[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ribosome recycling factor (RRF), elongation factor G (EF-G) and GTP split 70S ribosomes into subunits. Here, we demonstrated that the splitting was transient and the exhaustion of GTP resulted in re-association of the split subunits into 70S ribosomes unless IF3 (initiation factor 3) was present. However, the splitting was observed with sucrose density gradient centrifugation (SDGC) without IF3 if RRF, EF-G and GTP were present in the SDGC buffer. The splitting of 70S ribosomes causes the decrease of light scattering by ribosomes. Kinetic constants obtained from the light scattering studies are sufficient to account for the splitting of 70S ribosomes by RRF and EF-G/GTP during the lag phase for activation of ribosomes for the log phase. As the amount of 70S ribosomes increased, more RRF, EF-G and GTP were necessary to split 70S ribosomes. In the presence of a physiological amount of polyamines, GTP and factors, even 0.6 microM 70S ribosomes (12 times higher than the 70S ribosomes for routine assay) were split. Spermidine (2 mM) completely inhibited anti-association activity of IF3, and the RRF/EF-G/GTP-dependent splitting of 70S ribosomes.
Nucleic Acids Research 11/2008; 36(21):6676-87. · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At the end of translation in bacteria, ribosome recycling factor (RRF) is used together with elongation factor G to recycle the 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits for the next round of translation. In x-ray crystal structures of RRF with the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome, RRF binds to the large ribosomal subunit in the cleft that contains the peptidyl transferase center. Upon binding of either E. coli or Thermus thermophilus RRF to the E. coli ribosome, the tip of ribosomal RNA helix 69 in the large subunit moves away from the small subunit toward RRF by 8 A, thereby disrupting a key contact between the small and large ribosomal subunits termed bridge B2a. In the ribosome crystals, the ability of RRF to destabilize bridge B2a is influenced by crystal packing forces. Movement of helix 69 involves an ordered-to-disordered transition upon binding of RRF to the ribosome. The disruption of bridge B2a upon RRF binding to the ribosome seen in the present structures reveals one of the key roles that RRF plays in ribosome recycling, the dissociation of 70S ribosomes into subunits. The structures also reveal contacts between domain II of RRF and protein S12 in the 30S subunit that may also play a role in ribosome recycling.
Journal of Molecular Biology 04/2008; 376(5):1334-47. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanism of synthesis of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) at the level of translation was studied using cell culture and cell-free systems. Synthesis of firefly luciferase (Fluc) from the second open reading frame (ORF) in a bicistronic construct transfected into FM3A and HeLa cells was enhanced by the presence of the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of ODC mRNA between the two ORFs. However, cotransfection of the gene encoding 2A protease inhibited the synthesis of Fluc. Synthesis of Fluc from the second cistron in the bicistronic mRNA in a cell-free system was not affected significantly by the 5'-UTR of ODC mRNA. Synthesis of ODC from ODC mRNA in a cell-free system was inhibited by 2A protease and cap analogue (m7GpppG). Rapamycin inhibited ODC synthesis by 40-50% at both the G1/S boundary and the G2/M phase. These results indicate that an IRES in the 5'-UTR of ODC mRNA does not function effectively.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2008; 364(1):124-30. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aminoglycosides are widely used antibiotics that cause messenger RNA decoding errors, block mRNA and transfer RNA translocation, and inhibit ribosome recycling. Ribosome recycling follows the termination of protein synthesis and is aided by ribosome recycling factor (RRF) in bacteria. The molecular mechanism by which aminoglycosides inhibit ribosome recycling is unknown. Here we show in X-ray crystal structures of the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome that RRF binding causes RNA helix H69 of the large ribosomal subunit, which is crucial for subunit association, to swing away from the subunit interface. Aminoglycosides bind to H69 and completely restore the contacts between ribosomal subunits that are disrupted by RRF. These results provide a structural explanation for aminoglycoside inhibition of ribosome recycling.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ribosomes must dissociate into subunits in order to begin protein biosynthesis. The enzymes that catalyze this fundamental process in eukaryotes remained unknown. Here, we demonstrate that eukaryotic translocase, eEF2, which catalyzes peptide elongation in the presence of GTP, dissociates yeast 80S ribosomes into subunits in the presence of ATP but not GTP or other nucleoside triphosphates. Dissociation was detected by light scattering or ultracentrifugation after the split subunits were stabilized. ATP was hydrolyzed during the eEF2-dependent dissociation, while a non-hydrolyzable analog of ATP was inactive in ribosome splitting by eEF2. GTP inhibited not only ATP hydrolysis but also dissociation. Sordarin, a fungal eEF2 inhibitor, averted the splitting but stimulated ATP hydrolysis. Another elongation inhibitor, cycloheximide, also prevented eEF2/ATP-dependent splitting, while the inhibitory effect of fusidic acid on the splitting was nominal. Upon dissociation of the 80S ribosome, eEF2 was found on the subunits. We propose that the dissociation activity of eEF2/ATP plays a role in mobilizing 80S ribosomes for protein synthesis during the shift up of physiological conditions.
Nucleic Acids Research 02/2007; 35(14):4597-607. · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of paromomycin on the interaction of ribosomal subunits was studied. Paromomycin inhibited the antiassociation activity of initiation factor 3 (IF3). Furthermore, ribosomal subunits were associated to form 70S ribosomes by paromomycin even in the presence of 1 mM Mg(2+). Paromomycin did not inhibit the binding of IF3 to the 30S ribosomal subunits. On the other hand, IF3 bound to the 30S subunits was expelled by paromomycin-induced subunit association (70S formation). These results indicate that the stabilization of 70S ribosomes by paromomycin may in part be responsible for its inhibitory effects on translocation and ribosome recycling.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 02/2007; 51(1):175-80. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ribosome recycling, the last step in translation, is now accepted as an essential process for prokaryotes. In 2005, three laboratories showed that ribosome-recycling factor (RRF) and elongation factor G (EF-G) cause dissociation of ribosomes into subunits, solving the long-standing problem of how this essential step of translation occurs. However, there remains ongoing controversy regarding the other actions of RRF and EF-G during ribosome recycling. We propose that the available data are consistent with the notion that RRF and EF-G not only split ribosomes into subunits but also participate directly in the release of deacylated tRNA and mRNA for the next round of translation.
Trends in Biochemical Sciences 04/2006; 31(3):143-9. · 13.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein synthesis is initiated on ribosomal subunits. However, it is not known how 70S ribosomes are dissociated into small and large subunits. Here we show that 70S ribosomes, as well as the model post-termination complexes, are dissociated into stable subunits by cooperative action of three translation factors: ribosome recycling factor (RRF), elongation factor G (EF-G), and initiation factor 3 (IF3). The subunit dissociation is stable enough to be detected by conventional sucrose density gradient centrifugation (SDGC). GTP, but not nonhydrolyzable GTP analog, is essential in this process. We found that RRF and EF-G alone transiently dissociate 70S ribosomes. However, the transient dissociation cannot be detected by SDGC. IF3 stabilizes the dissociation by binding to the transiently formed 30S subunits, preventing re-association back to 70S ribosomes. The three-factor-dependent stable dissociation of ribosomes into subunits completes the ribosome cycle and the resulting subunits are ready for the next round of translation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The post-termination ribosomal complex is disassembled by ribosome recycling factor (RRF) and elongation factor G. Without RRF, the ribosome is not released from mRNA at the termination codon and reinitiates translation downstream. This is called unscheduled translation. Here, we show that at the non-permissive temperature of a temperature-sensitive RRF strain, RRF is lost quickly, and some ribosomes reach the 3' end of mRNA. However, instead of accumulating at the 3' end of mRNA, ribosomes are released as monosomes. Some ribosomes are transferred to transfer-messenger RNA from the 3' end of mRNA. The monosomes thus produced are able to translate synthetic homopolymer but not natural mRNA with leader and canonical initiation signal. The pellet containing ribosomes appears to be responsible for rapid but reversible inhibition of most but not all of protein synthesis in vivo closely followed by decrease of cellular RNA and DNA synthesis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After the termination step of protein synthesis, a deacylated tRNA and mRNA remain associated with the ribosome. The ribosome-recycling factor (RRF), together with elongation factor G (EF-G), disassembles this posttermination complex into mRNA, tRNA, and the ribosome. We have obtained a three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopic map of a complex of the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome and RRF. We find that RRF interacts mainly with the segments of the large ribosomal subunit's (50S) rRNA helices that are involved in the formation of two central intersubunit bridges, B2a and B3. The binding of RRF induces considerable conformational changes in some of the functional domains of the ribosome. As compared to its binding position derived previously by hydroxyl radical probing study, we find that RRF binds further inside the intersubunit space of the ribosome such that the tip of its domain I is shifted (by approximately 13 A) toward protein L5 within the central protuberance of the 50S subunit, and domain II is oriented more toward the small ribosomal subunit (30S). Overlapping binding sites of RRF, EF-G, and the P-site tRNA suggest that the binding of EF-G would trigger the removal of deacylated tRNA from the P site by moving RRF toward the ribosomal E site, and subsequent removal of mRNA may be induced by a shift in the position of 16S rRNA helix 44, which harbors part of the mRNA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2004; 101(24):8900-5. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is generally accepted that translation in bacteria is initiated by 30S ribosomal subunits. In contrast, several lines of rather indirect in vitro evidence suggest that 70S monosomes are capable of initiating translation of leaderless mRNAs, starting with the A of the initiation codon. In this study, we demonstrate the proficiency of dedicated 70S ribosomes in in vitro translation of leaderless mRNAs. In support, we show that a natural leaderless mRNA can be translated with crosslinked 70S wild-type ribosomes. Moreover, we report that leaderless mRNA translation continues under conditions where the prevalence of 70S ribosomes is created in vivo, and where translation of bulk mRNA ceases. These studies provide in vivo as well as direct in vitro evidence for a 70S initiation pathway of a naturally occurring leaderless mRNA, and are discussed in light of their significance for bacterial growth under adverse conditions and their evolutionary implications for translation.
Nucleic Acids Research 02/2004; 32(11):3354-63. · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The yeast protein Rrf1p encoded by the FIL1 nuclear gene bears significant sequence similarity to Escherichia coli ribosome recycling factor (RRF). Here, we call FIL1 Ribosome Recycling Factor of yeast, RRF1. Its gene product, Rrf1p, was localized in mitochondria. Deletion of RRF1 leads to a respiratory incompetent phenotype and to instability of the mitochondrial genome (conversion to rho(-)/rho(0) cytoplasmic petites). Yeast with intact mitochondria and with deleted genomic RRF1 that harbors a plasmid carrying RRF1 was prepared from spores of heterozygous diploid yeast. Such yeast with a mutated allele of RRF1, rrf1-L209P, grew on a non-fermentable carbon source at 30 but not at 36 degrees C, where mitochondrial but not total protein synthesis was 90% inhibited. We propose that Rrf1p is essential for mitochondrial protein synthesis and acts as a RRF in mitochondria.
Nucleic Acids Research 08/2003; 31(14):4218-26. · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prokaryotic post-termination ribosomal complex is disassembled by ribosome recycling factor (RRF) and elongation factor G. Because of the structural similarity of RRF and tRNA, we compared the biochemical characteristics of RRF binding to ribosomes with that of tRNA. Unesterified tRNA inhibited the disassembly of the post-termination complex in a competitive manner with RRF, suggesting that RRF binds to the A-site. Approximately one molecule of ribosome-bound RRF was detected after isolation of the RRF-ribosome complex. RRF and unesterified tRNA similarly inhibited the binding of N-acetylphenylalanyl-tRNA to the P-site of non-programmed but not programmed ribosomes. Under the conditions in which unesterified tRNA binds to both the P- and E-sites of non-programmed ribosomes, RRF inhibited 50% of the tRNA binding, suggesting that RRF does not bind to the E-site. The results are consistent with the notion that a single RRF binds to the A- and P-sites in a somewhat analogous manner to the A/P-site bound peptidyl tRNA. The binding of RRF and tRNA to ribosomes was influenced by Mg(2+) and NH(4)(+) ions in a similar manner.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2002; 277(39):35847-52. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ribosome recycling factor (RRF) together with elongation factor G (EF-G) disassembles the post- termination ribosomal complex. Inhibitors of translocation, thiostrepton, viomycin and aminoglycosides, inhibited the release of tRNA and mRNA from the post-termination complex. In contrast, fusidic acid and a GTP analog that fix EF-G to the ribosome, allowing one round of tRNA translocation, inhibited mRNA but not tRNA release from the complex. The release of tRNA is a prerequisite for mRNA release but partially takes place with EF-G alone. The data are consistent with the notion that RRF binds to the A-site and is translocated to the P-site, releasing deacylated tRNA from the P- and E-sites. The final step, the release of mRNA, is accompanied by the release of RRF and EF-G from the ribosome. With the model post-termination complex, 70S ribosomes were released from the post-termination complex by the RRF reaction and were then dissociated into subunits by IF3.
The EMBO Journal 06/2002; 21(9):2272-81. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 52 null, six reversion, and five silent mutations of frr (the gene encoding for ribosome recycling factor (RRF)) of Escherichia coli are discussed along with 12 temperature-sensitive (ts) mutations and 14 intergenic suppressor strains of ts RRF. The null mutations were classified into six different categories. A computer-based secondary structure analysis showed three domains; domain A which has the N-terminal helix, domain B which contains coil, alpha-helix and beta-strand structure, and domain C which is a C-terminal helix. The ts mutations fell into domains A and C but not in domain B. More than a half of the null mutations fell into domain B while the silent mutations fell outside domain B. Substitution of Arg132 in domain C by other amino acids was observed among five independently isolated null mutants. It is suggested that domain B is important for maintaining the RRF structure, while the region including Arg132 is one of the active sites. A total of 14 intergenic suppressor strains of ts RRF were grouped into four categories, depending on which temperature-sensitive alleles were suppressed.
Journal of Molecular Biology 02/2000; 295(4):815-29. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ribosome recycling factor (RRF), together with elongation factor G (EF-G), catalyzes recycling of ribosomes after one round of protein synthesis. The crystal structure of RRF was determined at 2.55 angstrom resolution. The protein has an unusual fold where domain I is a long three-helix bundle and domain II is a three-layer beta/alpha/beta sandwich. The molecule superimposes almost perfectly with a transfer RNA (tRNA) except that the amino acid-binding 3' end is missing. The mimicry suggests that RRF interacts with the posttermination ribosomal complex in a similar manner to a tRNA, leading to disassembly of the complex. The structural arrangement of this mimicry is entirely different from that of other cases of less pronounced mimicry of tRNA so far described.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thermotoga maritima ribosome recycling factor (RRF) is one of the proteins catalyzing the fourth step in prokaryotic protein synthesis, ribosome recycling. The RRF protein was crystallized with ammonium sulfate. Native diffraction data to 2.55 A resolution were obtained at the MAX II synchrotron from a flash-frozen crystal at 100 K. The crystals belong to space group P4(1)2(1)2 or P4(3)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 47, c = 298 A, and probably contain one monomer per asymmetric unit.