Chunlin Shao

Fudan University, Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China

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Publications (46)147.69 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)/cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) pathway has been demonstrated to play vital roles in physiology and pathophysiology. However, its role in tumor cell proliferation remains largely unclear. Here we found that CSE over-expressed in hepatoma HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells. Inhibition of endogenous H2S/CSE pathway drastically decreased the proliferation of HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells, and it also enhanced ROS production and mitochondrial disruption, pronounced DNA damage and increased apoptosis. Moreover, this increase of apoptosis was associated with the activation of p53 and p21 accompanied by a decreased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and up-regulation of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and caspase-3 activity. In addition, the negative regulation of cell proliferation by inhibition of H2S/CSE system correlated with the blockage of cell mitogenic and survival signal transduction of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) via down-regulating the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation. These results demonstrate that H2S/CSE and its downstream pathway contribute to the proliferation of hepatoma cells, and inhibition of this pathway strongly suppress the excessive growth of hepatoma cells by stimulating mitochondrial apoptosis and suppressing cell growth signal transduction.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 01/2014; · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Irradiated cells can induce biological effects on vicinal non-irradiated bystander cells, meanwhile the bystander cells may rescue the irradiated cells through a feedback signal stress. To elucidate the nature of this reciprocal effect, we examined the interaction between α-irradiated human macrophage cells U937 and its bystander HL-7702 hepatocyte cells using a cell co-culture system. Results showed that after 6 h of cell co-culture, mitochondria depolarization corresponding to apoptosis was significantly induced in the HL-7702 cells, but the formation of micronuclei in the irradiated U937 cells was markedly decreased compared to that without cell co-culture treatment. This reciprocal effect was not observed when the cell membrane signaling pathway was blocked by filipin that inhibited cAMP transmission from bystander cells to irradiated cells. After treatment of cells with exogenous cAMP, forskolin (an activator of cAMP) or KH-7 (an inhibitor of cAMP), respectively, it was confirmed that cAMP communication from bystander cells to targeted cells could mitigate radiation damage in U739 cells, and this cAMP insufficiency in the bystander cells contributed to the enhancement of bystander apoptosis. Moreover, the bystander apoptosis in HL-7702 cells was aggravated by cAMP inhibition but it could not be evoked when p53 of HL-7702 cells was knocked down no matter of forskolin and KH-7 treatment. In conclusion, this study disclosed that cAMP could be released from bystander HL-7702 cells and compensated to α-irradiated U937 cells through a membrane signaling pathway and this cAMP communication played a profound role in regulating the reciprocal bystander effects.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 01/2014; · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent evidence has shown that irradiation can promote the invasiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and have an impact on the invasive behavior of nonirradiated surrounding cancer cells, which may enhance overall tumor aggressiveness. However, the role of the TP53 tumor suppressor gene in the invasion of irradiated hepatoma cells and their nonirradiated bystanders remain largely unknown. In the present study, we found that irradiation increased the invasiveness of human hepatoma HepG2 cells, and pretreatment of the cells with SU1498 (an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, VEGFR2) and GM6001 (an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases 2, MMP2) demonstrated that radiation-enhanced invasiveness is associated with the interplay between MMP2 and VEGF signaling. In addition, while radiation-induced expression and phosphorylation of p53, inhibition of p53 function with pifithrin-α or transfection of cells with p53 siRNA significantly reduced the activation of both MMP2 and VEGF and resulted in a reduction of radiation-induced invasiveness. Interestingly, we also found that the invasiveness of the nonirradiated bystander cells was also elevated after co-culturing with irradiated cells and that bystander invasive potential was regulated paracrine in a manner by MMP2 and VEGF from the irradiated cells through a p53-dependent mechanism. Taken together, our data demonstrate that radiation-induced up-regulation of p53 is responsible for the promotion of VEGF-MMP2 pathway involved in the enhancement of invasiveness of both irradiated and bystander hepatoma cells.
    Radiation Research 09/2013; · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cadmium (Cd) is a well-established carcinogen, however, the underlying mechanism, especially the role of epigenetics in it, is still poorly understood. Our previous work has disclosed that when rats were exposed to 0.5mg CdCl2 (kg.d) for 8 and 12 weeks, the growth of peripheral white blood cells (WBC) was obviously stimulated but no over-proliferation of granulocyte-monocyte (GM) progenitor cells was observed in the bone marrow, suggesting that the over-proliferation of lymphocyte was promoted by Cd exposure. Is DNA-methylation involved in this Cd-stimulated cell proliferation? The present study found that when human B lymphoblast HMy2.CIR cells were exposed to Cd with a dose lower than 0.1μM for 3 months, both cell proliferation and mRNA expressions of DNA methyltransferases of DNMT1 and DNMT3b were increased, while the mRNA of tumor suppressor gene p16 was remarkably decreased. Furthermore, the level of genomic DNA methylation was increased and the CpG island in p16 promoter was hypermethylated in the Cd-exposed cells. A DNA demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), diminished Cd-stimulated cell proliferation associated with p16 overexpression. Our results suggested that the chronic exposure of low dose Cd could induce hypermethylation of p16 promoter and hence suppress p16 expression and then promote cell proliferation, which might contribute to Cd-induced carcinogenesis.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 08/2013; · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: The radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE) has important implications for the efficiency of radiotherapy but the underlying role of cellular metabolism is widely unknown. The roles of synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 2 (SCO2), a key effector for respiratory chain, and related signaling factors in α-particle induced bystander damage were currently investigated in a liver cell co-culture system. Materials and methods: Human hepatoma cells of HepG2 with wild type p53 (wtp53) and Hep3B (p53 null) were irradiated with 0.4 Gy of α-particles and co-cultured with non-irradiated normal liver cells HL-7702 for 6h, then the incidence of micronucleus (MN) in the bystander HL-7702 cells was analyzed. The expressions of total P53, phospho-P53 (p-P53), SCO2, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the irradiated hepatoma cells were detected. In some experiments, the hepatoma cells were respectively treated with p53 siRNA, SCO2 siRNA, or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) before irradiation. Results: Bystander damage in HL-7702 cells was induced by α-irradiated HepG2 cells but not by α-irradiated Hep3B cells, and this bystander effect was diminished when the irradiated HepG2 cells were pretreated with p53 siRNA, SCO2 siRNA, or DMSO. Meanwhile, the expressions of p-P53 protein and SCO2 mRNA, the activity of SCO2 protein, and intracellular ROS were all increased in the irradiated HepG2 cells but not Hep3B cells and these expressions were eliminated by p53 siRNA treatment. Moreover, the radiation-enhanced expressions of SCO2 and ROS were inhibited by SCO2 siRNA. Conclusion: α-particle induced bystander effect was regulated by p53 and its downstream SCO2 in the irradiated hepatoma cells, and ROS generation could be an early event for triggering this bystander response.
    International Journal of Radiation Biology 06/2013; · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: With widespread use of ionizing radiation, more attention has been attracted to low-dose radiation (LDR), however, the mechanisms of long-term LDR-induced bio-effects are unclear. Here, we applied human B lymphoblast cell line HMy2.CIR to monitor the effects of long-term LDR and the potential involvement of DNA methylation. Materials and methods: HMy2.CIR cells were irradiated with 0.032 Gy γ-rays three times per week for 1-4 weeks. Some of these primed cells were further challenged with 2 Gy γ-rays. Cell proliferation, micronuclei formation, gene expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT), levels of global genomic DNA methylation and protein expression of methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) and heterochromatin protein-1 (HP1) were measured. Results: Long-term LDR enhanced cell proliferation and clonogenicity and triggered a cellular adaptive response (AR). Furthermore, global genomic DNA methylation was increased in HMy2.CIR cells after long-term LDR, accompanied with an increase of gene expression of DNMT1 and protein expression of MeCP2 and HP1. After treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, the long-term LDR induced global genomic DNA hypermethylation was decreased and the AR was eliminated. Conclusion: Global genomic DNA hypermethylation accompanied with increases of DNMT1 and MeCP2 expression and heterochromatin formation might be involved in long-term LDR-induced adaptive response.
    International Journal of Radiation Biology 05/2013; · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chelation therapy is a known effective method to increase the excretion of U(VI) from body. Until now, no any uranium chelator has been approved for emergency medical use worldwide. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of new ligand BPCBG containing two catechol groups and two aminocarboxylic acid groups in decorporation of U(VI) and protection against acute U(VI) nephrotoxicity in rats, and further explored the detoxification mechanism of BPCBG for U(VI)-induced nephrotoxicity in HK-2 cells with comparison to DTPA-CaNa3. Chelating agents were administered at various times before or after injections of U(VI) in rats. The U(VI) levels in urine, kidneys and femurs were measured 24h after U(VI) injections. Histopathological changes in the kidney and serum urea and creatinine and urine protein were examined. After treatment of U(VI)-exposed HK-2 cells with chelating agent, the intracellular U(VI) contents, formation of micronuclei, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed. It was found that prompt, advanced or delayed injections of BPCBG effectively increased 24h-urinary U(VI) excretion and decreased the levels of U(VI) in kidney and bone. Meanwhile, BPCBG injection obviously reduced the severity of the U(VI)-induced histological alterations in the kidney, which was in parallel with the amelioration noted in serum indicators, urea and creatinine, and urine protein of U(VI) nephrotoxicity. In U(VI)-exposed HK-2 cells, immediate and delayed treatment with BPCBG significantly decreased the formation of micronuclei and LDH release by inhibiting the cellular U(VI) intake, promoting the intracellular U(VI) release and inhibiting the production of intracellular ROS. Our data suggest that BPCBG is a novel bi-functional U(VI) decorporation agent with a better efficacy than DTPA-CaNa3.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 02/2013; · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Combination radiation is a real situation of both nuclear accident exposure and space radiation environment, but its biological dosimetry is still not established. This study investigated the dose-response of micronuclei (MN) induction in lymphocyte by irradiating HMy2.CIR lymphoblast cells with α-particles, γ-rays, and their combinations. Results showed that the dose-response of MN induced by γ-rays was well-fitted with the linear-quadratic model. But for α-particle irradiation, the MN induction had a biphasic phenomenon containing a low dose hypersensitivity characteristic and its dose response could be well-stimulated with a state vector model where radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) was involved. For the combination exposure, the dose response of MN was similar to that of α-irradiation. However, the yield of MN was closely related to the sequence of irradiations. When the cells were irradiated with α-particles at first and then γ-rays, a synergistic effect of MN induction was observed. But when the cells were irradiated with γ-rays followed by α-particles, an antagonistic effect of MN was observed in the low dose range although this combination radiation also yielded a synergistic effect at high doses. When the interval between two irradiations was extended to 4h, a cross-adaptive response against the other irradiation was induced by a low dose of γ-rays but not α-particles.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 01/2013; · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The multikinase-inhibition action of sorafenib provides strong rationales for its combination use with radiotherapy. We investigated the in-vitro and in-vivo effect of sorafenib combined with irradiation on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sorafenib enhanced radiosensitivity of human HCC cell lines in a schedule-dependent manner. Sorafenib selectively inhibited radiation-induced activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) and downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, induced DNA damage and suppressed DNA repair capacity, decreased radiation-activated NF-κB and increased radiation-induced apoptosis. In xenograft experiments, combination treatment produced marked tumor growth delay in both concurrent and sequential schedules. These results suggest that sorafenib could potentiate irradiation effect in HCC, which warrants further investigation for its potential clinical applications.
    Cancer letters 11/2012; · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Radiation-induced bystander effects may have important implications in radiotherapy, but it is still not well known if radiation-induced bystander effects can be triggered in hypoxic tumor cells and what are the related bystander signals. Using human hepatoma cells of HepG2, the present study found that micronuclei (MN) could be induced in the nonirradiated cells after treatment with conditioned medium (CM) harvested from irradiated cells under hypoxic conditions. Bystander effects were diminished when the irradiated cells were pretreated with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an exogenous H(2)S donor) (≤100 μM). However, the bystander effects were increased when the irradiated cells were pretreated with an inhibitor of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), the synthases of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S). Western blotting showed that the expressions of CSE and CBS were increased in the irradiated hypoxic cells, but were reduced in the CM treated bystander cells. The ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, a molecular marker of apoptosis, decreased with CM treatment time. However, the activity of caspase-3 increased in the hypoxic bystander cells, and this could be regulated by both NaHS and the inhibitor of endogenous H(2)S. These results demonstrate that under hypoxic conditions irradiated hepatoma cells induce bystander responses by depressing the generation of endogenous H(2)S and altering Bcl-2/Bax ratios as well as caspase-3 dependent damage in the bystander cells. © 2012 by Radiation Research.
    Radiation Research 09/2012; · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Radiation-induced liver cell damage may be life-threatening. Here, we investigated whether hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S)/cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) pathway could serve the protective role toward radiation in normal human liver cells. Our data showed that pretreatment of cells with H(2)S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) significantly attenuated radiation induced micronuclei formation and improved cell viability. However, the use of dl-propargylglycine (PPG), a potent inhibitor of CSE, markedly enhanced the cell-killing effect induced by radiation. Exposure of cells to 2Gy γ-radiation led to significant increases of the endogenous H(2)S content. The mRNA and protein expressions of CSE also increased after radiation in a time-dependent manner, while the expression of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), another endogenous H(2)S synthetase, did not change significantly. Notably, radiation induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was significantly reversed by the pretreatment of NaHS, while blockage of CSE activity resulted in an enhanced ROS production in irradiated cells. Moreover, NaHS markedly suppressed radiation-induced phosphorylation of P53, decrease of Bcl-2/Bax, and activity of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB). In conclusion, our finding demonstrates that H(2)S/CSE pathway plays a radioprotection role by inhibiting radiation-induced ROS production, P53 phosphorylation, NF-κB activation and decrease of Bcl-2/Bax, indicating that modulation of H(2)S may be a novel protection strategy for liver radiation injury in radiotherapy.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 09/2012; · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intratumoral hypoxic cells are more resistant to radiotherapy due to a reduction in lifespan of DNA-damaging free radicals and augmentation of post-irradiation molecular restoration. SirT1, a member of the mammalian sirtuin family, deacetylates various transcription factors to trigger cell defense and survival in response to stresses and DNA damage. In this study, we provide new evidence indicating that overexpression of SirT1 in hepatoma HepG2 cells allowed the cells to become much more resistant to irradiation under hypoxia than under normoxia. When SirT1 was knocked down in both HepG2 and SK-Hep-1 cells, the radiosensitivity was increased, especially under hypoxia. But this enhanced radiosensitivity in SirT1-deficient cells was extensively decreased by infecting cells with c-Myc siRNA. Furthermore, the expression of c-Myc protein and its acetylation were increased in the SirT1 knockdown cells and these increments under hypoxic conditions were much more notable than under normoxia. In addition, c-Myc interference significantly suppressed phosphorylated p53 protein expression after irradiation, especially under hypoxic conditions. The current findings indicate that SirT1 confers a higher radioresistance in hypoxic cells than in normoxic cells due to the decreased levels of c-Myc protein and its acetylation, and that a c-Myc-dependent radiation-induced phosphorylated p53 may be involved. SirT1 could serve as a novel target of radiation damage and thus as a potential strategy to advance the efficiency of radiotherapy in hepatoma entities. (Cancer Sci, doi: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2012.02285.x, 2012).
    Cancer Science 03/2012; · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This work investigated the effects of chronic cadmium (Cd) exposure combined with γ-ray irradiation on the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of peripheral blood cells and bone marrow cells in rats. Results showed that when the rats were exposed to low dose (LD) Cd of 0.1mg CdCl₂/(kgd) for 8 and 12 weeks, the Cd concentration in blood reached to 135-140 μg/L and no toxic effects on peripheral blood lymphocytes, white blood cells (WBC) and granulocyte-monocyte (GM) progenitor cells were observed except polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) of bone marrow. Moreover, this chronic LD Cd exposure significantly decreased irradiation-induced micronucleus (MN) formation and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) mutation in lymphocytes and PCE, while the combination of LD Cd exposure and irradiation induced the additive metallothionein (MT) protein expression in bone marrow cells. When the rats were exposed to a high dose (HD) Cd of 0.5mg CdCl/₂(kgd) for 8 and 12 weeks, the blood Cd level approached to 458-613 μg/L and an inflammatory response was induced, meanwhile, MN formation and hprt mutation were markedly increased, and the ratio of PCE/NCE (normochromatic erythrocyte) was significantly decreased. Furthermore, when the rats were exposed to HD Cd plus 2 Gy irradiation, additive toxic effects on MN formation, hprt mutation, PCE damage and GM progenitor cell proliferation were observed, while this combination treatment resulted in an obvious reduction of MT protein compared to HD Cd group. In conclusion, chronic exposure to LD Cd induced the adaptive response to irradiation in the genotoxicity of peripheral blood lymphocytes and PCE of bone marrow by the up-regulation of Cd-induced MT protein, but the combination of HD Cd exposure and irradiation generated the additive effects on the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in peripheral blood lymphocytes and bone marrow cells.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 03/2012; 743(1-2):67-74. · 3.90 Impact Factor
  • Source
    M He, S Ye, R Ren, C Dong, Y Xie, D Yuan, C Shao
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    ABSTRACT: Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has important implication in tumour radiotherapy, but the bystander signals are still not well known. The role of cytochrome-c (cyt-c) and free radicals in RIBE on human hepatoma cells HepG2 was investigated by detecting the formation of bystander micronuclei (MN) and the generation of endogenous cyt-c, inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS), NO, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) molecules. When HepG2 cells were cocultured with an equal number of irradiated HepG2 cells, the yield of MN in the nonirradiated bystander cells was increased in a manner depended on radiation dose and cell coculture time, but it was diminished when the cells were treated with cyclosporin A (CsA), an inhibitor of cyt-c release. Meanwhile the CsA treatment inhibited radiation-induced NO but not ROS. Both of the depressed bystander effect and NO generation in the CsA-treated cells were reversed when 5 μM cyt-c was added in the cell coculture medium. But these exogenous cyt-c-mediated overproductions of NO and bystander MN were abolished when the cells were pretreated with s-methylisothiourea sulphate, an iNOS inhibitor. Radiation-induced cyt-c has a profound role in regulating bystander response through an iNOS-triggered NO signal but not ROS in HepG2 cells.
    British Journal of Cancer 02/2012; 106(5):889-95. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intratumoral hypoxia is an important contributory factor to tumor cell resistance to radiotherapy. SirT1, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent histone/protein deacetylase, has been linked to the decrease of radiation-induced DNA damage and seems to be critical for cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of SirT1 in hypoxia-induced radiation response on hepatoma cells. It was found that the administration with resveratrol, a putative SirT1 activator, enhanced the resistance of HepG2 cells against radiation-induced DNA damage of MN formation under hypoxia condition; while nicotinamide, a well-known SirT1 inhibitor, sensitized this radiation damage. Nevertheless, pretreatment of cells with 10058-F4, a specific inhibitor of c-Myc, almost eliminated the nicotinamide-induced radiosensitive effect. Further studies revealed that resveratrol inhibited c-Myc protein accumulation via up-regulation of SirT1 expression and deacetylase activity, and this loss of c-Myc protein was abolished by inhibiting its degradation in the presence of MG132, a potent inhibitor of proteasome. In contrast, nicotinamide attenuated c-Myc protein degradation induced by radiation under hypoxia through inhibition of SirT1 deacetylase activity. Our findings suggest that SirT1 could serve as a novel potent target of radiation-induced DNA damage and thus as a potential strategy to advance the efficiency of radiation therapy in hepatoma entities.
    Journal of Radiation Research 01/2012; 53(1):44-50. · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the difference of cellular response between low-dose-rate (LDR) 125I seed irradiation and high-dose-rate (HDR) γ-irradiation in human lung cancer cells. A549 and NCI-H446 cells with or without wortmannin (WM) treatment were exposed to 125I seeds and γ-rays, respectively. Cell survival, micronuclei (MN) formation, and the expressions of Ku70/Ku80 proteins were measured. There was a strong negative correlation between survival and MN formation for both irradiations, and the MN inductions of NCI-H446 were about twofolds of those of A549, and the survival of NCI-H446 was lower than that of A549, indicating the radiosensitivity of NCI-H446 cells was greater than that of A549 cells. Interestingly, at 4-Gy radiation, NCI-H446 cells were more sensitive to LDR irradiation than HDR irradiation. WM treatment enhanced the radiosensitivity of A549 cells evenly to (125I seed and γ-irradiation, but this treatment led NCI-H446 cells to be more sensitive to LDR 125I. Further results revealed that the expression of phosphorylated Ku80 protein was enhanced in irradiated A549, but in contrast, it was markedly decreased in NCI-H446 cells after 4-Gy LDR 125I irradiation as that compared with γ-irradiated and nonirradiated cells. NCI-H446 cells were more sensitive to LDR 125I irradiation than HDR irradiation, and this sensitivity could be further enhanced by WM treatment. But no obvious differences of cellular response to both irradiations were observed in A549. Ku as molecular markers together with cell proliferation rate can be used to predict the radiosensitivity of tumor cells to LDR 125I seed irradiation.
    Brachytherapy 06/2011; 11(2):149-56. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The combined exposure to environmental toxicants such as heavy metals and radiation is an important research area in health protection. Here we explored cadmium induced radioadaptive response (RAR) and investigated the role of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and ATM kinase in this response. Our data showed that the cadmium ions with a sub-lethal concentration could induce RAR in Chang liver cells towards subsequent γ-irradiation and this response could be abrogated by DL-propargylglycine (PPG), the endogenous H(2)S synthetase inhibitor of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), but not by aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), the inhibitor of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS). Moreover, the pretreatment of cells with NaHS also stimulated cellular adaptive response to radiation. Both cadmium treatment and irradiation up-regulated the expression of CSE protein in a time-dependent manner but had no influence on the expression of CBS protein. In the primed cells, the time course of CBS expression showed no significant difference with the cells treated with 2Gy irradiation alone, however, the CSE expression was easier to reach the maximum level, indicating a more efficient H(2)S production by CSE. Moreover, the cadmium-induced RAR was totally suppressed by KU-55933, a specific ATM inhibitor that did not change the CSE expression after radiation. However, exogenous H(2)S decreased the phosphorylation level of radiation-induced ATM. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate firstly that H(2)S is involved in the cadmium induced cross-adaptive response to challenging radiation. CSE, rather than CBS, may mainly responsible for the H(2)S production during this RAR which may also be mediated by ATM pathway. However, the activation of CSE is independent of ATM but could negatively regulate the phosphorylation of ATM.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 02/2011; 707(1-2):67-73. · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Growing evidence has demonstrated that, as an endogenous signaling gasotransmitter, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) plays an important role in regulating numerous biological functions. The role of H(2)S in hypoxia-induced radioresistance on hepatoma cells was investigated in the present work. Results showed that, when HepG2 cells were maintained in hypoxia circumstances for 4 h, the cellular radioresistance was extensively increased so that the oxygen enhancement ratio of the survival fraction approached 2.68. Under this hypoxic condition, when the cells were treated with DL-propargylglycine (PPG) and aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), a specific inhibitor of H(2)S synthase of cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) respectively, radiation responses including cell killing, micronuclei (MN) formation, and caspase-3 activity were significantly enhanced. However, treatment of cells with low concentrations of NaHS (≤ 100 µM) protected cells from these radiation damages. Western bolting assay showed that CSE and CBS were over-expressed in the irradiated hypoxic cells in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, when the hypoxic HepG2 cells were treated with NaHS together with glibenclamide, a specific inhibitor of K(+)(ATP) channels, the role of exogenous H(2)S in radioprotection was partly eliminated. This study demonstrated that H(2)S contributed to hypoxia-induced radioresistance probably via the opening of K(+)(ATP) channels, which suggests that the endogenous H(2)S synthase could be a potential radiotherapeutic target for a hypoxic tumor.
    Journal of Radiation Research 01/2011; 52(5):622-8. · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The tumor suppressor p53 has a crucial role in cellular response to DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation, but it is still unclear whether p53 can modulate radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE). In the present work, three different hepatoma cell lines, namely HepG2 (wild p53), PLC/PRF/5 (mutation p53) and Hep3B (p53 null), were irradiated with γ-rays and then co-cultured with normal Chang liver cell (wild p53) in order to elucidate the mechanisms of RIBE. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of HepG2 cells was higher than that of PLC/PRF/5 and Hep3B cells. Only irradiated HepG2 cells, rather than irradiated PLC/PRF/5 or Hep3B cells, could induce bystander effect of micronuclei (MN) formation in the neighboring Chang liver cells. When HepG2 cells were treated with 20 μM pifithrin-α, an inhibitor of p53 function, or 5 μM cyclosporin A (CsA), an inhibitor of cytochrome-c release from mitochondria, the MN induction in bystander Chang liver cells was diminished. In fact, it was found that after irradiation, cytochrome-c was released from mitochondria into the cytoplasm only in HepG2 cells in a p53-dependent manner, but not in PLC/PRF/5 and Hep3B cells. Interestingly, when 50 μg/ml exogenous cytochrome-c was added into cell co-culture medium, RIBE was significantly triggered by irradiated PLC/PRF/5 and Hep3B cells, which previously failed to provoke a bystander effect. In addition, this exogenous cytochrome-c also partly recovered the RIBE induced by irradiated HepG2 cells even with CsA treatment. Our results provide new evidence that the RIBE can be modulated by the p53 status of irradiated hepatoma cells and that a p53-dependent release of cytochrome-c may be involved in the RIBE.
    Oncogene 12/2010; 30(16):1947-55. · 7.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of nucleophosmin (NPM/B23) in radiation-induced chromosomal instability and apoptosis in human lymphoblastoid cells with different protein 53 (p53) status. Wild type (wt) p53 TK6 and mutant type (mt) p53 WTK1 with or without short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated silencing of NPM, TK6 with or without short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of p53 (p53i and NEGi) were irradiated with 4 Gy gamma-rays. Six to 48 h after irradiation, the index of apoptosis, chromosome aberration, cell cycle distribution and the levels of total NPM and phosphorylated-threonine 199 (pThr¹⁹⁹) NPM proteins were measured. Cells in some dishes were treated with 10 μM Olomoucine (OLO) for 3 h before irradiation and remained in the medium after irradiation. The rates of radiation-induced apoptosis in TK6 and TK6/NEGi were about 2-fold of those in WTK1 and TK6/p53i, while the frequencies of polyploidy in TK6 and TK6/NEGi were obviously lower than those in WTK1 and TK6/p53i. Moreover, after irradiation, pThr¹⁹⁹ NPM levels increased significantly in WTK1 and TK6/p53i, and slightly increased in TK6 and TK6/NEGi, indicating that the increased level of pThr¹⁹⁹ NPM was related to p53 status. When Thr¹⁹⁹ hyperphosphorylation of NPM was inhibited by OLO or when NPM was knocked down, we found that radiation-induced apoptosis was more pronounced and polyploidy formation was reduced as compared with negative control while the magnitude of these changes in TK6 was obviously higher than that in WTK1, indicating that NPM has an antagonistic interaction with wt p53. NPM/B23 plays an important role in protecting cells from radiation-induced apoptosis and increasing polyploidy formation via either a p53 or non-p53 pathway.
    International Journal of Radiation Biology 12/2010; 86(12):1031-43. · 1.90 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

765 Citations
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147.69 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2014
    • Fudan University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
    • Dublin Institute of Technology
      • Centre for Radiation and Environmental Science
      Dublin, L, Ireland
  • 2009
    • Queen's University Belfast
      • Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology
      Belfast, NIR, United Kingdom
  • 2004–2008
    • The Hillingdon Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
      अक्सब्रिज, England, United Kingdom
  • 2001–2004
    • National Institute of Radiological Sciences
      • Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy
      Chiba-shi, Chiba-ken, Japan