K Günter

University of Tuebingen, Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Publications (6)13.25 Total impact

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    K Günter, C Toupet, T Schupp
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    ABSTRACT: Desferrioxamine B is the main siderophore of Streptomyces pilosus. Its production is induced in response to iron limitation. Two genes involved in desferrioxamine production have been cloned and were found to be translated from a polycistronic mRNA that is produced only under conditions of iron limitation (T. Schupp, C. Toupet, and M. Divers, Gene 64:179-188, 1988). Here we report the nucleotide sequence of the desferrioxamine (des) operon promoter region. The transcriptional start site was localized by S1 nuclease mapping. Deletion analysis defined a 71-bp region downstream of the -35 region that is sufficient for iron regulation in the original host, S. pilosus, and also in Streptomyces lividans. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to create a mutation that abolishes iron repression. Two iron-independent mutants were obtained by deletion of part of a 19-bp region with dyad symmetry which overlaps the -10 promoter region and the transcriptional start site. The putative repressor-binding site identified by these constitutive mutations is not homologous to the consensus binding site of the Escherichia coli central iron repressor, Fur (ferric uptake regulation), but is similar to the DtxR-binding site in the iron-regulated promoter of the corynebacterial diphtheria toxin gene.
    Journal of Bacteriology 07/1993; 175(11):3295-302. · 3.19 Impact Factor
  • Volkmar Braun, Karolin Günter, Klaus Hantke
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    ABSTRACT: The TonB protein is involved in energy-coupled receptor-dependent transport processes across the outer membrane. The TonB protein is anchored in the cytoplasmic membrane but exposed to the periplasmic space. To fulfill its function, it has to couple the energy-providing metabolism in the cytoplasmic membrane with regulation of outer membrane receptor activity. Ferrichrome and albomycin transport, uptake of colicin M, and infection by the phages T1 and80 occur via the same receptor, the FhuA protein in the outer membrane. Therefore, this receptor is particularly suitable for the study of energy-coupled TonB-dependent transport across the outer membrane. Ferrichrome, albomycin and colicin M bind to the FhuA receptor but are not released into the periplasmic space of unenergized cells, ortonB mutants. In vivo interaction between FhuA and TonB is suggested by the restoration of activity of inactive FhuA proteins, bearing amino acid replacements in the TonB box, by TonB derivatives with single amino acid substitutions. Point mutations in thefhuA gene are suppressed by point mutations in thetonB gene. In addition, naturally occurring degradation of the TonB protein and its derivatives is preferentially prevented in vivo by FhuA and FhuA derivatives where functional interaction takes place. It is proposed that in the energized state, TonB induces a conformation in FhuA which leads to the release of the FhuA-bound compounds into the periplasmic space. Activation of FhuA by TonB depends on the ExbBD proteins in the cytoplasmic membrane. They can be partially replaced by the TolQR proteins which show strong sequence similarity to the ExbBD proteins. A physical interaction of these proteins with the TonB protein is suggested by TonB stabilization through ExbB and TolQR. We propose a permanent or reversible complex in the cytoplasmic membrane composed of the TonB protein and the ExbBD/TolQR proteins through which TonB is energized.
    BioMetals 02/1991; 4(1):14-22. · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • V Braun, K Günter, K Hantke
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    ABSTRACT: The TonB protein is involved in energ-coupled receptor-dependent transport processes across the outer membrane. The TonB protein is anchored in the cytoplasmic membrane but exposed to the periplasmic space. To fulfill its function, it has to couple the energy-providing metabolism in the cytoplasmic membrane with regulation of outer membrane receptor activity. Ferrichrome and albomycin transport, uptake of colicin M, and infection by the phages T1 and phi 80 occur via the same receptor, the FhuA protein in the outer membrane. Therefore, this receptor is particularly suitable for the study of energy-coupled TonB-dependent transport across the outer membrane. Ferrichrome, albomycin and colicin M bind to the FhuA receptor but are not released into the periplasmic space of unenergized cells, or tonB mutants. In vivo interaction between FhuA and TonB is suggested by the restoration of activity of inactive FhuA proteins, bearing amino acid replacements in the TonB box, by TonB derivatives with single amino acid substitutions. Point mutations in the fhuA gene are suppressed by point mutations in the tonB gene. In addition, naturally occurring degradation of the TonB protein and its derivatives is preferentially prevented in vivo by FhuA and FhuA derivatives where functional interaction takes place. It is proposed that in the energized state, TonB induces a conformation in FhuA which leads to the release of the FhuA-bound compounds into the periplasmic space. Activation of FhuA by TonB depends on the ExbBD proteins in the cytoplasmic membrane. They can be partially replaced by the TolQR proteins which show strong sequence similarity to the ExbBD proteins.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Biology of Metals 02/1991; 4(1):14-22.
  • Source
    K Günter, V Braun
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    ABSTRACT: FhuA outer membrane receptor activity of Escherichia coli K-12 depends on the TonB inner membrane protein. The naturally occurring degradation of the TonB protein could be prevented by the FhuA receptor protein. Mutated TonB proteins could only be stabilized by mutated FhuA proteins when they functionally interacted in the uptake of ferrichrome across the outer membrane.
    FEBS Letters 12/1990; 274(1-2):85-8. · 3.58 Impact Factor
  • Source
    E Fischer, K Günter, V Braun
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    ABSTRACT: The exb locus in Escherichia coli consists of two genes, termed exbB and exbD. Exb functions are related to TonB function in that most TonB-dependent processes are enhanced by Exb. Like tonB mutants, exb mutants were resistant to colicin M and albomycin but, in contrast to tonB mutants, showed only reduced sensitivity to colicins B and D. Overexpressed tonB on the multicopy vector pACYC177 largely restored the sensitivity of exb mutants to colicins B, D, and M but only marginally increased sensitivity to albomycin. Suppression of the btuB451 mutation in the structural gene for the vitamin B12 outer membrane receptor protein by a mutation in tonB occurred only in an exb+ strain. Degradation of the unstable overproduced TonB protein was prevented by overproduced ExbB protein. The ExbB protein also stabilized the ExbD protein. Pulse-chase experiments with radiolabeled ferrichrome revealed release of ferrichrome from exbB, tonB, and fhuC mutants, showing that ferrichrome had not crossed the cytoplasmic membrane. It is concluded that the ExbB and ExbD proteins contribute to the activity of TonB and, like TonB, are involved in receptor-dependent transport processes across the outer membrane.
    Journal of Bacteriology 10/1989; 171(9):5127-34. · 3.19 Impact Factor
  • K Günter, V Braun
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    ABSTRACT: The FhuA protein (formerly TonA) is located in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli K12. Fusions between fhuA and phoA genes were constructed. They determined proteins containing a truncated but still active alkaline phosphatase of constant size and a variable FhuA portion which ranged from 11%-90% of the mature FhuA protein. The fusion sites were nearly randomly distributed along the FhuA protein. The FhuA segments directed the secretion of the truncated alkaline phosphatase across the cytoplasmic membrane. The fusion proteins were proteolytically degraded up to the size of alkaline phosphatase and no longer reacted with anti-FhuA antibodies. The fusion proteins were more stable in lon and pep mutants lacking cytoplasmic protease and peptidases, respectively. The larger fusion proteins above a molecular weight of 64,000 dalton were predominantly found in the outer membrane fraction. They were degraded by trypsin when cells were converted to spheroplasts so that trypsin gained access to the periplasm. In contrast, FhuA protein in the outer membrane was largely resistant to trypsin. It is concluded that the larger FhuA'-'PhoA fusion proteins were associated with, but not properly integrated into, the outer membrane.
    MGG - Molecular and General Genetics 01/1989; 215(1):69-75.