[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atopic dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin disease with a strong heritable component. Pathogenetic models consider keratinocyte differentiation defects and immune alterations as scaffolds, and recent data indicate a role for autoreactivity in at least a subgroup of patients. FLG (encoding filaggrin) has been identified as a major locus causing skin barrier deficiency. To better define risk variants and identify additional susceptibility loci, we densely genotyped 2,425 German individuals with atopic dermatitis (cases) and 5,449 controls using the Immunochip array followed by replication in 7,196 cases and 15,480 controls from Germany, Ireland, Japan and China. We identified four new susceptibility loci for atopic dermatitis and replicated previous associations. This brings the number of atopic dermatitis risk loci reported in individuals of European ancestry to 11. We estimate that these susceptibility loci together account for 14.4% of the heritability for atopic dermatitis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two common forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), affect over 2.5 million people of European ancestry, with rising prevalence in other populations. Genome-wide association studies and subsequent meta-analyses of these two diseases as separate phenotypes have implicated previously unsuspected mechanisms, such as autophagy, in their pathogenesis and showed that some IBD loci are shared with other inflammatory diseases. Here we expand on the knowledge of relevant pathways by undertaking a meta-analysis of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis genome-wide association scans, followed by extensive validation of significant findings, with a combined total of more than 75,000 cases and controls. We identify 71 new associations, for a total of 163 IBD loci, that meet genome-wide significance thresholds. Most loci contribute to both phenotypes, and both directional (consistently favouring one allele over the course of human history) and balancing (favouring the retention of both alleles within populations) selection effects are evident. Many IBD loci are also implicated in other immune-mediated disorders, most notably with ankylosing spondylitis and psoriasis. We also observe considerable overlap between susceptibility loci for IBD and mycobacterial infection. Gene co-expression network analysis emphasizes this relationship, with pathways shared between host responses to mycobacteria and those predisposing to IBD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A disturbed epithelial barrier could play a pivotal role in ulcerative colitis (UC). We performed a family-based study analyzing in vivo gastrointestinal permeability in patients with UC, their healthy relatives, spouses, and controls.
In total, 89 patients with UC in remission, 35 first-degree relatives (UC-R), 24 nonrelated spouses (UC-NR), and 99 healthy controls (HC) were studied. Permeability was assessed by a sugar-drink test using sucrose (gastroduodenal permeability), lactulose/mannitol (intestinal permeability), and sucralose (colonic permeability). Data were correlated with clinical characteristics including medical treatment.
Increased intestinal permeability was detected significantly more often in UC patients in remission (25/89, 28.1%) compared with HC (6/99, 6.1%; P < 0.001). Similar results were obtained in UC-R (7/35, 20.0%; P = 0.01 compared with HC) regardless of sharing the same household with the patients or not. No difference was found between UC-NR (3/24, 12.5%) and HC. Notably, in UC patients increased intestinal permeability was found in 12/28 patients (42.9%) with pancolitis, 7/30 (23.3%) patients with left-sided colitis, and in 2/19 (10.5%) patients with proctitis (P = 0.04). Gastroduodenal and colonic permeability were similar in all groups. Among patients on azathioprine, increased intestinal permeability was only seen in 1/18 (5.6%) patients. In contrast, in 24/70 (34.3%) patients without azathioprine, an increased intestinal permeability was found (P = 0.005).
An increased intestinal but not colonic permeability was found in UC patients in clinical remission that could mark a new risk factor for extensive disease location. Similar findings in healthy relatives but not spouses suggest that this barrier defect is genetically determined. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2012).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aetiology of intestinal barrier dysfunction in Crohn's disease (CD) is poorly understood. Associations in relatives of CD families suggest a genetic basis, but the relevant variants are still unknown. We hypothesized that variants in genes occurring in pathways such as autophagy and IL23 signalling might contribute to CD by altering intestinal permeability.
We analysed five variants (rs10758669 within JAK2, rs744166 within STAT3, rs4958847, rs11747270 and rs13361189 within IRGM) in adult German inflammatory bowel disease patients (CD, n = 464; ulcerative colitis (UC), n = 292) and matched healthy controls (n = 508). These data were correlated with gastrointestinal permeability as assessed by lactulose/mannitol ratio in CD patients (n = 141) in remission.
Our data confirm the association between JAK2 rs10758669 (p = 0.026, OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.04-1.50) and STAT3 rs744166 (p = 0.04, OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.688-0.998) with CD, but not UC. With respect to all the analysed IRGM variants, no association was found to either CD or UC. Among CD patients, an increased intestinal permeability was detected in 65 out of 141 patients (46.1%). Most importantly, patients carrying the C risk allele within JAK2 rs10758669 displayed an increased permeability more often compared with patients without the C allele (p = 0.004). No association with intestinal permeability was found for STAT3 rs744166 and all IRGM variants.
JAK2 rs10758669 and STAT3 rs744166 increase susceptibility for CD. We show that the A>C substitution in rs10758669 of the JAK2 gene is associated with increased intestinal permeability. Altering intestinal barrier function might thus be one mechanism how JAK2 contributes to CD pathogenesis.
International Journal of Colorectal Disease 11/2011; 27(5):565-73. · 2.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies and candidate gene studies in ulcerative colitis have identified 18 susceptibility loci. We conducted a meta-analysis of six ulcerative colitis genome-wide association study datasets, comprising 6,687 cases and 19,718 controls, and followed up the top association signals in 9,628 cases and 12,917 controls. We identified 29 additional risk loci (P < 5 × 10(-8)), increasing the number of ulcerative colitis-associated loci to 47. After annotating associated regions using GRAIL, expression quantitative trait loci data and correlations with non-synonymous SNPs, we identified many candidate genes that provide potentially important insights into disease pathogenesis, including IL1R2, IL8RA-IL8RB, IL7R, IL12B, DAP, PRDM1, JAK2, IRF5, GNA12 and LSP1. The total number of confirmed inflammatory bowel disease risk loci is now 99, including a minimum of 28 shared association signals between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We undertook a meta-analysis of six Crohn's disease genome-wide association studies (GWAS) comprising 6,333 affected individuals (cases) and 15,056 controls and followed up the top association signals in 15,694 cases, 14,026 controls and 414 parent-offspring trios. We identified 30 new susceptibility loci meeting genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10⁻⁸). A series of in silico analyses highlighted particular genes within these loci and, together with manual curation, implicated functionally interesting candidate genes including SMAD3, ERAP2, IL10, IL2RA, TYK2, FUT2, DNMT3A, DENND1B, BACH2 and TAGAP. Combined with previously confirmed loci, these results identify 71 distinct loci with genome-wide significant evidence for association with Crohn's disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate intensity, localization and cofactors of pain in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients in connection with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and disease activity.
We reviewed and analyzed the responses of 334 patients to a specifically designed questionnaire based on the short inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (SIBDQ) and the German pain questionnaire. Pain intensity, HRQOL, Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) and colitis activity index (CAI) were correlated and verified on a visual analog scale (VAS).
87.9% of patients reported pain. Females and males reported comparable pain intensities and HRQOL. Surgery reduced pain in both genders (P = 0.023), whereas HRQOL only improved in females. Interestingly, patients on analgesics reported more pain (P = 0.003) and lower HRQOL (P = 0.039) than patients not on analgesics. A significant correlation was found in UC patients between pain intensity and HRQOL (P = 0.023) and CAI (P = 0.027), and in CD patients between HRQOL and CDAI (P = 0.0001), but not between pain intensity and CDAI (P = 0.35). No correlation was found between patients with low CDAI scores and pain intensity.
Most IBD patients suffer from pain and have decreased HRQOL. Our study reinforces the need for effective individualized pain therapy in IBD patients.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 07/2010; 16(25):3168-77. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a survey comprising 1,176 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) we recently showed that azathioprine (AZA) beyond 4 years is beneficial in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and in a subset of Crohn's disease (CD) patients. Here, we show for the first time that azathioprine responsiveness depends on body mass index (BMI). The relationship is reciprocal in UC and CD, with a better outcome in UC patients with a BMI<25 and in CD patients with a BMI>25. These observations are particularly interesting considering the evolving concept of a relationship between fatty metabolism and immune regulation. Additionally, we show that CD patients, but not UC patients, respond better to AZA when it is started in clinical remission. This observation may support data favouring a "hit hard and early" regime in CD. Finally, we were able to demonstrate a decrease in the incidence of CD-related complications requiring surgery through treatment with AZA.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences 06/2009; 55(4):1066-78. · 2.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastroduodenal and small intestinal permeability are increased in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and intensive care patients. The relevance of colonic permeability has not yet been adequately investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical value of sucralose excretion as indicator for colonic permeability in these patient groups.
After oral administration of four sugars and subsequent analysis of urinary excretion, gastroduodenal and intestinal permeability were calculated from saccharose excretion and lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio over 5 h, and sucralose excretion from 5 to 26 h in 100 healthy controls, 29 CD and 35 patients after coronary surgery (CABG).
In controls, sucralose excretion was highly variable (0.67+/-0.92%) and not related to small intestinal permeability. In CD and CABG, L/M ratio was increased (0.054+/-0.060; 0.323+/-0.253 vs. 0.018+/-0.001 in controls). Sucralose excretion was increased in 77% of CABG but only in 7% of CD. There was an association between gastroduodenal and intestinal permeability in CD and CABG (r=0.72, and r=0.51), but sucralose excretion was not related to either one of these two parameters. Other than a weak association between sucralose and length of stay in intensive care in CABG patients (P=0.099), sucralose excretion was not related to clinical outcome.
The proposed cut-off for normal sucralose excretion is 2.11%, but its high variability and lack of association to gastrointestinal permeability or clinical outcome leave it open, if it can provide information beyond established permeability tests.
European Journal of Clinical Investigation 03/2009; 39(2):139-44. · 3.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recent study reported that the c.30T>A (p.Cys10Ter; rs2043211) variant, in the CARD8 (TUCAN) gene, is associated with Crohn's disease (CD). The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of p.C10X in 3 independent European (IBD) cohorts from Germany, Hungary, and the Netherlands.
We included a European IBD cohort of 921 patients and compared the p.C10X genotype frequency to 832 healthy controls. The 3 study populations analyzed were: (1) Germany [CD, n = 317; ulcerative colitis (UC), n = 180], (2) Hungary (CD, n = 149; UC, n = 119), and (3) the Netherlands (CD, n = 156). Subtyping analysis was performed in respect to NOD2 variants (p.Arg702Trp, p.Gly908Arg, c.3020insC) and to clinical characteristics. Ethnically matched controls were included (German, n = 413; Hungarian, n = 202; Dutch, n = 217).
We observed no significant difference in p.C10X genotype frequency in either patients with CD or patients with UC compared with controls in all 3 cohorts. Conversely to the initial association study, we found a trend toward lower frequencies of the suggestive risk wild type in CD from the Netherlands compared with controls (P = 0.14). We found neither evidence for genetic interactions between p.C10X and NOD2 nor the C10X variant to be associated with a CD or UC phenotype.
Analyzing 3 independent European IBD cohorts, we found no evidence that the C10X variant in CARD8 confers susceptibility for CD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DLG5 p.R30Q has been reported to be associated with Crohn disease (CD), but this association has not been replicated in most studies. A recent analysis of gender-stratified data from two case-control studies and two population cohorts found an association of DLG5 30Q with increased risk of CD in men but not in women and found differences between 30Q population frequencies for males and females. Male-female differences in population allele frequencies and male-specific risk could explain the difficulty in replicating the association with CD.
DLG5 R30Q genotype data were collected for patients with CD and controls from 11 studies that did not include gender-stratified allele counts in their published reports and tested for male-female frequency differences in controls and for case-control frequency differences in men and in women.
The data showed no male-female allele frequency differences in controls. An exact conditional test gave marginal evidence that 30Q is associated with decreased risk of CD in women (p = 0.049, OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.00). There was also a trend towards reduced 30Q frequencies in male patients with CD compared with male controls, but this was not significant at the 0.05 level (p = 0.058, OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.01). When data from this study were combined with previously published, gender-stratified data, the 30Q allele was found to be associated with decreased risk of CD in women (p = 0.010, OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.97), but not in men.
DLG5 30Q is associated with a small reduction in risk of CD in women.
Journal of Medical Genetics 02/2008; 45(1):36-42. · 5.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic pancreatitis is a persistent inflammatory disease of the pancreas, in which the digestive protease trypsin has a fundamental pathogenetic role. Here we have analyzed the gene encoding the trypsin-degrading enzyme chymotrypsin C (CTRC) in German subjects with idiopathic or hereditary chronic pancreatitis. Two alterations in this gene, p.R254W and p.K247_R254del, were significantly overrepresented in the pancreatitis group, being present in 30 of 901 (3.3%) affected individuals but only 21 of 2,804 (0.7%) controls (odds ratio (OR) = 4.6; confidence interval (CI) = 2.6-8.0; P = 1.3 x 10(-7)). A replication study identified these two variants in 10 of 348 (2.9%) individuals with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis but only 3 of 432 (0.7%) subjects with alcoholic liver disease (OR = 4.2; CI = 1.2-15.5; P = 0.02). CTRC variants were also found in 10 of 71 (14.1%) Indian subjects with tropical pancreatitis but only 1 of 84 (1.2%) healthy controls (OR = 13.6; CI = 1.7-109.2; P = 0.0028). Functional analysis of the CTRC variants showed impaired activity and/or reduced secretion. The results indicate that loss-of-function alterations in CTRC predispose to pancreatitis by diminishing its protective trypsin-degrading activity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recent study reported that a nonsynonymous SNP rs2241880 (c.898A>G, p.Thr300Ala) within ATG16L1 confers susceptibility to Crohn's disease (CD). We analyzed ATG16L1 c.898A>G in three independent European inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) cohorts from Germany, Hungary and the Netherlands.
In total, we included 910 European IBD patients and compared the ATG16L1 c.898A>G genotype frequency with 707 ethnically matched healthy controls. We included patients from 3 populations originating from Germany (CD n=310; ulcerative colitis [UC] n=179), Hungary (CD n=147; UC n=117), and the Netherlands (CD n=157). Subtyping analysis was performed in respect to CARD15 alterations and clinical characteristics.
We found a highly significant association of c.898A>G to CD. The association was significant (p=0.0005) for the total CD cohort but also for the individual populations from Germany (p=0.02) and Netherlands (p=0.02) whereas in the Hungarian CD patients a clear trend was observed (p=0.19; OR 1.227, 95% CI 0.910; 1.654). No association was found between c.898A>G and UC. No statistical interactions were observed between ATG16L1 c.898A>G and CARD15 variants. Furthermore no association to a CD subphenotype was detected.
We confirm that ATG16L1 variant c898A>G confers a risk variant for CD but is not associated with a distinct CD phenotype.
Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 12/2007; 1(2):70-6. · 3.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on positions 2677G>T/A and 3435C>T of the multi-drug-resistance gene 1 (MDR1) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unclear.
To further elucidate the potential impact of MDR1 two-locus genotypes on susceptibility to IBD and disease behaviour.
Three hundred eighty-eight German IBD patients [244 with Crohn's disease (CD), 144 with ulcerative colitis (UC)] and 1,005 German healthy controls were genotyped for the two MDR1 SNPs on positions 2677G>T/A and 3435C>T. Genotype-phenotype analysis was performed with respect to disease susceptibility stratified by age at diagnosis as well as disease localisation and behaviour.
Genotype distribution did not differ between all UC or CD patients and controls. Between UC and CD patients, however, we observed a trend of different distribution of the combined genotypes derived from SNPs 2677 and 3435 (chi(2) = 15.997, df = 8, p = 0.054). In subgroup analysis, genotype frequencies between UC patients with early onset of disease and controls showed significant difference for combined positions 2677 and 3435 (chi(2) = 16.054, df = 8, p = 0.034 for age at diagnosis >or=25, lower quartile). Herein the rare genotype 2677GG/3435TT was more frequently observed (odds ratio = 7.0, 95% confidence interval 2.5 - 19.7). In this group severe course of disease behaviour depended on the combined MDR1 SNPs (chi(2) = 16.101, df = 6, p = 0.017 for age at diagnosis >or=25). No association of MDR1 genotypes with disease subgroups in CD was observed.
While overall genotype distribution did not differ, combined MDR1 genotypes derived from positions 2677 and 3435 are possibly associated with young age onset of UC and severe course of disease in this patient group.
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 10/2007; 63(10):917-25. · 2.74 Impact Factor