[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the technical feasibility and clinical outcome of bilateral uterine artery embolization (UAE) as a first-line therapeutic option for bleeding uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Materials and Methods: Between 2002 and 2012, 19 patients were diagnosed with acquired uterine AVM clinically and through imaging studies. The clinical characteristics, angiographic features, technical success rate of embolization, procedure-related complications, imaging, and clinical follow-up data were assessed. Clinical success was defined as immediate symptomatic resolution with disappearance of vascular abnormality on subsequent imaging studies. Results: A total of 20 bilateral UAE, with or without embolization of extra-uterine feeders, were performed as the first-line treatment. Technical and clinical success rate was 90.0% (18/20) and 89.5% (17/19), respectively. Embolization was incomplete in two patients who had residual extra-uterine fine feeders to the AVM or a procedure- related complication (ruptured uterine artery); the former showed slow regression of the vascular malformation during the observation period, while the latter underwent a successful second bilateral UAE. Immediate clinical success was achieved in the remaining 17 patients after a single session and no recurrence of bleeding was found. Recovery to normal menstrual cycle was seen in all 17 patients with clinical success within one or two months, two of whom subsequently had uneventful intrauterine pregnancies carried to term. Conclusion: Bilateral UAE is a safe and effective first-line therapeutic option for the management of bleeding uterine AVMs. However, incomplete embolization due to unembolizable feeders or difficult access into the uterine artery may lead to suboptimal treatment.
Yonsei medical journal 03/2014; 55(2):367-73. · 0.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the use of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered biliary stents has proven to be feasible for the treatment of benign and malignant biliary disease, less is known regarding the outcomes of percutaneous placement of a covered stent in patients with malignant duodenobiliary obstruction.
To investigate the technical and clinical efficacy of the percutaneous placement of a PTFE-covered biliary stent in patients with malignant duodenobiliary obstruction.
From April 2007 to September 2012, the medical records of 45 consecutive patients with malignant duodenobiliary obstruction were retrospectively reviewed. All percutaneous biliary stent deployment was performed using PTFE-covered stents, whereas duodenal stent insertion was performed either fluoroscopically or endoscopically using covered or uncovered stents.
Biliary stent deployment was technically successful in all patients. None of the stents migrated after deployment. Procedure-related minor complications, including self-limiting hemobilia, occurred in three (7%) patients. Successful internal drainage was achieved in 39 (87%) of the 45 patients. The median survival time after biliary stent placement was 62 days (95% confidence interval, 8-116 days), and the cumulative stent patency rates at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months were 96%, 92%, 75%, and 38%, respectively. The causes of biliary stent dysfunction included stent occlusion caused by a subsequently inserted duodenal stent (n = 7), food impaction (n = 3), and sludge incrustation (n = 1). One patient developed acute cholecystitis 131 days after biliary stent placement and underwent percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage.
Percutaneous insertion of a PTFE-covered stent is a safe and effective method for palliative treatment of patients with malignant duodenobiliary obstruction. If possible, subsequent biliary stent insertion is preferable in order to prevent possible biliary stent dysfunction caused by subsequent insertion of a duodenal stent.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of unilateral covered stent placement in patients with malignant superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome.
Between October 2008 and November 2012, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent placement for malignant SVC syndrome was performed in 40 consecutive patients (35 men and five women; mean age, 61.4 years; range, 35-81 years). All covered stents were unilaterally placed within the SVC or across the venous confluence when needed to relieve venous obstruction and prevent tumor overgrowth, regardless of patency of contralateral brachiocephalic veins.
Stent placement was technically successful in all patients. There were no major complications. Of the 37 patients symptomatic prior to stent placement, 34 (92%) experienced complete symptomatic relief 1-8 days after stent placement. Of the 29 patients who underwent covered stent placement across the venous confluence, nine patients had patent contralateral brachiocephalic veins prior to stent placement. However, no sign of SVC obstruction or contralateral upper extremity venous thrombosis was observed during the follow-up period. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed median patient survival of 163 days. Stent occlusion occurred in four (10%) of 40 patents. Cumulative stent patency rates at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months were 95%, 92%, 86%, and 86%, respectively.
Unilateral covered stent placement appears to be a safe and effective method for treating malignant SVC syndrome, despite the location of SVC occlusion.
Korean journal of radiology: official journal of the Korean Radiological Society 01/2014; 15(1):87-94. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the results of PTA for late-onset PV complications after pediatric LDLT and to assess whether a meso-Rex shunt is a viable option for treating restenosis of the PV after PTA in selected cases. Seventy-five children who underwent adult-to-child LDLT were included in this study, and there were six late-onset PV complications (8.0%). The initial therapeutic approach was PTA, with or without stent: PTA with balloon dilation for three children, PTA with stent placement for one child, and failure to cannulate the occluded PV for two children. A meso-Rex shunt was performed in the two children after failed PTA: One suffered complete obstruction of the main PV, and the other, restenosis with total thrombosis after PTA with stent. The PTA was a technical and clinical success in four with PV stenosis of the six patients (66.7%), and successful application of a meso-Rex shunt in the other two children resulted in restoration of PV flow. In conclusion, PTA is a safe and effective procedure for treating late-onset PV stenosis after pediatric LDLT. However, in growing pediatric recipients with restenosis of the PV after PTA or chronic PV thrombosis, a meso-Rex shunt may be a better choice for late-onset PV complications.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of modified cisplatin-based transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for inoperable hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) larger than 5 cm in diameter, and the factors associated with tumor response and survival.
From January 2007 to November 2009, 163 patients who underwent modified cisplatin-based chemoembolization for inoperable large HCCs were evaluated. Predominant tumors were as large as 25 cm (median, 8.6 cm). Seventy-nine patients had a solitary tumor, and 84 had two or more tumors. Tumor response was evaluated per modified Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors.
After chemoembolization, 65% of patients showed a tumor response. On multivariate analysis, tumor size (P < .001) and portal vein (PV) invasion (P = .017) were significant factors for tumor response. After chemoembolization, 97% of patients (56 of 58) with PV invasion received additional radiation therapy for PV tumor thrombosis. Median survival time was 15.8 months. On multivariate analysis, Child-Pugh class (P = .001), surgical resection (P = .003) or radiofrequency (RF) ablation (P = .018) after chemoembolization, and tumor response (P = .002) were significant factors for patient survival after chemoembolization. Major complications (N = 5) included acute renal failure (n = 3), cholecystitis with hepatic abscess (n = 1), and intractable pleural effusion (n = 1).
Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization is safe and effective for large HCCs. Tumor size and PV invasion are significant predictors of tumor response and, Child-Pugh class A disease, surgical resection after chemoembolization, RF ablation after chemoembolization, and tumor response are good prognostic factors for survival.
Journal of vascular and interventional radiology: JVIR 08/2013; · 1.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of our present study was to review the experiences of a living donor-dominant transplantation program for children with acute liver failure (ALF).
Data were derived from the retrospective chart review of 50 children with ALF in a major liver center, Korea.
A total of 50 children with ALF underwent 47 (94%) primary living donor liver transplantations and 3 (6%) cadaveric liver transplantations. The cumulative survival rates of the grafts at 1 and 5 years were 81.9% and 79.2%, respectively. The overall retransplantation rate was 12%. The cumulative survival rates of these patients at 1 and 5 years were all 87.9%. Most incidents of mortality followed the failure of the preceding graft. We observed no mortalities among donors. Based on multivariate analysis, children who had pretransplant thrombocytopenia or had to use the molecular adsorbent recycling system preoperatively were related to the graft loss. Age <2 years and a hyperacute onset (within 7 days) of hepatic encephalopathy were associated with pretransplant thrombocytopenia.
Living donor-dominant transplantation program in the present study demonstrates tolerable achievements in terms of clinical outcomes of recipients and donors. However, putative factors, such as pretransplant thrombocytopenia, seem to play unclear roles in a poor prognosis following transplantation.
Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 08/2013; · 2.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the outcomes of percutaneous metallic stent placement in patients with malignant bilioenterostomy obstruction and to assess the risk factors influencing stent patency.
From August 2008 to January 2012, 53 patients with malignant bilioenterostomy obstructions were treated with percutaneous placement of biliary metallic stents; this included expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE)-covered stent placement in 36 patients and uncovered stent placement in 17 patients.
A total of 75 stents were successfully placed in 53 patients. No major complications occurred in any patients, and minor complications occurred in nine patients (17%). The mean serum bilirubin level, which was 3.6 mg/dL ± 0.7 before drainage, decreased significantly to 2.5 mg/dL ± 0.4 at 1 month after stent placement (P = .041). Successful internal drainage was achieved in 44 of the 53 patients (83%). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a median overall survival time of 145 days (95% confidence interval, 100-190 d), a median stent patency time of 313 days (95% confidence interval, 46-580 d), and cumulative stent patency rates at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of 91%, 75%, 64%, 56%, and 45%, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the use of uncovered stents (odds ratio, 2.924; P = .033) was the only significant independent factor associated with stent occlusion.
Percutaneous metallic stent placement is a safe and effective method for the treatment of patients with malignant bilioenterostomy obstruction. Moreover, as uncovered stent placement is the only significant independent factor associated with stent occlusion, ePTFE-covered stent placement is preferable in these patients.
Journal of vascular and interventional radiology: JVIR 07/2013; · 1.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Percutaneous balloon dilation of benign biliary stricture has been the most widely used alternative to endoscopic treatment; however, the rate of recurrence has varied from 15 to 44 %. Recently, several investigators have reported that percutaneous transhepatic placement of retrievable covered stents is feasible for the treatment of benign biliary strictures. However, these studies had only a small number of patients and had short follow-up periods.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the mid-term outcomes of a retrievable covered stent for treatment of benign biliary strictures.
We retrospectively assessed 68 patients who underwent percutaneous transhepatic placement and removal of a retrievable covered stent between March 2007 and November 2012, for treatment of benign biliary strictures. Forty-two patients had not previously undergone interventional treatment, whereas 26 had recurrent or refractory strictures despite previous percutaneous procedures.
Placement of the retrievable covered stents was technically successful in all patients. Stent migration occurred in 11 (16.2 %) patients. The mean indwelling period of drainage catheter and stent were 5.8 months (range, 3-22.5 months) and 3 months (range, 2-6.5 months), respectively. Clinical success was achieved in 59 (86.8 %) patients. During the mean follow-up of 36 months (range, 8.5-65 months), 12 (20 %) of 60 patients had recurrence of clinically significant strictures. The primary patency rates at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years were 91, 89, 76, 68, and 68 %, respectively.
Mid-term outcomes suggested that percutaneous treatment of benign biliary strictures using a retrievable covered stent was a clinically effective method.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences 07/2013; · 2.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study is to investigate the technical and clinical efficacy of percutaneous bilateral stent-in-stent deployment using open cell-design stents and to compare the clinical outcomes of bilateral stent placement using T and Y configurations. MATERIALS AND METHODS. From January 2006 to December 2010, 106 patients with malignant hilar biliary obstruction (Bismuth type II or higher) were included in this retrospective study. All patients were treated with percutaneous bilateral stent-in-stent deployment using open cell-design stents (64 in a T configuration and 42 in a Y configuration). RESULTS. Bilateral stent-in-stent deployment was technically successful in all patients. Seven patients (6.6%) had major complications, including one with severe hemobilia, two with acute cholecystitis, and four with cholangitis; seven (6.6%) patients had minor complications, including self-limiting hemobilia. Successful internal drainage was achieved in 94 patients (88.7%). Stent occlusion by tumor ingrowth, with or without overgrowth, occurred in 37 patients (34.9%). The median survival and stent patency times were 192 days (95% CI, 153.6-230.4 days) and 319 days (95% CI, 148.5-489.5 days), respectively. Stent configuration did not significantly affect technical success, complications, successful internal drainage, patient survival, or stent patency. CONCLUSION. Percutaneous bilateral stent-in-stent placement using open cell-design stents is effective for bilateral drainage in patients with malignant hilar biliary obstruction. In addition, there was no significant difference in technical and clinical outcomes between T and Y stent configurations.
American Journal of Roentgenology 04/2013; 200(4):909-14. · 2.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy have been used to treat postoperative main portal vein and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis.PurposeTo evaluate the safety and efficacy of balloon angioplasty and/or stent placement without thrombolysis or thrombectomy for treating such thromboses.Material and Methods
Fourteen patients with postoperative main portal vein or superior mesenteric vein thrombosis underwent percutaneous transhepatic balloon angioplasty and/or stent placement without thrombolysis or thrombectomy. The rates of technical and clinical success, major complications, and recurrence were evaluated retrospectively.ResultsInitial technical success was achieved in 13 of the 14 patients (93%). After the procedures, these 13 patients showed brisk portal inflow, without a significant amount of residual thrombus in the stented lumen or embolism. One patient was considered to be a technical failure despite showing a brisk portal inflow because 50% stenosis and partial residual thrombus remained in the stented lumen. Initial clinical success was achieved in 13 patients. One patient with technical success died of acute respiratory distress syndrome 8 days after the procedure, whereas one patient with technical failure achieved clinical success. One patient experienced acute rethrombosis 8 days after the procedure. During the median follow-up period of 16.3 months, rethrombosis occurred in six patients (43%), including one patient with acute rethrombosis.Conclusion
Balloon angioplasty and/or stent placement without thrombolysis or thrombectomy may be a safe and effective treatment modality for postoperative main portal vein and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Unilateral biliary metallic stent placement in the lobe with patent portal vein seemed to be a safe and effective palliative treatment of patients with contralateral portal vein occlusion caused by advanced hilar malignancy, obviating bilateral stent placement in these patients, because the hepatic lobe with portal vein occlusion ceases to produce bile due to interruption of enterohepatic circulation. Purpose To investigate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous unilateral expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE)-covered stent placement in malignant hilar biliary obstruction with contralateral portal vein occlusion. Material and Methods From February 2008 to March 2011, 24 consecutive patients with malignant hilar biliary obstruction and unilobar portal vein occlusion were enrolled in this prospective study. All patients were treated by percutaneous placement of ePTFE-covered stents. Results Stent deployment was technically successful in all patients. Two (8%) patients experienced minor self-limiting hemobilia. No major complication was noted. Successful internal drainage was achieved in 22 (91.6%) patients. Mean serum bilirubin level, which was 12.5 mg/dl ± 8.4 before drainage, decreased significantly to 2.7 mg/dl ± 3.4, 1 month after stent placement (P < 0.001). Median survival was 191 days (95% CI, 94-288 days) and cumulative stent patency rates at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months were 100%, 95%, 95%, 95%, and 71%, respectively. Two (8%) patients presented with stent occlusion due to sludge incrustation. Aside from two patients who had died within 30 days after stent placement, the other 22 patients demonstrated slight decrease in diameter of undrained lobe and did not experience cholangitis nor jaundice. Conclusion Unilateral placement of ePTFE-covered stent in the lobe with patent portal vein seems to be a safe and effective method for palliative treatment of patients with contralateral portal vein occlusion. In addition, ePTFE-covered stent placement can prevent tumor ingrowth without functional occlusion of segmental bile ducts.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of pelvic arterial embolization (PAE) for the treatment of primary postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and to determine the factors associated with clinical outcomes.
This retrospective single-center study was institutional review board approved, and informed consent was waived. Outcomes were analyzed in 251 patients who underwent PAE for primary PPH between January 2000 and February 2011. Mode of delivery, causes of bleeding, detailed laboratory and treatment records, and clinical outcomes were recorded. Clinical success was defined as cessation of bleeding after initial session of PAE without the need for additional PAE or surgery. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the factors related to clinical outcomes.
The clinical success rate was 86.5% (217 of 251). Among the 34 failed cases, 12 underwent repeat PAE, 16 underwent additional surgery, and three recovered with conservative management. Overall bleeding control was achieved in 98.0% (246 of 251) of the patients. Overall mortality was 2% (five of 251) after the first (n = 3) or second (n = 1) session of PAE or additional surgery (n = 1). Among the 113 patients with long-term follow-up, 110 (97.3%) maintained a regular menstrual cycle and 11 had successful pregnancies. Univariate analysis showed that cesarean section delivery, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and massive transfusion of more than 10 red blood cell units were related to failed PAE. Multivariate analysis showed that DIC (odds ratio, 0.36; P = .04) and massive transfusion (odds ratio, 0.10; P < .001) were significantly related to clinical failure.
PAE is safe and effective for managing primary PPH. Patients with DIC and massive transfusion were likely to have poor results after PAE.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Formation of an iatrogenic chronic large vessel arteriovenous (AV) fistula is an uncommon, early or late complication of spine surgery and associated with serious consequences. Its diagnosis is often delayed for months or years after the occurrence and rarely only after the patient develops heart failure secondary to a mature AV fistula. We present the case of a 43-year-old man with high-output heart failure due to an iatrogenic large vessel AV fistula after lumbar disc surgery successfully treated with the endovascular technique.
Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 06/2012; 46(6):495-8. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The decreased portal blood flow and the potential decrease in arterial nutrient hepatic blood flow after creation of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) makes the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) challenging.
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) after TIPS in patients with HCC.
From 1998 to 2009, 20 patients underwent selective (segmental or subsegmental) TACE for HCC after TIPS. Among 20 patients, seven patients had undergone one to three sessions of TACE for HCC before TIPS creation. TACE was performed using a mixture of iodized oil and cisplatin, and absorbable gelatin sponge particles. Tumor response, complications, and patient survival were evaluated after TACE.
After TACE, 14 of the 20 (70%) patients showed a tumor response, with only one (5%) experiencing a TACE-related major complication, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. None of the patients who underwent TACE after TIPS died within 30 days. During the follow-up period (range 2.2-107 months; mean 32.6 months), 18 patients died and two remained alive. The median survival period after TACE was 23 months. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that tumor stage was the only independent prognostic factor for patient survival (P = 0.049).
Selective TACE may be safe and effective for the palliative treatment of HCC in patients with TIPS. Late tumor stage ( ≥III) was poor prognostic factor for determining the patient survival period after post-TIPS TACE.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Secure reconstruction of the right hepatic vein (RHV) is essential for the successful implantation of a right liver graft during living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). To develop reliable surgical techniques for RHV reconstruction, we performed 3 concurrent studies: a simulation study using a fluid dynamics experimental model and a computational simulation model; an observational study analyzing the hemodynamic changes during radiological interventions for RHV stenosis; and a prospective clinical study establishing hemodynamics-compliant surgical techniques. The simplified fluid dynamics experimental model revealed that actually measured outflow volumes were very similar to theoretical values derived from a fluid dynamics formula. The computational simulation model showed that outflow decreases were nearly linearly correlated with the degree of stenosis when it exceeded 50%. The clinical observational study revealed that mild (≤50%), moderate (50%-75%), and severe RHV stenoses (≥75%) had mean pressure gradients of 2.5 ± 1.0, 6.6 ± 2.3, and 9.6 ± 2.8 mm Hg, respectively. The prospective clinical study was performed for patients who underwent RHV reconstruction with RHV angle blunting and inferior vena cava enlargement (n = 274); a historical control group of patients who underwent reconstruction by other methods (n = 225) was also used. RHV stenting within 2 weeks and 1 year was necessary for 1 patient (0.4%) and 5 patients (1.8%) in the study group, respectively, and for 9 patients (4.0%) and 21 patients (9.1%) in the control group, respectively (P < 0.01). The mean cephalocaudal length of patulous RHV anastomoses was greater in the study group versus the control group (P < 0.001). In conclusion, our modified RHV reconstruction technique significantly reduces the risk of RHV stenosis. We thus suggest the routine or selective use of this technique as a part of graft standardization for LDLT using a right liver graft.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite its long history, the application of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) has been limited compared to other materials such as particulate agents and coils. This possibly owes to a widespread misconception that NBCA is difficult to handle and carries a high risk of complications due to its liquid nature and rapid polymerization time. However, recent reports have shown that, with knowledge and experience, NBCA is safe and effective to use in visceral arteries.
To review the outcome of transcatheter embolization of the renal artery using NBCA for varied etiologies in the kidney.
Fourteen patients with varied etiologies in the kidney underwent renal artery embolization using NBCA as the sole embolic agent (64%) or in combination with an additional embolic material (36%). A review of medical charts and images were performed to gather information regarding underlying etiologies, clinical presentation, and outcome of embolization.
Technical success was achieved in all patients (100%) while clinical success was achieved in 12 (85.7%). One failed case was managed by repeat embolization using microcoils, while the other underwent partial nephrectomy after failed reattempt at embolization. Three patients with recurrent bleeding after previously having undergone embolization using microcoils or gelatin sponge particles were successfully managed the second time using NBCA. NBCA embolization was also effective in three patients with hemostatic abnormality. Complications attributable to NBCA embolization were renal atrophy in one patient and microcatheter tip fracture in another.
The application of NBCA for transcatheter embolization of varied etiologies involving the renal artery is feasible and safe in the hands of an experienced interventional radiologist. It offers immediate and effective occlusion of the pathologic vessel and, while it can be used exclusively on its own, it can also be used to complement other embolic materials.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No report has appeared on the histologic characteristics as influencing factors associated with clinical outcomes and survival of patients who underwent percutaneous biliary interventions to treat malignant biliary obstruction caused by metastatic gastric cancer.
To investigate the clinical outcomes after percutaneous biliary interventions in patients with malignant biliary obstruction caused by metastatic gastric cancer and to identify prognostic factors associated with clinical outcomes.
We retrospectively assessed 117 patients who underwent percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) between January 2005 and December 2009, for treatment of malignant biliary obstructions caused by metastatic gastric cancer. Of these 117 patients, 54 subsequently underwent metallic stent placement.
The technical success rates of PTBD and metallic stent placement were 100% and 100%, respectively. Self-limiting hemobilia after PTBD occurred in eight (7%) patients, and self-limiting hemobilia (n = 4) and acute pancreatitis (n = 3) after stent placement occurred in seven (13%) patients. Successful drainage was achieved in 105 (90%) of the 117 patients who underwent PTBD and in 49 (91%) of 54 patients who underwent metallic stent placement. Multiple Cox's regression analysis showed that the histology of primary gastric cancer (P = 0.011), serum bilirubin after PTBD (P = 0.002) and stenting (P = 0.017), and chemotherapy after PTBD (P < 0.001) and stenting (P = 0.033) were independent predictors of survival.
PTBD and subsequent metallic stent placement were safe and effective methods for palliative treatment in patients with malignant biliary obstruction caused by metastatic gastric cancer. Patients with a differentiated histology of primary gastric cancer and serum bilirubin level ≤2 mg/dl after PTBD are probably the best candidates for treatment with a combination of metallic stent placement and chemotherapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A ruptured pseudoaneurysm is the most serious and life-threatening cause of postpancreatoduodenectomy (PD) hemorrhages. We have evaluated the clinical course and management of pseudoaneurysms after PD. Of 586 patients who underwent PD for periampullary tumors in Asan Medical Center between March 2003 and March 2011, 27 experienced pseudoaneurysmal bleeding. Bleeding developed at a median of 21 days (range, 8 to 45 days) after surgery, including 9 patients who developed bleeding more than 4 weeks after surgery. Before development of bleeding, 26 patients showed pancreatic fistula. Bleeding was developed from the gastroduodenal artery stump in 12 patients, the common hepatic artery in eight, the proper hepatic artery in five, and the left hepatic artery in two. Of the angiographic group, 21 patients underwent with microcoil embolization, four underwent stent insertion, and one experienced technical failure. Only one patient required emergent laparotomy without angiography. Of 25 patients with angiographic procedures, all patients achieved hemostasis. The mortality rate was 22.2 per cent (6 patients). Delayed hemorrhage after PD is closely associated with pancreatic fistula and carried a significantly higher mortality rate. The patients with pancreatic fistula should be carefully monitored, even more than 4 weeks after surgery. Selective microcoil embolization or stent graft is effective for pseudoaneurysmal bleeding.
The American surgeon 03/2012; 78(3):309-17. · 0.92 Impact Factor