James B Nachman

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States

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Publications (57)521.04 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Minimal residual disease (MRD) is highly prognostic in pediatric B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In COG High Risk B-ALL study AALL0232 we investigated MRD in subjects randomized in a 2X2 factorial design to receive either High-Dose (HD-MTX) or Capizzi Methotrexate (C-MTX) during interim maintenance (IM), or Prednisone or Dexamethasone during induction. Subjects with end induction MRD>=0.1% or those with morphologic slow early response were non-randomly assigned to receive a second IM and delayed intensification phase. MRD was measured by 6-color flow cytometry in one of two reference labs, with excellent agreement between the two. Subjects with end induction MRD<.01% had a 5y EFS of 87±1% vs 74±4% for those with MRD 0.01%-0.1%; increasing MRD amounts was associated with progressively worse outcome. Subjects converting from MRD positive to negative by end consolidation had a relatively favorable 79±5% 5 y DFS vs 39±7% for those with MRD>=0.01%. Although HD-MTX was superior to C-MTX, MRD retained prognostic significance in both groups (86±2% vs 58±4% for MRD negative vs positive C-MTX subjects; 88±2% vs 68±4% for HD-MTX subjects). Intensified therapy given to subjects with MRD>0.1% did not improve either 5y EFS or OS. However, these subjects showed an early relapse rate similar to that seen in MRD negative ones, with EFS/OS curves for patients with 0.1%-1% MRD crossing those with 0.01%-0.1% MRD at 3 and 4 years, thus suggesting that the intensified therapy altered the disease course of MRD positive subjects. Additional interventions targeted at the MRD positive group may further improve outcome. NCT00075725 at www.clinicaltrials.gov. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Hematology.
    Blood 06/2015; 126(8). DOI:10.1182/blood-2015-03-633685 · 10.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Children and adolescents presenting with a markedly elevated white blood cell (ME WBC) count (WBC ≥200 × 109/l) comprise a unique subset of high-risk patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). We evaluated the outcomes of the 251 patients (12% of the study population) with ME WBC treated on the Children's Cancer Group-1961 protocol. Patients were evaluated for early response to treatment by bone marrow morphology; those with a rapid early response were randomized to treatment regimens testing longer and stronger post-induction therapy. We found that ME WBC patients have a poorer outcome compared to those patients presenting with a WBC <200 × 109/l (5-year event-free survival 62% vs. 73%, P = 0·0005). Longer duration of therapy worsened outcome for T cell ME WBC with a trend to poorer outcome in B-ALL ME WBC patients. Augmented therapy benefits T cell ME WBC patients, similar to the entire study cohort, however, there appeared to be no impact on survival for B-ALL ME WBC patients. ME WBC was not a prognostic factor for T cell patients. In patients with high risk features, B lineage disease in association with ME WBC has a negative impact on survival.
    British Journal of Haematology 10/2014; 168(4). DOI:10.1111/bjh.13160 · 4.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment of pediatric lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (LPHL) is controversial but has typically consisted of both chemotherapy and radiation. Radiation therapy is associated with potential late effects in children and adolescents. We examined the impact of radiation therapy on long-term outcome of patients with LPHL treated on CCG-5942, a large pediatric cooperative group study of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Eighty-two patients with LPHL were registered on CCG-5942. Fifty-two patients (63%) received chemotherapy alone; 29 patients (35%) received chemotherapy followed by involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT). The median follow-up of the LPHL patients is 7.7 years; 63 patients (77%) have >5 years of follow-up. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 97% and 100%. Two relapses occurred, both in patients who did not receive IFRT. There were no significant differences in EFS or OS between patients who received or did not receive IFRT. This subset analysis demonstrates the chemosensitivity of pediatric LPHL. Patients who had a complete response to chemotherapy had an excellent EFS and OS without the addition of radiotherapy. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2012; 59: 1284-1289. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 12/2012; 59(7):1284-9. DOI:10.1002/pbc.24258 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is curable in more than 80% of children and adolescents who exhibit high-risk features. However, treatments are associated with symptomatic osteonecrosis that disproportionately affects adolescents. Based on the findings from the CCG-1882 trial, the CCG-1961 trial was designed to assess whether dexamethasone dose modification would reduce the risk of osteonecrosis. We therefore compared use of continuous versus alternate-week dexamethasone within standard and intensified post-induction treatments. In the CCG-1961 trial, a multicohort cooperative group trial, 2056 patients (aged 1-21 years) with newly diagnosed high-risk ALL (age ≥10 years, white blood cell count ≥50×10(9) per L, or both) were recruited. To address osteonecrosis, a novel alternate-week schedule of dexamethasone (10 mg/m(2) per day on days 0-6 and 14-20) was compared with standard continuous dexamethasone (10 mg/m(2) per day on days 0-20) in computer-generated randomised regimens with permuted blocks within double or single delayed intensification phases, respectively. Masking was not possible because of the differences in the treatments. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00002812. Symptomatic osteonecrosis was diagnosed in 143 patients at 377 confirmed skeletal sites, resulting in 139 surgeries. In patients aged 1-21 years, the overall cumulative incidence of osteonecrosis at 5 years was 7·7% (SE 0·9), correlating with age at ALL diagnosis (1-9 years, 1·0% [0·5]; 10-15 years, 9·9% [1·5], hazard ratio 10·4 [4·8-22·5]; 16-21 years, 20·0% [4·3], 22·2 [10·0-49·3]; p<0·0001) and sex of the patients aged 10-21 years (girls 15·7% [2·5] vs boys 9·3% [1·7], 1·7 [1·2-2·4]; p=0·001). For patients aged 10 years and older with a rapid response to induction treatment, the use of alternate-week dexamethasone during phases of delayed intensification significantly reduced osteonecrosis incidence compared with continuous dexamethasone (8·7% [2·1] vs 17·0% [2·9], 2·1 [1·4-3·1]; p=0·0005), especially in those aged 16 years and older (11·3% [5·3] vs 37·5% [11·0], p=0·0003; girls 17·2% [8·1] vs 43·9% [14·1], p=0·05; boys 7·7% [5·9] vs 34·6% [11·6], p=0·0014). Alternate-week dexamethasone during delayed intensification phases, a simple dose modification, reduces the risk of osteonecrosis in children and adolescents given intensified treatment for high-risk ALL. Its use is being evaluated in children with standard risk ALL. US National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health.
    The Lancet Oncology 08/2012; 13(9):906-15. DOI:10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70274-7 · 24.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE In 1995, the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) opened a trial for patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma evaluating whether low-dose involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT) improved event-free survival (EFS) for patients achieving a complete response after chemotherapy. We present the long-term study outcome using final data through March 2007. PATIENTS AND METHODS Between January 1995 and December 1998, 826 eligible patients were enrolled onto CCG 5942. Four hundred ninety-eight patients achieving an initial complete response to chemotherapy were randomly assigned to receive IFRT or no further therapy. EFS and overall survival (OS) were assessed from the date of study entry or random assignment, as appropriate. Results Ten-year EFS and OS rates for the entire cohort were 83.5% and 92.5%, respectively. In an as-treated analysis for randomly assigned patients, the 10-year EFS and OS rates were 91.2% and 97.1%, respectively, for IFRT and 82.9% and 95.9%, respectively, for no further therapy. For EFS and OS comparisons, P = .004 and P = .50, respectively. Bulk disease, "B" symptoms, and nodular sclerosis histology were risk factors for inferior EFS. CONCLUSION With a median follow-up of 7.7 years, IFRT produced a statistically significant improvement in EFS but no improvement in OS. For individual patients, the relative risks of relapse versus late effects of IFRT must be considered. Patient and disease characteristics and early response assessment will aid in deciding which patients are most likely to benefit from IFRT.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/2012; 30(26):3174-80. DOI:10.1200/JCO.2011.41.1819 · 18.43 Impact Factor
  • James Nachman · Menakshi Devidas ·

    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 10/2011; 57(4):539-40. DOI:10.1002/pbc.23237 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Children's Cancer Group-1991 selected 2 components from the Children's Cancer Group studies shown to be effective in high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia and examined them in children with National Cancer Institute standard-risk acute B-precursor lymphoblastic leukemia. These were (1) vincristine and escalating IV methotrexate (MTX) without leucovorin rescue during the interim maintenance (IM) phases and (2) addition of a second delayed intensification (DI) phase. Eligible patients (n = 2078) were randomly assigned to regimens containing either oral (PO) MTX, PO mercaptopurine, dexamethasone, and vincristine or IV MTX during IM phases, and regimens with either single DI or double DI. Five-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival for patients on the PO MTX arms were 88.7% ± 1.4% and 96% ± 0.9% versus 92.6% ± 1.2% and 96.5% ± 0.8% for those on the IV MTX arms (P = .009, P = .66). Five-year EFS and overall survival for patients who received single DI were 90.9% ± 1.3% and 97.1% ± 0.8% versus 90.5% ± 1.3% and 95.4% ± 3.8% for those who received double DI (P = .71, P = .12). No advantage was found for a second DI; however, replacement of PO MTX, PO mercaptopurine, vincristine, and dexamethasone during IM with vincristine and escalating IV MTX improved EFS.
    Blood 05/2011; 118(2):243-51. DOI:10.1182/blood-2010-12-322909 · 10.45 Impact Factor
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    James B Nachman ·
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    ABSTRACT: Kawedia et al report a 71% incidence of osteonecrosis (ON) in a cohort of children and young adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients who underwent routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening at various time points on study. A majority of cases were asymptomatic. Older age, increased treatment intensity, low serum albumen, elevated lipid levels, and decreased dexamethasone clearance were risk factors associated with an increased incidence of osteonecrosis.
    Blood 02/2011; 117(8):2298-9. DOI:10.1182/blood-2011-01-324897 · 10.45 Impact Factor
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    Jennifer L McNeer · James B Nachman ·
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    ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids are an integral component of therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), but usage differs between cooperative group protocols. All groups use glucocorticoids during induction but vary on whether to use dexamethasone or prednisone. Issues to consider in the choice of induction steroid include impact on event-free and overall survival, acute morbidity such as infection risk, diabetes, and behavioural disturbances and long-term complications such as avascular necrosis. It is generally agreed that dexamethasone is the steroid of choice for groups using a delayed intensification phase, but dosing schedules (intermittent versus continuous) vary. There is no consensus on the potential benefit of steroid administration during maintenance therapy. This review will summarize the current available data on steroid use in paediatric ALL, highlighting outcomes as well as major toxicities.
    British Journal of Haematology 06/2010; 149(5):638-52. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2010.08192.x · 4.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Children's Cancer Group enrolled 13 298 young people age <21 years on 1 of 16 protocols between 1983 and 2002. Outcomes were examined in three time periods, 1983-1988, 1989-1995, 1996-2002. Over the three intervals, 10-year event-free survival (EFS) for Rome/National Cancer Institute standard risk (SR) and higher risk (HR) B-precursor patients was 68 and 58%, 77 and 63%, and 78 and 67%, respectively, whereas for SR and HR T-cell patients, EFS was 65 and 56%, 78 and 68%, and 70 and 72%, respectively. Five-year EFS for infants was 36, 38, and 43%, respectively. Seminal randomized studies led to a number of important findings. Stronger post-induction intensification improved outcome for both SR and HR patients. With improved systemic therapy, additional intrathecal (IT) methotrexate effectively replaced cranial radiation. For SR patients receiving three-drug induction, iso-toxic substitution of dexamethasone for prednisone improved EFS. Pegylated asparaginase safely and effectively replaced native asparaginase. Thus, rational therapy modifications yielded better outcomes for both SR and HR patients. These trials provide the platforms for current Children's Oncology Group trials.
    Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 12/2009; 24(2):285-97. DOI:10.1038/leu.2009.262 · 10.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients 16 to 21 years of age with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have an inferior outcome compared with younger children, leading some medical oncologists to advocate allogeneic stem-cell transplantation in first remission for these patients. We examined outcome for young adults with ALL enrolled onto the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) 1961 study between 1996 and 2002. CCG 1961 entered patients with ALL 1 to 21 years of age with initial WBC count > or = 50,000/microL and/or age > or = 10 years. Randomly assigned therapies evaluated the impact of postinduction treatment intensification on outcome. We examined outcome and prognostic factors for 262 young adults with ALL. Five-year event-free and overall survival rates for young adult patients are 71.5% (SE, 3.6%) and 77.5% (SE, 3.3%), respectively. Rapid responder patients (< 25% bone marrow blasts on day 7) randomly assigned to augmented therapy had 5-year event-free survival of 81.8% (SE, 7%), as compared with 66.8% (SE, 6.7%) for patients receiving standard therapy (P = .07). One versus two interim maintenance and delayed intensification courses had no significant impact on event-free survival. WBC count more than 50,000/microL was an adverse prognostic factor. Young adult patients with ALL showing a rapid response to induction chemotherapy benefit from early intensive postinduction therapy but do not benefit from a second interim maintenance and delayed intensification phase. Given the excellent outcome with this chemotherapy, there seems to be no role for the routine use of allogeneic stem-cell transplantation in first remission for young adults with ALL.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/2009; 27(31):5189-94. DOI:10.1200/JCO.2008.20.8959 · 18.43 Impact Factor
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    James Nachman ·
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    ABSTRACT: In this issue of Blood, Claviez and colleagues report on the outcomes of 91 patients younger than 18 years of age who underwent an allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for HL between 1987 and 2005. The outcomes were reported to the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
    Blood 10/2009; 114(10):2008-9. DOI:10.1182/blood-2009-07-228973 · 10.45 Impact Factor
  • Frank G Keller · Sharon M Castellino · James B Nachman ·
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    ABSTRACT: Limited-stage Hodgkin lymphoma remains a challenging problem for pediatric oncologists. Published and investigative treatment regimens represent varied approaches to balance the excellent overall and event-free survival with the substantial potential for long-term sequelae of effective treatment modalities. Regimens incorporating low-dose radiation to smaller fields and chemotherapy that limits cumulative exposure to the agents most closely associated with long-term complications have been shown to be effective for most patients. Investigative approaches to optimize overall therapy focus on identifying which patients require more or less therapy. A recent example is the use of response-based therapy as a means of limiting or omitting radiation for those with an early, rapid response to chemotherapy. Biologic markers that influence risk for treatment failure or treatment-related toxicities have been only minimally defined. This paper reviews recently published treatment regimens for children and adolescents and presents some considerations for choosing a treatment approach for individual patients.
    Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports 07/2009; 4(3):129-35. DOI:10.1007/s11899-009-0019-0 · 2.20 Impact Factor
  • James Nachman ·

    Blood 06/2009; 113(21):5036. DOI:10.1182/blood-2009-02-203232 · 10.45 Impact Factor
  • James Nachman ·

    Leukemia & lymphoma 07/2008; 49(6):1026-7. DOI:10.1080/10428190802209652 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As glucocorticoid use increased in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, osteonecrosis became an increasingly frequent complication. Besides increased age, host risk factors are poorly defined. We tested whether 12 polymorphisms were associated with osteonecrosis among patients 10 years and older treated on the CCG1882 protocol. Candidate genes (TYMS, MTHFR, ABCB1, BGLAP, ACP5, LRP5, ESR1, PAI-1, VDR, PTH, and PTHR) were chosen based on putative mechanisms underlying osteonecrosis risk. All children received dexamethasone, with doses varying by treatment arm. A PAI-1 polymorphism (rs6092) was associated with risk of osteonecrosis in univariate (P = .002; odds ratio = 2.79) and multivariate (P = .002; odds ratio = 2.89) analyses (adjusting for gender, age, and treatment arm). Overall, 21 of 78 (26.9%) children with PAI-1 GA/AA genotypes, versus 25 of 214 (11.7%) children with GG genotype, developed osteonecrosis. PAI-1 polymorphisms and PAI-1 serum levels have previously been associated with thrombosis. We conclude that PAI-1 genetic variation may contribute to risk of osteonecrosis.
    Blood 06/2008; 111(9):4496-9. DOI:10.1182/blood-2007-11-123885 · 10.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We performed a retrospective comparison of presenting features, planned treatment, complete remission (CR) rate, and outcome of 321 adolescents and young adults (AYAs) ages 16 to 20 years with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who were treated on consecutive trials in either the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) or the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) from 1988 to 2001. CR rates were identical, 90% for both CALGB and CCG AYAs. CCG AYAs had a 63% event-free survival (EFS) and 67% overall survival (OS) at 7 years in contrast to the CALGB AYAs, in which 7-year EFS was only 34% (P < .001; relative hazard rate [RHR] = 2.2) and OS was 46% (P < .001; RHR = 1.9). While CALGB AYAs aged 16 to 17 years achieved similar outcomes to all CCG AYAs with a 7-year EFS of 55%, the EFS for 18- to 20-year-old CALGB patients was only 29%. Comparison of the regimens showed that CCG AYAs received earlier and more intensive central nervous system prophylaxis and higher cumulative doses of nonmyelosuppressive agents. There were no differences in outcomes of those who reached maintenance therapy on time compared with those who were delayed. Based on these observations, a prospective study for AYAs with ALL using the more successful approach of the CCG has been initiated.
    Blood 05/2008; 112(5):1646-54. DOI:10.1182/blood-2008-01-130237 · 10.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Longer and more intensive postinduction intensification (PII) improved the outcome of children and adolescents with "higher risk" acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and a slow marrow response to induction therapy. In the Children's Cancer Group study (CCG-1961), we tested longer versus more intensive PII, using a 2 x 2 factorial design for children with higher risk ALL and a rapid marrow response to induction therapy. Between November 1996 and May 2002, 2078 children and adolescents with newly diagnosed ALL (1 to 9 years old with white blood count 50 000/mm3 or more, or 10 years of age or older with any white blood count) were enrolled. After induction, 1299 patients with marrow blasts less than or equal to 25% on day 7 of induction (rapid early responders) were randomized to standard or longer duration (n = 651 + 648) and standard or increased intensity (n = 649 + 650) PII. Stronger intensity PII improved event-free survival (81% vs 72%, P < .001) and survival (89% vs 83%, P = .003) at 5 years. Differences were most apparent after 2 years from diagnosis. Longer duration PII provided no benefit. Stronger intensity but not prolonged duration PII improved outcome for patients with higher-risk ALL. This study is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00002812.
    Blood 03/2008; 111(5):2548-55. DOI:10.1182/blood-2007-02-070342 · 10.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One-hundred thirty-nine patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and hypodiploidy (fewer than 45 chromosomes) were collected from 10 different national ALL study groups and single institutions. Patients were stratified by modal chromosome number into 4 groups: 24 to 29 (N = 46); 33 to 39 (N = 26); 40 to 43 (N = 13); and 44 (N = 54) chromosomes. Nine patients were Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) positive (4 cases: 44 chromosomes; 5 cases: 40-43 chromosomes) and were not considered further. Event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) of the remaining 130 patients were 38.5% +/- 4.4% and 49.8% +/- 4.2% at 8 years, respectively. There were no significant differences in outcome between patients with 24 to 29, 33 to 39, or 40 to 43 chromosomes. Compared with patients with fewer than 44 chromosomes, patients with 44 chromosomes had a significantly better EFS (P = .01; 8-year estimate, 52.2% vs 30.1%) and OS (P = .017; 69% vs 37.5%). For patients with 44 chromosomes, monosomy 7, the presence of a dicentric chromosome, or both predicted a worse EFS but similar OS. Doubling of the hypodiploid clone occurred in 32 patients (24-29 chromosomes [n = 25] and 33-39 chromosomes [n = 7]) and had no prognostic implication. Children and adolescents with ALL and hypodiploidy with fewer than 44 chromosomes have a poor outcome despite contemporary therapy.
    Blood 09/2007; 110(4):1112-5. DOI:10.1182/blood-2006-07-038299 · 10.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with metastatic osteosarcoma have a poor prognosis. The objectives of the study were to determine the antitumor activity and toxicity of topotecan (daily x5) in newly diagnosed patients with metastatic osteosarcoma followed by chemotherapy (ifosfamide, carboplatin, etoposide [ICE], alternating with cisplatin and doxorubicin [CD]). Newly diagnosed patients (< or =30 years of age) with extensive metastatic disease (primary and > or =5 pulmonary nodules and/or bone metastases) with normal hepatic, renal, and cardiac function were eligible. Patients were eligible to receive further topotecan after standard chemotherapy if they exhibited a response. Twenty-eight patients were enrolled. Seventeen had metastases to the lung only and 11 had metastases to the bone or multiple sites. Of 28 patients enrolled, 27 could be evaluated for response. A limited dose escalation was incorporated. No responses were seen in the 11 patients treated at 3 mg/m(2)/day. One partial response (PR) and 1 clinical response (CLR) were reported among 15 patients who received topotecan at 3.5 mg/m(2)/day. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed. Principal nondose-limiting toxicities were hematologic and gastrointestinal. The 2- and 5-year event-free survival rates were low, 7% and 4%, respectively, but the 2- and 5-year overall survival rates were 44% and 22%, respectively. Topotecan at dose of 3.5 mg/m(2)/day can be safely administered upfront to newly diagnosed patients without excessive toxicity. Insufficient activity was seen with topotecan in this schedule to warrant further studies in osteosarcoma. The combination of ICE and CD was tolerable when delivered after initial topotecan therapy.
    Cancer 04/2007; 109(8):1646-53. DOI:10.1002/cncr.22553 · 4.89 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
521.04 Total Impact Points


  • 1991-2014
    • University of Chicago
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Section of Hematology/Oncology
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2011
    • Case Western Reserve University
      • Division of Hematology and Oncology
      Cleveland, OH, United States
  • 1987-2011
    • The University of Chicago Medical Center
      • Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2009
    • NYU Langone Medical Center
      • Department of Pediatrics
      New York, New York, United States
    • Emory University
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 2002
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1998
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Ашбърн, Virginia, United States
  • 1993
    • Children's National Medical Center
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States