[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: At the site of vascular injury, monocytes (MN) interacting with activated platelets (PLT) synthesize tissue factor (TF) and promote thrombus formation. Intracellular signals necessary for the expression of TF in MN, in the context of a developing thrombus, remain unknown. Objective: The study was designed to investigate the role of the glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3, a serine-threonine kinase) downstream insulin receptor pathway, in PLT-induced TF expression in MN. Methods: To this purpose we used a well-characterized in vitro model of human MN-PLT interactions that allows detailed analysis of TF activity, TF protein and gene expression.Results: The results demonstrated that, in MN interacting with activated PLT: (i) TF activity, antigen and mRNA were low until 8–10 h and dramatically increased thereafter, up to 24 h; (ii) according to the kinetics of TF expression in MN, GSK3β undergoes phosphorylation on serine 9, a process associated with down-regulation of enzyme activity; (iii) pharmacological blockade of GSK3 further increased TF expression and was accompanied by increased accumulation of NF-kB, in the nucleus; (iv) blockade of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI(3)K) by wortmannin inhibited PLT-induced TF expression; and (v) according to the established role of the GSK3 downstream insulin receptor, insulin increased PLT-induced TF expression in a PI(3)K-dependent manner. Conclusion: GSK3 acts as a molecular brake on the signaling pathway, leading to TF expression in MN interacting with activated PLT. PI(3)K, through Akt-dependent phosphorylation of GSK3, relieves this brake and allows TF gene expression. This study identifies a novel molecular link between thrombotic risk and metabolic disorders.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 04/2011; 9(5):1029 - 1039. · 6.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Leptin, the hormone synthesized and released primarily by adipose tissue and found increased in obese individuals, has been implicated in the regulation of inflammation and arterial and venous thrombosis.
To investigate the role of tissue factor (TF), the pivotal agonist of the clotting cascade, as a link between obesity and cardiovascular disease.
In 15 obese patients, plasma levels of leptin and TF as well as TF expression in resting and endotoxin-stimulated mononuclear leukocytes (MN) were increased when compared with healthy donors. In a selected sample of obese patients, loss of body weight led to decreased circulating leptin levels, accompanied by a reduction in plasma TF as well as in TF expression, both in resting and endotoxin-stimulated MN. In subsequent in vitro experiments, leptin was incubated with MN from healthy subjects. Leptin induced TF activity and antigen in a dose-dependent fashion, as assessed by clotting assay and ELISA, respectively. Increased migration of c-Rel/p65 into the nucleus, as determined by EMSA, and development of TF mRNA in monocytes, as assessed by RT-PCR, were observed. Experiments with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors, indicated the involvement of p38 and ERK1/2 pathways.
The presence of TF-expressing MN in blood from obese subjects and the in vitro induction of TF by pharmacologic concentrations of leptin in MN from healthy subjects suggest that TF expression by leptin-stimulated monocytes may contribute to the cardiovascular risk associated with obesity.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 07/2007; 5(7):1462-8. · 5.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of wine reduces the risk of coronary heart disease. Resveratrol and quercetin, two polyphenolic compounds found in grapes and red wine, have been shown to contribute to this protection by exerting several biological properties which could be associated with cardioprotection. Tissue factor (TF), the cellular receptor that initiates blood coagulation, plays a primary role both in hemostasis following tissue injury and in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis which predisposes to thrombosis.
We investigated the role of resveratrol and quercetin on TF expression by endothelial and mononuclear cells (MN).
Confluent human umbilical vein endothelial cells and MN collected from healthy donors were stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide, interleukin-1beta or tumor necrosis factor-alpha after incubation with increasing concentrations of resveratrol or quercetin.
In both cell types, TF activity induced by any agonist was significantly reduced by resveratrol or quercetin in a dose-dependent fashion. Northern blot analysis indicated that resveratrol and quercetin strongly reduce TF mRNA in both cell types. The inhibition of TF mRNA originated from a reduction in nuclear binding activity of the transacting factor c-Rel/p65, which was induced by the agonists and measured by electromobility shift assay. Western blot analysis revealed that the diminished c-Rel/p65 activity was dependent upon inhibition of degradation of the c-Rel/p65 inhibitory protein IkappaBalpha.
These results provide a molecular basis which could help explain the protective activity of red wine against cardiovascular disease.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 06/2003; 1(5):1089-95. · 5.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce the risk of recurrent myocardial infarction in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Tissue factor (TF), the initiator of blood coagulation, plays a pivotal role in arterial thrombosis that occurs after atherosclerotic plaque fissuring. Because monocytes synthesize TF and contain several components of the renin-angiotensin system, we investigated the possibility that ACE inhibitors could modulate monocyte TF expression. Mononuclear leukocytes from healthy volunteers were incubated with endotoxin in the presence or absence of different ACE inhibitors. Captopril reduced TF expression in endotoxin-stimulated mononuclear leukocytes, as measured by a 1-stage clotting assay and ELISA analysis, by approximately 60%. The effect was dose-dependent and was attributable to ACE inhibition, given that other ACE inhibitors, such as idrapril or fosinopril, and losartan, an antagonist of the angiotensin II AT(1) receptor, caused a comparable reduction in TF activity. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction indicated that endotoxin-mediated increased levels of TF mRNA were inhibited by ACE inhibitors. Moreover, endotoxin-induced nuclear factor-kappaB translocation to the promoter region of the gene encoding for TF was markedly inhibited by captopril. The finding that ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II AT(1) antagonists can potentially modulate TF expression by mononuclear cells has important biological and therapeutic implications for the evolution of thrombi. Our results suggest that the anti-ischemic effect of these drugs might be explained, at least in part, by their ability to reduce TF expression in monocytes.
Circulation Research 03/2000; 86(2):139-43. · 11.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that cirrhotic patients produce increased amounts of thrombin but the underlying mechanism is still unknown.
To analyse the relation between the rate of thrombin generation and monocyte expression of tissue factor (TF) in cirrhosis.
Thirty three cirrhotic patients classified as having low (n = 7), moderate (n = 17), or severe (n = 9) liver failure according to Child-Pugh criteria.
Prothrombin fragment F1 + 2, monocyte TF activity and antigen, and endotoxaemia were measured in all patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of TF mRNA was performed in monocytes of five cirrhotic patients.
Prothrombin fragment F1 + 2 was higher in cirrhotic patients than in controls (p < 0.0001). Monocytes from cirrhotic patients had higher TF activity and antigen than those from controls (p < 0.001) with a progressive increase from low to severe liver failure. Monocyte expression of TF was significantly correlated with plasma levels of F1 + 2 (TF activity: r = 0.98, p < 0.0001; TF antigen: r = 0.95, p < 0.0001) and with endotoxaemia (TF activity: r = 0.94, p < 0.0001; TF antigen: r = 0.91, p < 0.0001). PCR analysis of TF mRNA showed TF expression only in three patients with endotoxaemia (more than 15 pg/ml).
Cirrhotic patients have enhanced expression of TF which could be responsible for clotting activation, suggesting that endotoxaemia might play a pivotal role.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Following tissue injury, blood components come into contact with the subendothelial tissue, a thrombogenic surface. Tissue factor, found in the media and adventitia of the vascular wall, or available on the membrane of activated monocytes and endothelial cells, triggers blood coagulation. A complex interaction between soluble molecules and cells then takes place, a fibrin mesh is formed, and the resulting clot limits or stops the loss of blood. Platelets, monocytes, and endothelial cells co-localize and interact in the area of vascular injury. This close relationship, which is regulated by an array of cell-cell adhesion molecules, favours the modulation of the biochemical pathways of these cells. The aim of this review is to summarize the contribution of these cells and their interactions in tissue factor expression and its possible relevance in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monocytes and endothelial cells interact at sites of vascular injury during inflammatory response, thrombosis, and development of atherosclerotic lesions. Such interactions result in modulation of several biological functions of the two cell types. Because both cells, on appropriate stimulation, synthesize tissue factor (TF), we examined the effect of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC)/monocyte coculture on the expression of TF. We found that the coincubation resulted in TF generation, which was maximal at 4 hours, increased with increasing numbers of monocytes, and required mRNA and protein synthesis. Supernatant from HUVEC/monocyte coculture induced TF activity in HUVECs, but not in monocytes, indicating that HUVEC were the cells responsible for the activity, and that soluble mediators were involved. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), well-known inducers of TF in HUVECs, were found in the supernatant from the coculture, and specific antibodies directed against either cytokine inhibited TF generation. The need of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha synthesis in order to elicit TF expression was also suggested by the delay observed in TF mRNA formation and TF activity generation when monocytes were incubated with HUVECs. IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha antigen levels in the coculture supernatant, and, consequently, HUVEC TF expression, were inhibited in the presence of anti-CD18 monoclonal antibody. These findings emphasize the role of cell-cell contact and cross-talk in the procoagulant activity, which could be responsible for the thromboembolic complications observed in those vascular disorders in which monocyte infiltration is a common feature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAECs) in culture constitutively secrete polypeptide (endothelium-derived) growth factors (EDGFs) into the surrounding medium. Incubation of PAECs with human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) caused a significant increase in EDGF release as assessed by [3H]thymidine incorporation into BALB/c 3T3 mouse fibroblasts and cell proliferation assay. The effect was time dependent and correlated with the number of PMNs, reaching a maximum with a 1:1 PAEC to PMN ratio. Generation of mitogenic activity was prevented by cycloheximide, indicating a requirement for de novo protein synthesis. Antibody-mediated inhibition assays suggested that mitogenic activity was due to platelet-derived growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. When supernatant from N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-stimulated PMNs was substituted for PMNs during incubation with PAECs, powerful mitogenic activity was generated, indicating the involvement of soluble mediators. A role for free oxygen radicals was ruled out by experiments in which superoxide dismutase and catalase did not prevent the increase in mitogenic activity. By contrast, serine protease inhibitors such as soybean trypsin inhibitor, alpha 1-antitrypsin, and eglin C reduced the PMN-stimulating activity by 70%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. The possible involvement of cathepsin G and elastase was investigated. Cathepsin G and elastase, when substituted for PMNs, increased the release of EDGFs in a dose-dependent fashion, mimicking the effect of PMNs. These findings suggest a new role for leukocyte-vessel wall interactions in the proliferative feature of atherosclerosis.
Arteriosclerosis and thrombosis: a journal of vascular biology / American Heart Association 02/1994; 14(1):125-32.