Irving F Hoffman

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (148)1068.51 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In sub-Saharan Africa, although male involvement in antenatal care is associated with positive outcomes for HIV-infected women and their infants, men rarely accompany female partners. We implemented a project to increase the number of male partners attending an antenatal clinic at Bwaila Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi. We evaluated changes in the proportion of women who came with a partner over three periods. During period 1 (January 2007 - June 2008) there was didactic peer education. During period 2 (July 2008 - September 2009) a peer-led male-involvement drama was introduced into patient waiting areas. During period 3 (October 2009 - December 2009) changes to clinical infrastructure were introduced to make the clinic more male-friendly. The proportion of women attending ANC with a male partner increased from 0.7% to 5.7%, to 10.7% over the three periods. Peer education through drama and male-friendly hospital infrastructure coincided with substantially greater male participation, although further gains are necessary.
    African Journal of Reproductive Health 06/2014; 18(2):97-104.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine, for the WHO algorithm for point-of-care diagnosis of HIV infection, the agreement levels between paediatricians and non-physician clinicians, and to compare sensitivity and specificity profiles of the WHO algorithm and different CD4 thresholds against HIV PCR testing in hospitalised Malawian infants. In 2011, hospitalised HIV-exposed infants <12 months in Lilongwe, Malawi, were evaluated independently with the WHO algorithm by both a paediatrician and clinical officer. Blood was collected for CD4 and molecular HIV testing (DNA or RNA PCR). Using molecular testing as the reference, sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) were determined for the WHO algorithm and CD4 count thresholds of 1500 and 2000 cells/mm(3) by paediatricians and clinical officers. We enrolled 166 infants (50% female, 34% <2 months, 37% HIV infected). Sensitivity was higher using CD4 thresholds (<1500, 80%; <2000, 95%) than with the algorithm (physicians, 57%; clinical officers, 71%). Specificity was comparable for CD4 thresholds (<1500, 68%, <2000, 50%) and the algorithm (paediatricians, 55%, clinical officers, 50%). The positive predictive values were slightly better using CD4 thresholds (<1500, 59%, <2000, 52%) than the algorithm (paediatricians, 43%, clinical officers 45%) at this prevalence. Performance by the WHO algorithm and CD4 thresholds resulted in many misclassifications. Point-of-care CD4 thresholds of <1500 cells/mm(3) or <2000 cells/mm(3) could identify more HIV-infected infants with fewer false positives than the algorithm. However, a point-of-care option with better performance characteristics is needed for accurate, timely HIV diagnosis.
    Tropical Medicine & International Health 04/2014; · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with newly diagnosed HIV may be part of social networks with elevated prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection. Social network recruitment by persons with newly diagnosed HIV may efficiently identify undiagnosed cases of HIV infection. We assessed social network recruitment as a strategy for identifying undiagnosed cases of HIV infection. In a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, 3 groups of 45 "seeds" were enrolled: STI patients with newly diagnosed HIV, STI patients who were HIV-uninfected, and community controls. Seeds were asked to recruit up to 5 social "contacts" (sexual or nonsexual). Mean number of contacts recruited per group was calculated. HIV prevalence ratios (PRs) and number of contacts needed to test to identify 1 new case of HIV were compared between groups using generalized estimating equations with exchangeable correlation matrices. Mean number of contacts recruited was 1.3 for HIV-infected clinic seeds, 1.8 for HIV-uninfected clinic seeds, and 2.3 for community seeds. Contacts of HIV-infected clinic seeds had a higher HIV prevalence (PR: 3.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 7.8) than contacts of community seeds, but contacts of HIV-uninfected clinic seeds did not (PR: 1.1, 95% confidence interval: 0.4 to 3.3). Results were similar when restricted to nonsexual contacts. To identify 1 new case of HIV, it was necessary to test 8 contacts of HIV-infected clinic seeds, 10 contacts of HIV-uninfected clinic seeds, and 18 contacts of community seeds. Social contact recruitment by newly diagnosed STI patients efficiently led to new HIV diagnoses. Research to replicate findings and guide implementation is needed.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 04/2014; 65(5):e162-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Use of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-1 infection has decreased AIDS-related morbidity and mortality and prevents sexual transmission of HIV-1. However, the best time to initiate antiretroviral treatment to reduce progression of HIV-1 infection or non-AIDS clinical events is unknown. We reported previously that early antiretroviral treatment reduced HIV-1 transmission by 96%. We aimed to compare the effects of early and delayed initiation of antiretroviral treatment on clinical outcomes. The HPTN 052 trial is a randomised controlled trial done at 13 sites in nine countries. We enrolled HIV-1-serodiscordant couples to the study and randomly allocated them to either early or delayed antiretroviral treatment by use of permuted block randomisation, stratified by site. Random assignment was unblinded. The HIV-1-infected member of every couple initiated antiretroviral treatment either on entry into the study (early treatment group) or after a decline in CD4 count or with onset of an AIDS-related illness (delayed treatment group). Primary events were AIDS clinical events (WHO stage 4 HIV-1 disease, tuberculosis, and severe bacterial infections) and the following serious medical conditions unrelated to AIDS: serious cardiovascular or vascular disease, serious liver disease, end-stage renal disease, new-onset diabetes mellitus, and non-AIDS malignant disease. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00074581. 1763 people with HIV-1 infection and a serodiscordant partner were enrolled in the study; 886 were assigned early antiretroviral treatment and 877 to the delayed treatment group (two individuals were excluded from this group after randomisation). Median CD4 counts at randomisation were 442 (IQR 373-522) cells per μL in patients assigned to the early treatment group and 428 (357-522) cells per μL in those allocated delayed antiretroviral treatment. In the delayed group, antiretroviral treatment was initiated at a median CD4 count of 230 (IQR 197-249) cells per μL. Primary clinical events were reported in 57 individuals assigned to early treatment initiation versus 77 people allocated to delayed antiretroviral treatment (hazard ratio 0·73, 95% CI 0·52-1·03; p=0·074). New-onset AIDS events were recorded in 40 participants assigned to early antiretroviral treatment versus 61 allocated delayed initiation (0·64, 0·43-0·96; p=0·031), tuberculosis developed in 17 versus 34 patients, respectively (0·49, 0·28-0·89, p=0·018), and primary non-AIDS events were rare (12 in the early group vs nine with delayed treatment). In total, 498 primary and secondary outcomes occurred in the early treatment group (incidence 24·9 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 22·5-27·5) versus 585 in the delayed treatment group (29·2 per 100 person-years, 26·5-32·1; p=0·025). 26 people died, 11 who were allocated to early antiretroviral treatment and 15 who were assigned to the delayed treatment group. Early initiation of antiretroviral treatment delayed the time to AIDS events and decreased the incidence of primary and secondary outcomes. The clinical benefits recorded, combined with the striking reduction in HIV-1 transmission risk previously reported, provides strong support for earlier initiation of antiretroviral treatment. US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.
    The Lancet Infectious Diseases 03/2014; · 19.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of our intervention was to examine the benefits of incorporating traditional birth attendants (TBA) in HIV Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) service delivery. We developed a training curriculum for TBAs related to PMTCT and current TBA roles in Malawi. Fourteen TBAs and seven TBA assistants serving 4 urban health centre catchment areas were assessed, trained and supervised. Focus group discussions with the TBAs were conducted after implementation of the program. From March 2008 to August 2009, a total of 4017 pregnant women visited TBAs, out of which 2133 (53.1%) were directly referred to health facilities and 1,884 (46.9%) women delivered at TBAs and subsequently referred. 168 HIV positive women were identified by TBAs. Of these, 86/168 (51.2%) women received nevirapine and 46/168 (27.4%) HIV exposed infants received nevirapine. The challenges in providing PMTCT services included lack of transportation for referrals and absence of a reporting system to confirm the woman's arrival at the health center. Non-disclosure of HIV status by patients to the TBAs resulted in inability to assist nevirapine uptake. TBAs, when trained and well-supervised, can supplement efforts to provide PMTCT services in communities.
    African Journal of Reproductive Health 03/2014; 18(1):27-34.
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    ABSTRACT: Acute HIV infection (AHI) is a relatively brief period of time when individuals are highly infectious and the opportunity to intervene to prevent forward transmission is extremely limited. HPTN 062 partnered with CHAVI 001 to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a motivational interviewing (MI)-based counseling intervention to reduce HIV-transmission risk behaviors among individuals with acute and early HIV infection in Lilongwe, Malawi. Participants were randomized to receive either (1) brief education sessions about HIV and AHI; or (2) the same brief education sessions plus an MI-based counseling intervention called Uphungu Wanga. Although Uphungu Wanga was determined to be feasible and acceptable, few major differences existed between the two arms with regard to acceptability, feasibility, and self-reported sexual behaviors. We therefore conclude that an additional MI-based counseling intervention may not be needed during the short period of AHI. Instead, we recommend that individuals with AHI receive frequent, but brief, counseling immediately after diagnosis and then transition to receiving counseling at less frequent intervals until they can initiate antiretroviral therapy. Other recommendations are provided.
    AIDS and Behavior 02/2014; · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The vaginal microbiota may play a role in mediating susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections, including Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). Data were analyzed from HIV-1-seronegative women participating in HIV Prevention Trials Network Protocol 035. At quarterly visits for up to 30 months, participants completed structured interviews and specimens were collected for genital tract infection testing. T. vaginalis was detected by saline microscopy. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was characterized by Gram stain using the Nugent score (BV = 7-10; intermediate = 4-6; normal = 0-3 [reference group]). Cox proportional hazards models stratified by study site were used to assess the association between Nugent score category at the prior quarterly visit and TV acquisition. In this secondary analysis, 2920 participants from Malawi, South Africa, United States, Zambia, and Zimbabwe contributed 16,259 follow-up visits. Bacterial vaginosis was detected at 5680 (35%) visits, and TV was detected at 400 (2.5%) visits. Adjusting for age, marital status, hormonal contraceptive use, unprotected sex in the last week and TV at baseline, intermediate Nugent score, and BV at the prior visit were associated with an increased risk of TV (intermediate score: adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-2.19; BV: aHR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.92-3.00). Sensitivity analyses excluding 211 participants with TV at baseline were similar to those from the full study population (intermediate score: aHR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.10-2.14; BV: aHR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.75-2.84). Women with a Nugent score higher than 3 were at an increased risk for acquiring TV. If this relationship is causal, interventions that improve the vaginal microbiota could contribute to reductions in TV incidence.
    Sexually transmitted diseases 02/2014; 41(2):123-8. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To determine medical eligibility for contraceptive use, contraceptive preference, and acceptance of a copper intrauterine device (IUD) among a cohort of HIV-infected women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods All HIV-infected women who received ART and sought contraceptive services at the Lighthouse clinic, an integrated HIV/ART clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, between August and December 2010 were invited to participate in a structured interview. Eligibility and preference for the following contraceptive methods were assessed: combined hormonal contraceptives, progestogen-only pills, copper IUD, injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), and contraceptive implants. Results The final sample included 281 women; five were pregnant. The remaining 276 women were eligible for at least three contraceptive methods, with 242 (87.7%) eligible for all five methods evaluated. After counseling, 163 (58.0%) selected DMPA and 98 (34.9%) selected an IUD as their preferred contraceptive method. Regardless of their method of choice, 222 (79.0%) women agreed to have an IUD placed on the same day. Conclusion Most methods of contraception are safe for use by HIV-infected women. Approximately 80% of the women were willing to receive an IUD. Efforts must be made to increase education about, and access to, long-acting reversible methods that may be acceptable and appropriate contraceptive options for HIV-infected women.
    International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), caused by KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is the most common cancer among HIV-infected patients in Malawi and in the United States today. In Malawi, KSHV is endemic. We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients with HIV infection and KS with no history of chemo- or antiretroviral therapy (ART). Seventy patients were enrolled. Eighty-one percent had T1 (advanced) KS. Median CD4 and HIV RNA levels were 181 cells/mm(3) and 138,641 copies/ml, respectively. We had complete information and suitable plasma and biopsy samples for 66 patients. For 59/66 (89%) patients, a detectable KSHV load was found in plasma (median, 2,291 copies/ml; interquartile range [IQR], 741 to 5,623). We utilized a novel KSHV real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) array with multiple primers per open reading frame to examine KSHV transcription. Seventeen samples exhibited only minimal levels of KSHV mRNAs, presumably due to the limited number of infected cells. For all other biopsy samples, the viral latency locus (LANA, vCyc, vFLIP, kaposin, and microRNAs [miRNAs]) was transcribed abundantly, as was K15 mRNA. We could identify two subtypes of treatment-naive KS: lesions that transcribed viral RNAs across the length of the viral genome and lesions that displayed only limited transcription restricted to the latency locus. This finding demonstrates for the first time the existence of multiple subtypes of KS lesions in HIV- and KS-treatment naive patients.
    mBio 01/2014; 5(5). · 6.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many African infants fail to receive their diagnostic HIV molecular test results and subsequently, antiretroviral therapy (ART). To determine whether a point-of-care molecular HIV test increases ART access for hospitalized Malawian infants, we simulated a point-of-care test using rapid HIV RNA polymerase chain reaction (Rapid PCR) and compared patient outcomes to an optimized standard care that included assessment with the World Health Organization (WHO) clinical algorithm for HIV infection plus a DNA PCR with a turnaround time of several weeks (standard care). Randomized controlled trial. Hospitalized HIV-exposed Malawian infants <12 months old were randomized into Rapid PCR or standard care. Rapid PCR infants obtained molecular test results within 48 hours to facilitate immediate ART, similar to a point-of-care test. Standard care infants meeting clinical criteria were also offered inpatient ART. The primary outcome was appropriate in-hospital ART for DNA or RNA PCR-confirmed HIV-infected infants. 300 infants were enrolled. A greater proportion of HIV-infected infants receiving Rapid PCR, versus standard care, started inpatient ART (72.3% vs 47.8%, p=0.016). Among molecular test-negative infants, 26.9% receiving standard care unnecessarily initiated inpatient ART, versus 0.0% receiving Rapid PCR (p<0.001). Rapid PCR modestly reduced the median days to ART (3.0 vs 6.5, p=0.001) but did not influence outpatient follow-up for HIV-infected infants (82.5% vs 82.4%, p=0.993). Rapid PCR, versus an optimized standard care, increased the proportion of hospitalized HIV-infected infants initiating ART and reduced ART exposure in molecular test-negative infants, without meaningfully impacting time to ART initiation or follow-up rates.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 12/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The World Health Organization recommends the use of syndromic management for patients presenting with genital ulcer disease (GUD) in developing countries. However, effective treatment guidelines depend on a current country-specific GUD etiological profile, which may change over time. From 2004 to 2006, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from patients presenting with GUD at a reference STI clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi. Participants were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of acyclovir added to syndromic management and followed up for up to 28 days. Serologies for HIV (using parallel rapid tests), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2; using Focus HerpeSelect IgG2 ELISA [Focus Technologies, Cypress Hill, CA]), and syphilis (rapid plasma reagin confirmed by Treponema pallidum hemagglutination) were determined, with plasma HIV-1 RNA and CD4 count in HIV-positive patients. Genital ulcer disease etiology was determined by real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction from lesional swabs. A total of 422 patients with GUD (313 men; 74%) were enrolled. Overall seroprevalence of HIV-1, HSV-2, and syphilis were 61%, 72%, and 5%, respectively. Ulcer etiology was available for 398 patients and showed the following: HSV-2, 67%; Haemophilus ducreyi, 15%; T. pallidum, 6%; lymphogranuloma venereum, 6%; mixed infections, 14%, and no etiology, 20%. Most HSV-2 ulcers were recurrent (75%). Among all patients with HSV-2, HIV prevalence was high (67%) and HIV seroprevalence was higher among patients with recurrent HSV-2 compared with patients with first-episode HSV-2 (78% vs. 39%, P < 0.001). Herpes simplex virus type 2 ulcers are highly prevalent in this symptomatic population and strongly associated with HIV. Unlike most locations in sub-Saharan Africa, H. ducreyi remains prevalent in this population and requires periodic monitoring and an appropriate treatment regimen.
    Sexually transmitted diseases 12/2013; 40(12):923-8. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To determine prevalence and types of contraceptive method use and examine change in self-reported current use of contraceptive methods from first to last visit among a group of post-partum HIV-positive women enrolled in a post-natal program. Methods: From October 2008 to August 2009, HIV-positive women between six to 18 months post-delivery participated in a post-natal program in Lilongwe, Malawi. Participants completed a questionnaire on contraceptive use and maternal and infant health status and then, received education and counseling regarding family planning (i.e., contraceptive use). Enrolled women were scheduled for one follow-up visit per month for up to six months. Results: At the time of their initial study visit, contraceptive use was more than two times higher among post-natal program participants than among women in the Malawian general population (83% vs. 35.4%, respectively). While enrolled in the post-natal program, the majority of women (82%) maintained their current use of any contraceptive method. Approximately 5% of women not previously using any contraceptive method began using any contraceptive method and approximately 1% ended their use of any contraceptive method during the study period. The majority (71.4%) of women who started use of any contraceptive method began to use injectables, followed by bilateral tubal ligation (19.5%), and equal proportions of women using condoms or oral contraceptives (4.8%). Conclusion: Established post-natal programs can be effectively leveraged to deliver family planning messages. These programs can be utilized to encourage all women and especially, HIV-positive women, to start and maintain a family planning regimen.
    141st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2013; 11/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract BACKGROUND & AIMS: The extent of HBV infection to infants of HBV/HIV-coinfected pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence of HBV infection among antiretroviral-naïve, HIV-infected pregnant women in Malawi and examine HBV transmission to their infants. METHODS: Plasma from 2048 HIV-infected, Malawian women and their infants were tested for markers of HBV infection. Study participants were provided standard-of-care health services which included administration of pentavalent vaccine to infants at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. RESULTS: One-hundred and three women (5%) were HBsAg-positive; 70 of these HBsAg-positive women were also HBV-DNA-positive. Sixteen women (0.8%) were HBV-DNA-positive but HBsAg-negative. Five of 51 infants (9.8%) born to HBsAg-positive and/or HBV-DNA-positive women were HBV-DNA-positive by 48 weeks of age.HBV DNA concentrations of two infants of mothers who received extended lamivudine-containing anti-HIV prophylaxiswere < 4 log10 IU/ml compared to ⩾ 8 log10 IU/ml in three infants of mothers who did not. CONCLUSIONS: HBV DNA was detected in nearly 10% of infants born to HBV/HIV-coinfected women. Antenatal testing for HIV and HBV, if instituted, can facilitate implementation of prophylactic measures against infant infection by both viruses.
    Journal of Hepatology 11/2013; S0168-8278(13):00755-1. · 9.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Hotel-based sex workers in Bangladesh have high rates of sexually transmissible infections (STIs), high client turnover and low condom use. Two monthly clinic-based strategies were compared: periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) and enhanced syndromic management (ESM) - one round of presumptive treatment followed by treatment based on assessment and laboratory tests. Methods: A randomised controlled trial compared PPT and ESM by prevalence and incidence, behaviour, retention, cost and STI incidence and prevalence. Demographic, behavioural and clinical data were collected from women at two clinics in Dhaka. All women received presumptive treatment and were randomised to receive PPT or ESM at nine monthly visits. Results: In total, 549 women (median age: <20 years) were enrolled. At baseline, the prevalence of chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) and gonorrhoea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) was 41% (ESM: 41%; PPT: 42%). After 9 months, chlamydia and gonorrhoea decreased to 7% overall, (ESM: 7.4%; PPT: 6.8%). At each visit, 98% of women receiving ESM met the therapy criteria and were treated. Retention was low (50%). Total costs were 50% lower per visit for each woman for PPT (ESM: $11.62 v. PPT: $5.80). The number of sex work sessions was reduced from 3.3 to 2.5 (P<0.001), but income did not change. Coercion was reduced but condom use at last sex did not change significantly. Conclusions: Monthly PPT and ESM were effective approaches for STI control. PPT offered a feasible, low-cost alternative to ESM. Educational aspects led to a reduction in coercion and fewer sessions. Implementation studies are needed to improve condom use and retention.
    Sexual Health 11/2013; 10(6):478-486. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    The Lancet 09/2013; 382(9895):853. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The majority of HIV-infected individuals requiring antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Russia are Injection Drug Users (IDU). Substitution therapy used as part of a comprehensive harm reduction program is unavailable in Russia. Past data shows that only 16 % of IDU receiving substance abuse treatment completed the course without relapse, and only 40 % of IDU on ART remained on treatment at 6 months. Our goal was to determine if it was feasible to improve these historic outcomes by adding intensive case management (ICM) to the substance abuse and ART treatment programs for IDU. IDU starting ART and able to involve a "supporter" who would assist in their treatment plan were enrolled. ICM included opiate detoxification, bi-monthly contact and counseling with the case, weekly group sessions, monthly contact with the "supporter" and home visits as needed. Full follow- up (FFU) was 8 months. Stata v10 (College Station, TX) was used for all analysis. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all baseline demographic variables, baseline and follow-up CD4 count, and viral load. Median baseline and follow-up CD4 counts and RNA levels were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The proportion of participants with RNA < 1000 copies mL at baseline and follow-up was compared using Fisher's Exact test. McNemar's test for paired proportions was used to compare the change in proportion of participants with RNA < 1000 copies mL from baseline to follow-up. Between November 2007 and December 2008, 60 IDU were enrolled. 34 (56.7 %) were male. 54/60 (90.0 %) remained in FFU. Overall, 31/60 (52 %) were active IDU at enrollment and 27 (45 %) were active at their last follow-up visit. 40/60 (66.7 %) attended all of their ART clinic visits, 13/60 (21.7 %) missed one or more visit but remained on ART, and 7/60 (11.7 %) stopped ART before the end of FFU. Overall, 39/53 (74 %) had a final 6--8 month HIV RNA viral load (VL) < 1000 copies/mL. Despite no substitution therapy to assist IDU in substance abuse and ART treatment programs, ICM was feasible, and the retention and adherence of IDU on ART in St. Petersburg could be greatly enhanced by adding ICM to the existing treatment programs.
    Harm Reduction Journal 09/2013; 10(1):15. · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate contraceptive adherence to the copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD) and the injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) among women with HIV in Lilongwe, Malawi. We randomized 200 HIV-infected women on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to either the Cu-IUD or DMPA and followed these women prospectively, evaluating adherence and factors associated with nonadherence. There was no difference in contraceptive adherence: 68% of Cu-IUD and 65% of DMPA users were adherent at 48 weeks. Receiving first-choice contraceptive was not associated with adherence. Women commonly cited partner's disapproval as an indication for discontinuation. Women who experienced heavy menstruation and first-time contraceptive users were more likely to be nonadherent. Among ongoing users at study conclusion, 95% were happy with their method, and 98% would recommend their method to a friend. Contraceptive adherence between the Cu-IUD and DMPA was similar at 1 year. With similar adherence and similar high rates of satisfaction among users of both methods at 1 year, the Cu-IUD offers a hormone-free alternative to DMPA. Adherence to the Cu-IUD and DMPA is similar at 1 year among HIV-infected women on HAART in a randomized controlled trial. Despite high method satisfaction, partner disapproval and heavy bleeding contribute to reduced adherence. Receiving a method that differs from participant's first-choice method did not influence adherence.
    Contraception 08/2013; · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the efficacy of a peer-educator network intervention as a strategy to reduce HIV acquisition among injection drug users (IDUs) and their drug and/or sexual networks. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in St. Petersburg, Russia among IDU index participants and their risk network participants. Network units were randomized to the control or experimental intervention. Only the experimental index participants received training sessions to communicate risk reduction techniques to their network members. Analysis includes 76 index and 84 network participants who were HIV uninfected. The main outcome measure was HIV sero-conversion. The incidence rates in the control and experimental groups were 19.57 (95 % CI 10.74-35.65) and 7.76 (95 % CI 3.51-17.19) cases per 100 p/y, respectively. The IRR was 0.41 (95 % CI 0.15-1.08) without a statistically significant difference between the two groups (log rank test statistic X(2) = 2.73, permutation p value = 0.16). Retention rate was 67 % with a third of the loss due to incarceration or death. The results show a promising trend that this strategy would be successful in reducing the acquisition of HIV among IDUs.
    AIDS and Behavior 07/2013; · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Humoral immunity to Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein is partly mediated by a polymorphic NANP tetra-amino acid repeat. Antibody response to these repeats is the best correlate of protective immunity to the RTS,S malaria vaccine, but few descriptions of the natural variation of these repeats exist. Using capillary electrophoresis to determine the distribution of NANP repeat size polymorphisms among 98 isolates from Lilongwe, Malawi, we characterised the diversity of P. falciparum infection by several ecological indices. Infection by multiple distinct variants was common, and 20 distinct repeat sizes were identified. Diversity of P. falciparum appeared greater in children (18 variants) than adults (12 variants). There was evidence of genetic distance between different geographic regions by Nei's Standard Genetic Distance, suggesting parasite populations vary locally. We show that P. falciparum is very diverse with respect to NANP repeat length even on a local level and that diversity appears higher in children.
    Scientific Reports 06/2013; 3:1990. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HIV counseling and testing during labour can be emotional, but is important because it allows mothers and babies to receive PMTCT prophylaxis if previous identification of HIV infection has not occurred. The study explores how HIV testing and counseling during early labour affects women. This was a qualitative exploratory study to understand women's experiences during early labor. From September to October 2009, we conducted 10 indepth interviews with women who tested for HIV during early labour. We recruited women who tested > 3 months previously and those who had never tested for HIV from the postpartum ward of Bwaila Hospital. Data were analyzed manually using the life story approach in order to examine and analyse subjective experiences of women and their constructions of the social world. Transcripts were read multiple times to understand meanings which participants attached to their experiences. We coded data according to emerging themes and subthemes. Ten women 20-35 years were interviewed. Eight women had unknown HIV status while two had known HIV results but re-tested to update their status. Four women were found HIV-positive while 6 were HIV-negative. The primary theme was that women appreciated and accepted HIV testing and counseling. Testing was accepted as a necessary step to protect the infant from HIV infection. Counseling was viewed as helpful for acceptance of HIV status. One key subtheme was that HIV positive women experienced disappointment about their HIV diagnosis, though this was outweighed by the knowledge that one could protect her infant. All women viewed the short time to complete the counseling and testing procedures as favourable. Labour testing is acceptable and should be promoted to enhance PMTCT services by identifying HIV positive women with unknown status. Counseling helps women to accept being found with HIV and seek appropriate services.
    Malawi medical journal: the journal of Medical Association of Malawi 06/2013; 25(2):36-39. · 0.27 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
1,068.51 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995–2014
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Division of Infectious Diseases
      • • Center for Infectious Diseases
      • • Department of Medicine
      North Carolina, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Massachusetts Medical School
      Worcester, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2009–2011
    • European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)
      Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
    • North Carolina Biotechnology Center
      North Carolina, United States
    • Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
      Maryland, United States
  • 1995–2009
    • University of Malawi
      • • Obstetrics and gynaecology
      • • College of Medicine
      Zomba, S, Malawi
  • 2008
    • Yale University
      • Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS (CIRA)
      New Haven, CT, United States
  • 2006–2007
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Birmingham, AL, United States
    • Saint Petersburg State Medical University
      Sankt-Peterburg, St.-Petersburg, Russia
    • Saint Petersburg State University
      Sankt-Peterburg, St.-Petersburg, Russia
  • 2003
    • Peking Union Medical College Hospital
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2000
    • U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases
      Maryland, United States
    • Michigan State University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      East Lansing, MI, United States