA binding in M. leprae-activated T cells from tuberculoid but not from lepromatous patients. Interestingly, IL-12Rbeta2 in lepromatous patients could be up-regulated by stimulation with M. tuberculosis. These data suggest that Th response to M. leprae determines IL-12Rbeta2 expression and function in host defense in leprosy.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2001; 167(2):779-86. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.167.2.779 · 4.92 Impact Factor