[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelet-neutrophil interactions play a key role in cardiovascular disease and inflammatory processes. Src family kinases mediate P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1-Mac-1 cross talk necessary for firm platelet-neutrophil adhesion. Because Src family kinase activity can be regulated by cAMP-dependent pathways, in this work, we evaluated the role of phosphodiesterases in the signaling events that are required to sustain platelet-neutrophil interactions and neutrophil recruitment at the site of vascular injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prasugrel, through its active metabolite, reduces atherothrombosis and its clinical manifestations by inhibiting platelet activation and aggregation. Platelets also contribute to inflammation through interaction with different classes of leukocytes. We investigated whether the inhibitory effect of prasugrel on platelets also counteract inflammatory responses. The effect of prasugrel active metabolite, R-138727, was investigated on platelet P-selectin expression, platelet adhesion to polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and monocytes (MN) and Mac-1 expression in PMN and MN, in vitro, in human cells. The ex vivo effect of prasugrel administration on P-selectin, thromboxane (TXB)2 formation, platelet-PMN conjugates and Mac-1 expression in PMN triggered by PAR-4 agonist peptide was examined in whole blood from healthy mice as well as from mice in which an acute inflammatory reaction was induced by treatment with endotoxin. The effect of prasugrel on inflammatory markers in endotoxin-treated animals was also tested in vivo. R-138727 inhibited agonist-stimulated expression of platelet P-selectin, platelet-PMN and platelet-MN adhesion and platelet-dependent Mac-1 expression in leukocytes. Addition of aspirin did not modify the inhibitory effect elicited by R-138727. Treatment of mice with prasugrel resulted in a profound inhibition of platelet P-selectin expression, TXB2 production, platelet-PMN adhesion and Mac-1 expression in PMN induced by ex vivo stimulation with PAR-4 agonist peptide of whole blood from healthy or endotoxin-treated mice. Measurement of markers revealed that prasugrel reduced TXB2 and tumour necrosis factor-α synthesis and increased nitric oxide metabolites in endotoxin-treated mice in vivo. In conclusion, prasugrel reduces platelet interactions with PMN and MN. Through these effects prasugrel may curb platelet-mediated inflammatory responses.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis 03/2012; 107(6):1130-40. DOI:10.1160/TH11-12-0867 · 5.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) promotes angiogenesis and growth of neoplastic cells. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor AT1 blockers may protect against cancer. Tissue factor (TF), for its involvement in tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis is considered a hallmark of cancer progression. In this study we evaluated whether RAS blockade modulates TF constitutive expression by the metastatic breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell line.
Cell TF activity was assessed by one stage clotting time, TF and VEGF antigens and mRNA levels by ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. AT(1) was detected by flow-cytometry and angiotensin-II levels by EIA.
Captopril reduced in a concentration-dependent way both the strong constitutive TF activity (983.2±55.2 vs. 686.7±135.1U/5×10(5) cells with 10μg/ml captopril) and antigen (32.3±5.9 vs. 13.2±6.6ng/ml) in MDA-MB-231. Similar results were observed with enalapril. AT1 was present on cell membrane and losartan, a competitive inhibitor of AT1, reduced TF expression to a degree similar as that exerted by ACE inhibitors. Moreover, captopril and losartan downregulated the constitutive mRNA TF expression by ~35%. Similar results were observed with anti-AT1 and angiotensin II antibodies. In addition, the constitutive VEGF antigen and mRNA levels were reduced in the presence of captopril or losartan, and an anti-VEGF antibody downregulated cell TF activity by ~40%.
These results could, at least in part, contribute to the discussion about the possible effects of ACE inhibitors and AT1 receptor antagonists in malignancy, and offer new clues to support their use for tumor control.
Thrombosis Research 12/2011; 129(6):736-42. DOI:10.1016/j.thromres.2011.11.047 · 2.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: At the site of vascular injury, monocytes (MN) interacting with activated platelets (PLT) synthesize tissue factor (TF) and promote thrombus formation. Intracellular signals necessary for the expression of TF in MN, in the context of a developing thrombus, remain unknown. Objective: The study was designed to investigate the role of the glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3, a serine-threonine kinase) downstream insulin receptor pathway, in PLT-induced TF expression in MN. Methods: To this purpose we used a well-characterized in vitro model of human MN-PLT interactions that allows detailed analysis of TF activity, TF protein and gene expression.Results: The results demonstrated that, in MN interacting with activated PLT: (i) TF activity, antigen and mRNA were low until 8–10 h and dramatically increased thereafter, up to 24 h; (ii) according to the kinetics of TF expression in MN, GSK3β undergoes phosphorylation on serine 9, a process associated with down-regulation of enzyme activity; (iii) pharmacological blockade of GSK3 further increased TF expression and was accompanied by increased accumulation of NF-kB, in the nucleus; (iv) blockade of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI(3)K) by wortmannin inhibited PLT-induced TF expression; and (v) according to the established role of the GSK3 downstream insulin receptor, insulin increased PLT-induced TF expression in a PI(3)K-dependent manner. Conclusion: GSK3 acts as a molecular brake on the signaling pathway, leading to TF expression in MN interacting with activated PLT. PI(3)K, through Akt-dependent phosphorylation of GSK3, relieves this brake and allows TF gene expression. This study identifies a novel molecular link between thrombotic risk and metabolic disorders.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 04/2011; 9(5):1029 - 1039. DOI:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2011.04236.x · 5.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paclitaxel, a microtubule-stabilising compound with potent anti-tumour activity, has been clinically used in a wide variety of malignancies. Tissue factor (TF) is often expressed by tumour-associated endothelial and inflammatory cells, as well as by cancer cells themselves, and it is considered a hallmark of cancer progression. We investigated whether paclitaxel could modulate TF in human mononuclear (MN) cells, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and the metastatic breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231. Cells were incubated with or without paclitaxel at 37 degrees C. At the end of incubation, cells were disrupted and tested for procoagulant activity by a one-stage clotting assay, for TF antigen levels by ELISA and TF mRNA by real-time RT-PCR. IL-6 and IL-1beta were tested by ELISA in conditioned medium. Both the strong TF activity and antigen constitutively expressed by MDA-MB-231 and the TF induced by LPS, TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in MN cells and HUVEC were significantly reduced by paclitaxel. In the presence of paclitaxel, lower TF mRNA levels were also detected. Since paclitaxel has been shown to induce the expression of inflammatory genes in monocytes and tumour cells, we tested whether paclitaxel could influence IL-6 and IL-1beta release from the cells used in this paper. Neither the constitutive expression of IL-6 and IL-1beta by MDA-MB-231 nor the basal and LPS-induced release from MN cells and HUVEC was affected. Our data support the hypothesis that the anti-tumour effects of paclitaxel may, at least in part, be mediated by the capacity of this drug to modulate the procoagulant potential of cancer and host cells.
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 12/2008; 45(3):470-7. DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2008.10.014 · 4.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA), an ubiquitous contaminant of food products endowed with a wide spectrum of toxicity, affects several functions of mononuclear leukocytes. Monocytes/macrophages play a major role in fibrin accumulation associated with immune-inflammatory processes through the production of tissue factor (TF) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI-2). We studied the effect of OTA on TF and PAI-2 production by human blood mononuclear cells (MNC). The cells were incubated for 3 or 18 h at 37 degrees C with non toxic OTA concentrations in the absence and in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or other inflammatory agents. TF activity was measured by a one-stage clotting test. Antigen assays were performed by specific ELISAs in cell extracts or conditioned media and specific mRNAs were assessed by RT-PCR. OTA had no direct effect on TF and PAI-2 production by MNC. However, OTA caused a dose-dependent reduction in LPS-induced TF (activity, antigen and mRNA) and PAI-2 (antigen and mRNA) production with >85% inhibition at 1 mug/ml. Similar results were obtained when monocyte-enriched preparations were used instead of MNC. TF production was also impaired by OTA (1 mug/ml) when MNC were stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (98% inhibition), IL-1beta (83%) or TNF-alpha (62%). The inhibition of TF and PAI-2 induction might represent a hitherto unrecognized mechanism whereby OTA exerts immunosuppressant activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Leptin, the hormone synthesized and released primarily by adipose tissue and found increased in obese individuals, has been implicated in the regulation of inflammation and arterial and venous thrombosis.
To investigate the role of tissue factor (TF), the pivotal agonist of the clotting cascade, as a link between obesity and cardiovascular disease.
In 15 obese patients, plasma levels of leptin and TF as well as TF expression in resting and endotoxin-stimulated mononuclear leukocytes (MN) were increased when compared with healthy donors. In a selected sample of obese patients, loss of body weight led to decreased circulating leptin levels, accompanied by a reduction in plasma TF as well as in TF expression, both in resting and endotoxin-stimulated MN. In subsequent in vitro experiments, leptin was incubated with MN from healthy subjects. Leptin induced TF activity and antigen in a dose-dependent fashion, as assessed by clotting assay and ELISA, respectively. Increased migration of c-Rel/p65 into the nucleus, as determined by EMSA, and development of TF mRNA in monocytes, as assessed by RT-PCR, were observed. Experiments with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors, indicated the involvement of p38 and ERK1/2 pathways.
The presence of TF-expressing MN in blood from obese subjects and the in vitro induction of TF by pharmacologic concentrations of leptin in MN from healthy subjects suggest that TF expression by leptin-stimulated monocytes may contribute to the cardiovascular risk associated with obesity.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 07/2007; 5(7):1462-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2007.02578.x · 5.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clopidogrel is considered to be an important therapeutic advance in anti-platelet therapy. We investigated whether inhibition by clopidogrel results in a reduced capacity of platelets to adhere and stimulate pro-atherothrombotic and inflammatory functions in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and in monocytes (MN). An eventual effect on these processes could further substantiate anti-atherothrombotic properties of this drug. The effects of clopidogrel or of its active metabolite were investigated on ADP or thrombin receptor-induced platelet activation and on platelet-leukocyte interactions ex vivo in the mouse or in vitro in isolated human cells or whole blood, respectively. Clopidogrel inhibited platelet aggregation, expression of P-selectin, platelet-PMN adhesion and platelet-dependent ROS production in mouse PMN. Similarly pretreatment of human platelets with the active metabolite of clopidogrel in vitro resulted in a profound inhibition of platelet P-selectin expression, platelet-PMN adhesion and production of ROS by PMN. Pretreatment with the active metabolite of clopidogrel significantly impaired the ability of platelets to up-regulate the expression of TF procoagulant activity in MN, in a washed cell system. Moreover, the active metabolite of clopidogrel inhibited rapidTF exposure on platelet as well as on leukocyte surfaces in whole blood. By reducing platelet-dependent up-regulation of inflammatory and pro-atherothrombotic functions in leukocytes, clopidogrel may reduce inflammation that underlies the chronic process of atherosclerosis and its acute complications.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis 10/2005; 94(3):568-77. DOI:10.1160/TH05-01-0020 · 5.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pentraxin-3 (PTX3), an acute-phase protein that belongs to the family of the PTXs, is found elevated in septic shock and increased in patients with acute myocardial infarction. As tissue factor (TF) plays a key role in thrombosis and inflammation associated with atherosclerosis and as we have recently reported that PTX3 increases TF synthesis in endothelial cells, we tested whether PTX3 could modulate TF expression in monocytes. Monocytes from peripheral blood of healthy donors were incubated with highly purified PTX3 with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cells were then disrupted, and procoagulant activity was assessed by a one-stage clotting time. PTX3 enhanced TF activity and antigen from LPS-stimulated monocytes in a dose-dependent way. The effect was specific, as other PTXs, such as C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P component, were ineffective. Moreover, the increase in activity was specific for LPS, as in the presence of other TF-inducing agents such as interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha, PTX3 was not effective. The increase in TF activity requires mRNA synthesis, as assessed by polymerase chain reaction. The mechanism by which PTX3 modulates TF synthesis resides in an enhanced IkappaB, alpha phosphorylation and degradation and increased migration of the transacting factor c-Rel/p65 into the nucleus, as determined by Western blot and electro-mobility shift assay. These results show that PTX3 is an enhancer of the expression of TF by mononuclear cells. In the area of vascular injury, during the inflammatory response, cell-mediated fibrin deposition takes place. PTX3 increases TF expression, thus potentially playing a role in thrombogenesis and wound healing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary cultures of cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) were prepared from 8-day-old Wistar rats, and maintained in an appropriate medium containing a high (25 mM) concentration of KCl. To induce apoptosis, culture medium was replaced with serum-free medium (containing 5mM KCl) 8 days after plating. Apoptosis was measured by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method, and by flow cytometry. Since there is evidence that an increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in the apoptosis induced by low K(+) (5mM) concentrations, the potential anti-apoptotic effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a potent flavonoid antioxidant, was tested in this experimental model. It was found that CAPE (10 microg/ml) promoted cell survival and was capable of blocking the apoptotic process as assayed by both TUNEL and flow cytometric methods. The same concentration of CAPE prevented the formation of ROS induced by low K(+). Since there is evidence that low K(+)-induced apoptosis in CGNs is associated with a drop in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), activation of the cell death effector proteases caspase-3 and caspase-9, and of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), the interference of CAPE with these purported mediators of apoptosis was also evaluated. It was found that CAPE did not interfere with the marked decrease in [Ca(2+)](i) induced by low K(+), whereas it completely blocked caspase-3, caspase-9, and NF-kappaB activation. It is concluded that CAPE could exert its anti-apoptotic effect in CGNs by blocking ROS formation and by inhibiting caspase activity.
International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 12/2003; 21(7):379-89. DOI:10.1016/S0736-5748(03)00090-X · 2.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of wine reduces the risk of coronary heart disease. Resveratrol and quercetin, two polyphenolic compounds found in grapes and red wine, have been shown to contribute to this protection by exerting several biological properties which could be associated with cardioprotection. Tissue factor (TF), the cellular receptor that initiates blood coagulation, plays a primary role both in hemostasis following tissue injury and in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis which predisposes to thrombosis.
We investigated the role of resveratrol and quercetin on TF expression by endothelial and mononuclear cells (MN).
Confluent human umbilical vein endothelial cells and MN collected from healthy donors were stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide, interleukin-1beta or tumor necrosis factor-alpha after incubation with increasing concentrations of resveratrol or quercetin.
In both cell types, TF activity induced by any agonist was significantly reduced by resveratrol or quercetin in a dose-dependent fashion. Northern blot analysis indicated that resveratrol and quercetin strongly reduce TF mRNA in both cell types. The inhibition of TF mRNA originated from a reduction in nuclear binding activity of the transacting factor c-Rel/p65, which was induced by the agonists and measured by electromobility shift assay. Western blot analysis revealed that the diminished c-Rel/p65 activity was dependent upon inhibition of degradation of the c-Rel/p65 inhibitory protein IkappaBalpha.
These results provide a molecular basis which could help explain the protective activity of red wine against cardiovascular disease.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 06/2003; 1(5):1089-95. DOI:10.1046/j.1538-7836.2003.00217.x · 5.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation is a major contributing factor to atherosclerotic plaque development and ischemic heart disease. PTX3 is a long pentraxin that was recently found to be increased in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Because tissue factor (TF), the in vivo trigger of blood coagulation, plays a dominant role in thrombus formation after plaque rupture, we tested the possibility that PTX3 could modulate TF expression. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells, incubated with endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) or the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, expressed TF. The presence of PTX3 increased TF activity and antigen severalfold in a dose-dependent fashion. PTX3 exerted its effect at the transcription level, inasmuch as the increased levels of TF mRNA, mediated by the stimuli, were enhanced in its presence. The increase in mRNA determined by PTX3 originated from an enhanced nuclear binding activity of the transacting factor c-Rel/p65, which was mediated by the agonists and measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The mechanism underlying the increased c-Rel/p65 activity resided in an enhanced degradation of the c-Rel/p65 inhibitory protein IkappaBalpha. In the area of vascular injury, during the inflammatory response, cell-mediated fibrin deposition takes place. Our results suggest that PTX3, by increasing TF expression, potentially plays a role in thrombogenesis and ischemic vascular disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce the risk of recurrent myocardial infarction in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Tissue factor (TF), the initiator of blood coagulation, plays a pivotal role in arterial thrombosis that occurs after atherosclerotic plaque fissuring. Because monocytes synthesize TF and contain several components of the renin-angiotensin system, we investigated the possibility that ACE inhibitors could modulate monocyte TF expression. Mononuclear leukocytes from healthy volunteers were incubated with endotoxin in the presence or absence of different ACE inhibitors. Captopril reduced TF expression in endotoxin-stimulated mononuclear leukocytes, as measured by a 1-stage clotting assay and ELISA analysis, by approximately 60%. The effect was dose-dependent and was attributable to ACE inhibition, given that other ACE inhibitors, such as idrapril or fosinopril, and losartan, an antagonist of the angiotensin II AT(1) receptor, caused a comparable reduction in TF activity. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction indicated that endotoxin-mediated increased levels of TF mRNA were inhibited by ACE inhibitors. Moreover, endotoxin-induced nuclear factor-kappaB translocation to the promoter region of the gene encoding for TF was markedly inhibited by captopril. The finding that ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II AT(1) antagonists can potentially modulate TF expression by mononuclear cells has important biological and therapeutic implications for the evolution of thrombi. Our results suggest that the anti-ischemic effect of these drugs might be explained, at least in part, by their ability to reduce TF expression in monocytes.
Circulation Research 03/2000; 86(2):139-43. DOI:10.1161/01.RES.86.2.139 · 11.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that cirrhotic patients produce increased amounts of thrombin but the underlying mechanism is still unknown.
To analyse the relation between the rate of thrombin generation and monocyte expression of tissue factor (TF) in cirrhosis.
Thirty three cirrhotic patients classified as having low (n = 7), moderate (n = 17), or severe (n = 9) liver failure according to Child-Pugh criteria.
Prothrombin fragment F1 + 2, monocyte TF activity and antigen, and endotoxaemia were measured in all patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of TF mRNA was performed in monocytes of five cirrhotic patients.
Prothrombin fragment F1 + 2 was higher in cirrhotic patients than in controls (p < 0.0001). Monocytes from cirrhotic patients had higher TF activity and antigen than those from controls (p < 0.001) with a progressive increase from low to severe liver failure. Monocyte expression of TF was significantly correlated with plasma levels of F1 + 2 (TF activity: r = 0.98, p < 0.0001; TF antigen: r = 0.95, p < 0.0001) and with endotoxaemia (TF activity: r = 0.94, p < 0.0001; TF antigen: r = 0.91, p < 0.0001). PCR analysis of TF mRNA showed TF expression only in three patients with endotoxaemia (more than 15 pg/ml).
Cirrhotic patients have enhanced expression of TF which could be responsible for clotting activation, suggesting that endotoxaemia might play a pivotal role.
Gut 10/1998; 43(3):428-32. DOI:10.1136/gut.43.3.428 · 13.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Following tissue injury, blood components come into contact with the subendothelial tissue, a thrombogenic surface. Tissue factor, found in the media and adventitia of the vascular wall, or available on the membrane of activated monocytes and endothelial cells, triggers blood coagulation. A complex interaction between soluble molecules and cells then takes place, a fibrin mesh is formed, and the resulting clot limits or stops the loss of blood. Platelets, monocytes, and endothelial cells co-localize and interact in the area of vascular injury. This close relationship, which is regulated by an array of cell-cell adhesion molecules, favours the modulation of the biochemical pathways of these cells. The aim of this review is to summarize the contribution of these cells and their interactions in tissue factor expression and its possible relevance in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monocytes and endothelial cells interact at sites of vascular injury during inflammatory response, thrombosis, and development of atherosclerotic lesions. Such interactions result in modulation of several biological functions of the two cell types. Because both cells, on appropriate stimulation, synthesize tissue factor (TF), we examined the effect of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC)/monocyte coculture on the expression of TF. We found that the coincubation resulted in TF generation, which was maximal at 4 hours, increased with increasing numbers of monocytes, and required mRNA and protein synthesis. Supernatant from HUVEC/monocyte coculture induced TF activity in HUVECs, but not in monocytes, indicating that HUVEC were the cells responsible for the activity, and that soluble mediators were involved. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), well-known inducers of TF in HUVECs, were found in the supernatant from the coculture, and specific antibodies directed against either cytokine inhibited TF generation. The need of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha synthesis in order to elicit TF expression was also suggested by the delay observed in TF mRNA formation and TF activity generation when monocytes were incubated with HUVECs. IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha antigen levels in the coculture supernatant, and, consequently, HUVEC TF expression, were inhibited in the presence of anti-CD18 monoclonal antibody. These findings emphasize the role of cell-cell contact and cross-talk in the procoagulant activity, which could be responsible for the thromboembolic complications observed in those vascular disorders in which monocyte infiltration is a common feature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAECs) in culture constitutively secrete polypeptide (endothelium-derived) growth factors (EDGFs) into the surrounding medium. Incubation of PAECs with human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) caused a significant increase in EDGF release as assessed by [3H]thymidine incorporation into BALB/c 3T3 mouse fibroblasts and cell proliferation assay. The effect was time dependent and correlated with the number of PMNs, reaching a maximum with a 1:1 PAEC to PMN ratio. Generation of mitogenic activity was prevented by cycloheximide, indicating a requirement for de novo protein synthesis. Antibody-mediated inhibition assays suggested that mitogenic activity was due to platelet-derived growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. When supernatant from N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-stimulated PMNs was substituted for PMNs during incubation with PAECs, powerful mitogenic activity was generated, indicating the involvement of soluble mediators. A role for free oxygen radicals was ruled out by experiments in which superoxide dismutase and catalase did not prevent the increase in mitogenic activity. By contrast, serine protease inhibitors such as soybean trypsin inhibitor, alpha 1-antitrypsin, and eglin C reduced the PMN-stimulating activity by 70%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. The possible involvement of cathepsin G and elastase was investigated. Cathepsin G and elastase, when substituted for PMNs, increased the release of EDGFs in a dose-dependent fashion, mimicking the effect of PMNs. These findings suggest a new role for leukocyte-vessel wall interactions in the proliferative feature of atherosclerosis.
Arteriosclerosis and thrombosis: a journal of vascular biology / American Heart Association 02/1994; 14(1):125-32. DOI:10.1161/01.ATV.14.1.125