[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Precise perioperative risk stratification is important in vascular surgery patients who are at high risk for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) peri- and postoperatively. In clinical practice, the patient's perioperative risk is predicted by various indicators, e.g. revised cardiac index (RCRI) or modifications thereof. Patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD) are stratified into a higher risk category. We hypothesized that Copeptin as a novel biomarker for hemodynamic stress could help to improve the prediction of perioperative cardiovascular events in patients undergoing vascular surgery including patients with chronic kidney disease.
477 consecutive patients undergoing abdominal aortic, peripheral arterial or carotid surgery from June 2007 to October 2012 were prospectively enrolled. Primary endpoint was 30-day postoperative major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE).
41 patients reached the primary endpoint, including 63.4% aortic, 26.8% carotid, and 9.8% peripheral surgeries. Linear regression analysis showed that RCRI (P< .001), pre- (P< .001), postoperative Copeptin (P< .001) and Copeptin level change (P= .001) were associated with perioperative MACE, but CKD remained independently associated with MACE and Copeptin levels. Multivariate regression showed that increased Copeptin levels added risk predictive information to the RCRI (P= .003). Especially in the intermediate RCRI categories was Copeptin significantly associated with the occurrence of MACE. (P< .05 Kruskal Wallis test). Subdivision of the study cohort into CKD stages revealed that preoperative Copeptin was significantly associated with CKD stages (P< .0001) and preoperative Copeptin measurements could not predict MACE in patients with more severe CKD stages.
Preoperative Copeptin loses its risk predictive potential for perioperative MACE in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing vascular surgery.
PLoS ONE 04/2015; 10(4):e0123093. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0123093 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Pericytes surround endothelial cells at the perivascular interface. Signaling between endothelial cells and pericytes is crucial for capillary homeostasis, as pericytes stabilize vessels and regulate many microvascular functions. Recently it has been shown that pericytes are able to detach from the vascular wall and contribute to fibrosis by becoming scar-forming myofibroblasts in many organs including the kidney. At the same time, the loss of pericytes within the perivascular compartment results in vulnerable capillaries which are prone to instability, pathological angiogenesis, and, ultimately, rarefaction.
This review will give an overview of pericyte-endothelial cell interactions, summarize the signaling pathways that have been identified to be involved in pericyte detachment from the vascular wall, and present pathological endothelial responses in the context of disease of the kidney.
Journal of Vascular Research 09/2014; 51(4):247-258. DOI:10.1159/000365149 · 2.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myocardial infarction after major surgery is frequent, drives outcome, and consumes health resources. Specific prediction and detection of perioperative myocardial infarction is an unmet clinical need. With the widespread use of high-sensitive cardiac troponin T assays, positive tests become frequent, but their diagnostic or prognostic impact is arguable. We, therefore, studied the association of routinely determined pre- and postoperative high-sensitive cardiac troponin T with the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events.
This study was a prospective noninterventional trial.
This study was conducted at Hannover Medical School in Germany.
A total of 455 patients undergoing open vascular surgery were followed for 30 days for the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events.
Preoperative and 24-hour postoperative high-sensitive cardiac troponin T measurements and the respective changes were correlated to medical history and the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and ischemia). Pre- and postoperative high-sensitive cardiac troponin T measurements demonstrated a majority of patients with detectable troponin levels preoperatively and an increase over the 24 hours after surgery. The level of high-sensitive cardiac troponin T was significantly associated with preexisting diseases that constitute the Lee's Revised Cardiac Risk Index. A preoperative high-sensitive cardiac troponin T greater than or equal to 17.8 ng/L and a perioperative high-sensitive cardiac troponin T change greater than or equal to 6.3 ng/L are independently associated with the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events. Adding high-sensitive cardiac troponin T absolute change to the Revised Cardiac Risk Index improves the risk predictive accuracy of the score as evidenced by increased area under receiver operating characteristic and significant reclassification effects.
The risk predictive power of high-sensitive cardiac troponin T change in addition to the Revised Cardiac Risk Index could facilitate 1) detection of patients at highest risk for perioperative myocardial ischemia, 2) evaluation and development of cardioprotective therapeutic strategies, and 3) decisions for admission to and discharge from high-density care units.
Critical care medicine 02/2014; 42(6). DOI:10.1097/CCM.0000000000000249 · 6.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is caused by arterial or nervous obstruction because of skeletal or muscular anomalies and hypertrophies. Congenital rib anomalies occur with low incidences (0.15-0.31%), predominantly affect the right side and are normally diagnosed at a young age or remain asymptomatic throughout life. Here, we report on the unusual case of a 71-year-old female patient with subacute ischemia of the left arm due to a TOS resulting from Srb anomaly, a very rare congenital rib anomaly.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
At present the generation of a small-calibre (≤5 mm) vascular replacement for artificial bypasses remains a challenge for tissue engineering. The biocompatibility of bioartificial vessel replacements is of decisive significance for function and depends on the materials used. A completely autologous vessel substitute must exhibit high biocompatibility and functionality. For this purpose we developed and optimised a technique for the engineering of an autologous bypass material from a fibrin scaffold and vascular cells isolated from the same sample of peripheral blood in a porcine model.
Materials and methods:
Fibrinogen, late outgrowth endothelial and smooth muscle cells were isolated from peripheral blood samples (n=14, 100 mL each). Fibroblasts were isolated from porcine aortic adventitial tissue (n=4). Tubular seeded fibrin segments were obtained using an injection moulding technique with the simultaneous incorporation of the in vitro expanded cells into the fibrin matrix. The segments were cultivated under dynamic conditions with pulsatile perfusion in a bioreactor. Morphological and functional characterization was done.
Artificial vascular segments with a length of 150 mm were reproducibly obtained with a hierarchical arrangement of incorporated cells similar to the structure of the vascular wall. By additional seeding of fibroblasts, suturable segments with biomechanical properties suitable for implantation into the arterial system were obtained.
Implantable bioartificial vascular grafts can be generated from blood. After cultivation under dynamic conditions the vascular segments possess a structure similar to that of the vascular wall and exhibit biomechanical properties sufficient for implantation as arterial substitutes.
Zentralblatt für Chirurgie 01/2013; 138(2). DOI:10.1055/s-0032-1315112 · 1.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
We report on a 62-year-old gentleman presenting at our urological department with an advanced renal cell cancer of the right kidney (10 cm in diameter), with an extensive caval vein thrombus (level IV) and bilateral pulmonary metastases. Another suspicious lesion at the left hemithorax was radiologically described.
A presurgical, neoadjuvant systemic therapy with sunitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was initiated for 4 cycles in total (50 mg/day; 4 weeks on/2 weeks off). The cytoreductive nephrectomy was performed following the fourth cycle of sunitinib and after a 14-day break. Transesophageal echocardiography was used for intraoperative monitoring of the caval vein thrombus. Systemic treatment with sunitinib was continued 4 weeks after surgery.
A significant reduction in tumor size, metastatic sites and down-staging of IVC from level IV to level III according to Novick classification was achieved.
Significant down-staging of the tumor caval vein thrombus which initially reached the right atrium enabled us to perform surgery limited to the abdominal cavity without extracorporeal circulation nor hypothermia.
World Journal of Urology 09/2012; 32(1). DOI:10.1007/s00345-012-0955-5 · 2.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Surgical site infection (SSI) after vascular surgery is a serious complication increasing morbidity, mortality, and costs for healthcare systems. A 4-year retrospective cohort study was performed in a university hospital with patients who had undergone arterial vascular surgery below the aortic arch. Investigated variables included demographics and clinical data. Forty-four of 756 patients experienced SSI, 29 of which were superficial, five were deep, and 10 had organ/space infections. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (22%), enterococci (20%), and Staphylococcus aureus (18%) were the most common pathogens. Independent risk factors for SSIs were femoral grafting [odds ratio (OR) 6·7], peripheral atherosclerotic disease, Fontaine stages III-IV (OR 4·1), postoperative drainage >5 days (OR 3·6), immunosuppression (OR 2·8), duration of operation >214 min (OR 2·8), and body mass index >29 (OR 2·6). The application of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis was an independent protective factor (OR 0·2). Patients with certain risk factors for SSIs warrant special attention for infection prevention.
Epidemiology and Infection 08/2012; 141(6):1-7. DOI:10.1017/S095026881200180X · 2.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate procedural and 30-day outcomes of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) employing the Valiant Thoracic Stent Graft with the Captivia Delivery System.
Enrollment in the study ( www.ClinicalTrials.com identifier NCT01181947) included all eligible patients implanted with the Valiant Captivia System retrospectively and prospectively at 15 sites in Europe and Turkey between October 2009 and June 2010. In the 100 treated patients (81 men; mean age 64.6 ± 12.0 years, range 25-87), indications included descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA, 49.0%) and aortic dissection (42.0%).
Technical success was 100.0%, with no misaligned deployments or aortic perforations. Mean follow-up was 68.9 ± 34.9 days (range 20-147, median 61). The 30-day rate of all-cause mortality was 4.0% (all 4 cases procedure-related, 3 device-related). Retrograde type A dissection occurred in 2 patients. The only conversion to open surgery was successful in a patient experiencing intraoperative aneurysm rupture. Stroke occurred in 4 (4.0%) patients and paraplegia in 1 (1.0%). Among 66 patients with 30-day imaging studies evaluable for endoleak, 4 (6.1%) had type I and 7 (10.6%) had type II endoleak; there were no types III or IV. Within 30 days, no secondary endovascular procedures were required due to endoleak. One patient with type II endoleak died 3 weeks postimplantation before scheduled embolization.
In this analysis of procedural and 30-day results, the high technical success and clinical outcome rates showed that the Valiant Thoracic Stent Graft with the new Captivia Delivery System has promising capacity to treat a variety of thoracic aortic conditions in a range of anatomies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the in vitro efficacy of graft impregnation with nebacetin versus rifampin versus daptomycin against vascular graft infections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus and nebacetin versus rifampin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli.
Twenty-three Dacron-grafts (1 cm2) for each micro-organism were microbiologically tested and eight grafts per antibiotic underwent viability tests against human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECs). Fifteen grafts (5/antibiotic agent) underwent 15 min impregnation and contamination with 4 ml bacterial solution (optical density (OD (600 nm)): 0.20 ± 0.02). After 24-h-incubation, all grafts were washed with phosphate-buffered saline and underwent sonification to release viable adherent bacteria. OD (600 nm) of the solution was measured. Afterwards, six 1:10 dilution steps took place and colony-forming units (CFUs) were counted.
Nebacetin showed comparable efficacy to daptomycin against Gram-positive bacteria. Both eradicated more efficiently S. epidermidis than rifampin (daptomycin:0, rifampin:5 ± 7.3, nebacetin:0 CFU ml(-1), P = 0.0003). All antibiotics showed comparable antibacterial activity against S. aureus. Nebacetin was more efficient than rifampin to eradicate Gram-negative organisms (P. aeruginosa: rifampin:1308 ± 252, nebacetin:8 ± 8 CFU ml(-1), P = 0.01, E. coli: rifampin:294 ± 159, nebacetin:0.2 ± 0.5 CFU ml(-1), P = 0.001), while only rifampin was toxic against ECs (daptomycin:30.88 ± 5.44, rifampin:5.13 ± 5.08, nebacetin:28.50 ± 3.82 ECs/field, P = 0.0003).
Nebacetin showed excellent in vitro antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and -negative pathogens representing an effective candidate for vascular graft impregnation.
European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery: the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery 01/2012; 43(4):448-56. DOI:10.1016/j.ejvs.2011.12.029 · 2.49 Impact Factor