[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on preliminary investigations into CH4 oxidation and N2O emissions from aged refuse following wastewater treatment. The maximum CH4 oxidation rate by incubated aged refuse (IAR) was 79.11 μmol g−1 h−1, which was much higher than that of original aged refuse (OAR). This result can be attributed to effects arising from the retention of suspended solids and organic matter and the growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria through wastewater treatment. After distilled water addition, N2O and CO2 emissions from IAR were almost two times higher than those of OAR (p > 0.05) and an order of magnitude higher than that of soil (p > 0.05). With the heavy metal addition in aged refuse, there was a negligible difference (p < 0.05) from the control without heavy metal addition. Due to the higher tolerance to changes in pH and heavy metal concentrations in aged refuse, a wide scope of wastewater could be selected for its pre-incubation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to comprehensively characterize the copper and cadmium resistance in activated sludge of a tannery wastewater treatment plant, a resistance protein database of the two heavy metals was manually created by retrieving annotated sequences and related information from the public databases and published literatures. The metagenomic DNA was extracted from the activated sludge for Illumina high-throughput sequencing, and the obtained 11,973,394 clean reads (1.61 Gb) were compared against the established databases using BLAST tool. Annotations of the BLAST hits showed that 222 reads (0.019 per thousand) and 197 reads (0.016 per thousand) were identified as copper and cadmium resistance genes, respectively. Among the identified cadmium resistance genes, czcA encoding cobalt-zinc-cadmium resistance protein had the highest abundance (83 reads, 0.0069 per thousand), which was further confirmed by annotation of the open reading frames predicted with the assembly contigs. Among the copper resistance genes, copA (66 reads, 0.0055 per thousand) was most abundant, followed by copK and cusR. Alignment against the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) database also suggested that 87.26% of the matched reads were grouped in COG0474 (cation transport ATPase). This study may be practically helpful for exploring various functional genes in the environment using high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics methods.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Differential gene expression profiling was performed via DNA microarray in the liver tissue of Mus musculus mice after exposure to drinking water of Taihu Lake for 90 days. A total of 75 differentially expressed candidate genes (DEGs) were identified (1.5-fold, p ≤ 0.05), among which the expression of 29 genes was up-regulated and that of 46 genes was down-regulated. Most DEGs were involved in biological process based on gene ontology mapping analysis. The drinking water of Taihu Lake significantly influenced the expression of genes related to cell proliferation, apoptosis, amino acid metabolism, development and immune responses. Long-term exposure to the Taihu drinking water may result in increased carcinogenic risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabonomic method was used to characterize the profile of low-molecular-weight endogenous metabolites in mouse (Mus musculus) serum following exposure to Taihu Lake source water for 90 days. The (1)H NMR spectra of mice sera were recoded and a total of 21 metabolites were identified. Data reduction and latent biomarkers identification were processed by pattern recognition (PR) analysis. The principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) identified differences in metabolic profiles between control and treatment groups. A number of serum metabolic perturbations were observed in sera of source water treatment mice compared to control mice, including decreased levels of acetone, pyruvate, glutamine, lysine and citrate. These results indicated that Taihu Lake source water could induce energy metabolism changes in mouse related to fatty acid β-oxidation, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, citric acid cycle, and metabolism of some amino acids. (1)H NMR-based metabolic profiling provides new insight into the toxic effect of Taihu Lake source water, and suggests potential biomarkers for noninvasive monitoring of health risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA micorarray was used to analyze hepatic transcriptional profile of male mice (Mus musculus) after 35-d intragastric perfusion treatment with purified terephthalic acid (PTA) manufacturing wastewater. Haematological analysis demonstrated that the levels of glutamyl transferase and lactate dehydrogenase in serum were significantly decreased, and DNA microarray showed that a total of 306 genes were differentially expressed in PTA wastewater-treated mice. According to Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes pathway database, the differentially expressed genes were mainly grouped to metabolic pathways (58 genes) and biological processes (101 genes). PTA wastewater had significant impacts upon metabolisms of lipid, carbohydrate, amino acid, vitamin and nucleotide. Several signal transduction pathways are most susceptible to PTA wastewater, including mitogen-activated protein kinases, Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription and calcium signaling pathways. Potential public health problems may arise from the discharge of PTA wastewater into the environment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The toxicological tests of the Yangtze River source of drinking water on the reproductive system of male mice (Mus musculus) were conducted in order to protect human and environmental health. The mice were fed with the source water for 90-day and their body weights and relative organ weights were not significantly altered. The results of flow cytometry analysis showed that the relative percentage of the primary spermatocytes (4C) increased significantly, however, significant depletion was observed in the relative percentage of elongated spermatid (HC). These alterations in different germ cell populations were reflected in the various germ cell ratios. The ratio of 1C:4C showed declines while the ratio of 4C:2C increased and the percentage of abnormal sperm increased significantly. There were obvious testicular histopathology distinguishes observed in expansion of interstitial space and reduction in the number and size of Leydig cells. The data demonstrated that the source of drinking water from Yangtze River had actual toxicity on male mice reproductive system and suggested that the source water pollution should be controlled for protection of human health.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The technical support system for establishment of the Taihu-Lake Basin early warning system (TBEWS) was designed based on the characteristics of water environment. It involves recognition and the dynamic environmental risk assessment, early warning, risk management, and emergency decision etc. Getting data and information on time, sharing information within different regimes, establishing the multiple coupling models for calculation, and the uncertainty analysis methods are the hardness works for establishment of TBEWS. This research suggested an outline for the first time to develop and exam the multiple coupling models for establishment of TBEWS.