[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ribosome biosynthesis is a major intracellular energy-consuming process. We previously identified a nucleolar factor, nucleomethylin (NML), which regulates intracellular energy consumption by limiting rRNA transcription. Here, we show that, in livers of obese mice, the recruitment of NML to rRNA gene loci is increased to repress rRNA transcription. To clarify the relationship between obesity and rRNA transcription, we generated NML-null (NML-KO) mice. NML-KO mice show elevated rRNA level, reduced ATP concentration, and reduced lipid accumulation in the liver. Furthermore, in high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed NML-KO mice, hepatic rRNA levels are not decreased. Both weight gain and fat accumulation in HFD-fed NML-KO mice are significantly lower than those in HFD-fed wild-type mice. These findings indicate that rRNA transcriptional activation promotes hepatic energy consumption, which alters hepatic lipid metabolism. Namely, hepatic rRNA transcriptional repression by HFD feeding is essential for energy storage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver X receptor (LXR) activation stimulates triglyceride (TG) accumulation in the liver. Several lines of evidence indicate that estradiol-17β (E2) reduces TG levels in the liver; however, the molecular mechanism underlying the E2 effect remains unclear. Here, we show that administration of E2 attenuated sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1 expression and TG accumulation induced by LXR activation in mouse liver. In estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) knockout (KO) and liver-specific ERα KO mice, E2 did not affect SREBP-1 expression or TG levels. Molecular analysis revealed that ERα is recruited to the SREBP-1c promoter through direct binding to LXR and inhibits coactivator recruitment to LXR in an E2-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrate the existence of a novel liver-dependent mechanism controlling TG accumulation through the nonclassical ER/LXR pathway. To confirm that a nonclassical ER/LXR pathway regulates ERα-dependent inhibition of LXR activation, we screened ERα ligands that were able to repress LXR activation without enhancing ERα transcriptional activity, and, as a result, we identified the phytoestrogen, phloretin. In mice, phloretin showed no estrogenic activity; however, it did reduce SREBP-1 expression and TG levels in liver of mice fed a high-fat diet to an extent similar to that of E2. Conclusion: We propose that ER ligands reduce TG levels in the liver by inhibiting LXR activation through a nonclassical pathway. Our results also indicate that the effects of ER on TG accumulation can be distinguished from its estrogenic effects by a specific ER ligand. (Hepatology 2013)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The TGF-β superfamily comprises pleiotropic cytokines that regulate SMAD and non-SMAD signaling. TGF-β-SMAD signal transduction is known to be involved in tissue fibrosis, including renal fibrosis. Here, we found that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-bound [1,25(OH)2D3-bound] vitamin D receptor (VDR) specifically inhibits TGF-β-SMAD signal transduction through direct interaction with SMAD3. In mouse models of tissue fibrosis, 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment prevented renal fibrosis through the suppression of TGF-β-SMAD signal transduction. Based on the structure of the VDR-ligand complex, we generated 2 synthetic ligands. These ligands selectively inhibited TGF-β-SMAD signal transduction without activating VDR-mediated transcription and significantly attenuated renal fibrosis in mice. These results indicate that 1,25(OH)2D3-dependent suppression of TGF-β-SMAD signal transduction is independent of VDR-mediated transcriptional activity. In addition, these ligands did not cause hypercalcemia resulting from stimulation of the transcriptional activity of the VDR. Thus, our study provides a new strategy for generating chemical compounds that specifically inhibit TGF-β-SMAD signal transduction. Since TGF-β-SMAD signal transduction is reportedly involved in several disorders, our results will aid in the development of new drugs that do not cause detectable adverse effects, such as hypercalcemia.
The Journal of clinical investigation 10/2013; · 15.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) expression is a risk factor for breast cancer. HDAC inhibitors have been demonstrated to down-regulate ERα expression in ERα-positive breast cancer cell lines, but the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we showed that HDAC inhibitors decrease the stability of ERα mRNA, and that knockdown of HDAC3 decreases the stability of ERα mRNA and suppresses estrogen-dependent proliferation of ERα-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In the Oncomine database, expression levels of HDAC3 in ERα-positive tumors are higher than those in ERα-negative tumors, thus suggesting that HDAC3 is necessary for ERα mRNA stability, and is involved in the estrogen-dependent proliferation of ERα-positive tumors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2013; · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In response to a shortage of intracellular energy, mammalian cells reduce energy consumption and induce cell cycle arrest, both of which contribute to cell survival. Here we report that a novel nucleolar pathway involving the energy-dependent nucleolar silencing complex (eNoSC) and Myb-binding protein 1a (MYBBP1A) is implicated in these processes. Namely, in response to glucose starvation, eNoSC suppresses rRNA transcription, which results in a reduction in nucleolar RNA content. As a consequence, MYBBP1A, which is anchored to the nucleolus via RNA, translocates from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. The translocated MYBBP1A induces acetylation and accumulation of p53 by enhancing the interaction between p300 and p53, which eventually leads to the cell cycle arrest (or apoptosis). Taken together, our results indicate that the nucleolus works as a sensor that transduces the intracellular energy status into the cell cycle machinery.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2011; 286(23):20861-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of external and internal insults disrupt nucleolar structure, and the resulting nucleolar stress stabilizes and activates p53. We show here that nucleolar disruption induces acetylation and accumulation of p53 without phosphorylation. We identified three nucleolar proteins, MYBBP1A, RPL5, and RPL11, involved in p53 acetylation and accumulation. MYBBP1A was tethered to the nucleolus through nucleolar RNA. When rRNA transcription was suppressed by nucleolar stress, MYBBP1A translocated to the nucleoplasm and facilitated p53-p300 interaction to enhance p53 acetylation. We also found that RPL5 and RPL11 were required for rRNA export from the nucleolus. Depletion of RPL5 or RPL11 blocked rRNA export and counteracted reduction of nucleolar RNA levels caused by inhibition of rRNA transcription. As a result, RPL5 or RPL11 depletion inhibited MYBBP1A translocation and p53 activation. Our observations indicated that a dynamic equilibrium between RNA generation and export regulated nucleolar RNA content. Perturbation of this balance by nucleolar stress altered the nucleolar RNA content and modulated p53 activity.
The EMBO Journal 02/2011; 30(6):1054-66. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein ubiquitination is a post-translational protein modification that regulates many biological conditions. Trip12 is a HECT-type E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates ARF and APP-BP1. However, the significance of Trip12 in vivo is largely unknown. Here we show that the ubiquitin ligase activity of Trip12 is indispensable for mouse embryogenesis. A homozygous mutation in Trip12 (Trip12(mt/mt)) that disrupts the ubiquitin ligase activity resulted in embryonic lethality in the middle stage of development. Trip12(mt/mt) embryos exhibited growth arrest and increased expression of the negative cell cycle regulator p16. In contrast, Trip12(mt/mt) ES cells were viable. They had decreased proliferation, but maintained both the undifferentiated state and the ability to differentiate. Trip12(mt/mt) ES cells had increased levels of the BAF57 protein (a component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex) and altered gene expression patterns. These data suggest that Trip12 is involved in global gene expression and plays an important role in mouse development.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(10):e25871. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical evidence suggests that antiestrogens inhibit the development of androgen-insensitive prostate cancer. Here, we show that the estrogen receptor β (ERβ) mediates inhibition by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780 (ICI) and its enhancement by estrogen. ERβ associated with gene promoters through the tumor-suppressing transcription factor KLF5 (Krüppel-like zinc finger transcription factor 5). ICI treatment increased the recruitment of the transcription coactivator CBP [CREB (adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate response element-binding protein)-binding protein] to the promoter of FOXO1 through ERβ and KLF5, which enhanced the transcription of FOXO1. The increase in FOXO1 abundance led to anoikis in prostate cancer cells, thereby suppressing tumor growth. In contrast, estrogen induced the formation of complexes containing ERβ, KLF5, and the ubiquitin ligase WWP1 (WW domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1), resulting in the ubiquitination and degradation of KLF5. The combined presence of KLF5 and ERβ positively correlated with longer cancer-specific survival in prostate cancer patients. Our results demonstrate that estrogens and antiestrogens affect prostate tumor growth through ERβ-mediated regulation of KLF5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogen is a growth factor that stimulates cell proliferation. The effects of estrogen are mediated through the estrogen receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta, which function as ligand-induced transcription factors and belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily. On the other hand, TGF-beta acts as a cell growth inhibitor, and its signaling is transduced by Smads. Although a number of studies have been made on the cross-talk between estrogen/ERalpha and TGF-beta/Smad signaling, whose molecular mechanisms remain to be determined. Here, we show that ERalpha inhibits TGF-beta signaling by decreasing Smad protein levels. ERalpha-mediated reductions in Smad levels did not require the DNA binding ability of ERalpha, implying that ERalpha opposes the effects of TGF-beta via a novel non-genomic mechanism. Our analysis revealed that ERalpha formed a protein complex with Smad and the ubiquitin ligase Smurf, and enhanced Smad ubiquitination and subsequent degradation in an estrogen-dependent manner. Our observations provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms governing the non-genomic functions of ERalpha.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2010; 285(19):14747-55. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitotic chromosomal assembly in vertebrates is regulated by condensin I and condensin II, which work cooperatively but have different chromosomal localization profiles and make distinct mechanistic contributions to this process. We show here that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), which interacts with condensin II but not condensin I, plays an essential role in targeting condensin II to chromosomes. Unexpectedly, our data indicate that PP2A acts as a recruiter protein rather than a catalytic enzyme to target condensin II to chromosomes. This recruiting activity of PP2A was inhibited by okadaic acid, but not by fostriecin, even though both molecules strongly inhibited the catalytic activity of PP2A. Additionally, we found that the chromokinesin KIF4a is also targeted to chromosomes via the noncatalytic activity of PP2A. Thus, our studies reveal a previously unknown contribution of PP2A to chromosome assembly.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously identified a novel protein complex, eNoSC, which senses intracellular energy status and epigenetically regulates the rDNA locus by changing the ratio between the numbers of active and silent gene clusters. eNoSC contains a novel nucleolar protein, Nucleomethylin (NML), which has a methyltransferase-like domain and binds to Lys9-dimethylated histone H3 at the rDNA locus, along with the NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 and the histone methyltransferase SUV39H. The aim of this study was to determine the role of NML in liver after partial hepatectomy (PHx). We assessed liver regeneration and lipid metabolism after PHx in wild-type (WT) and NML transgenic (NML-TG) mice. Survival rates of NML-TG mice were reduced after PHx. We found that hepatic triglyceride content in NML-TG mice remained elevated 48h after PHx, but not delayed liver regeneration. Moreover, hepatic ATP levels in NML-TG mice were higher than that in WT 48h after PHx. These observations suggest that NML may regulate consumption of hepatic triglyceride in liver regeneration after PHx due to storage of excess ATP. The delayed consumption of hepatic triglyceride may be the cause of reduced survival rate in NML-TG mice.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 10/2009; 390(3):591-6. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a transcription factor that participates in both tumor suppression and oncogenesis. To determine the association of KLF4 with tumorigenesis, we integrated data assembled in the Oncomine database and discovered a decrease in KLF4 gene transcripts in breast cancers. Further analysis of the database also showed a correlation between KLF4 expression and estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) positivity. Knockdown of KLF4 in MCF-7 cells elevated the growth rate of these cells in the presence of estrogen. Therefore, we examined the interaction between KLF4 and ERalpha, and found that KLF4 bound to the DNA-binding region of ERalpha. KLF4 thus inhibits the binding of ERalpha to estrogen response elements in promoter regions, resulting in a reduction in ERalpha target gene transcription. Earlier studies have reported that KLF4 is transcriptionally activated by p53 following DNA damage. We also showed that activation of p53 decreased the transcriptional activity of ERalpha by elevating KLF4 expression. Our studies discovered a novel molecular network between p53, KLF4 and ERalpha. As both p53 and ERalpha are involved in cell growth and apoptosis, these results may explain why KLF4 possesses both tumor suppressive and oncogenic functions in breast cancers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CHIP is a U-box-type ubiquitin ligase that induces ubiquitylation and degradation of its substrates, which include several oncogenic proteins. The relationship between CHIP and tumour progression, however, has not been elucidated. Here, we show that CHIP suppresses tumour progression in human breast cancer by inhibiting oncogenic pathways. CHIP levels were negatively correlated with the malignancy of human breast tumour tissues. In a nude mouse xenograft model, tumour growth and metastasis were significantly inhibited by CHIP expression. In contrast, knockdown of CHIP (shCHIP) in breast cancer cells resulted in rapid tumour growth and metastastic phenotypes in mice. In cell-based experiments, anchorage-independent growth and invasiveness of shCHIP cells was significantly elevated due to increased expression of Bcl2, Akt1, Smad and Twist. Proteomic analysis identified the transcriptional co-activator SRC-3 (refs 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19) as a direct target for ubiquitylation and degradation by CHIP. Knocking down SRC-3 in shCHIP cells reduced the expression of Smad and Twist, and suppressed tumour metastasis in vivo. Conversely, SRC-3 co-expression prevented CHIP-induced suppression of metastasis formation. These observations demonstrate that CHIP inhibits anchorage-independent cell growth and metastatic potential by degrading oncogenic proteins including SRC-3.