P Kienbaum

Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Are you P Kienbaum?

Claim your profile

Publications (54)193.46 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: RATIONALEDue to the favorable pharmacokinetic properties and minimal side effects of xenon, its use in modern anesthesia has been well accepted, and recent studies further demonstrated the intra- and postoperative neuro-, cardio-, and reno-protective action of the noble gas. Since the production of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and its downstream effector erythropoietin as well as noradrenalin reuptake inhibition have been found to play key roles in this context, the question arose as to whether the use of xenon is a matter for doping controls and preventive doping research. The aim of the present study was hence to evaluate whether the (ab)use of xenon can be detected from doping control samples with the instrumentation commonly available in sports drug testing laboratories.METHODS Plasma was saturated with xenon according to reported protocols, and the target analyte was measured by means of gas chromatography/time-of-flight and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry with headspace injection. Recording the accurate mass of three major xenon isotopes at m/z 128.9048, 130.9045 and 131.9042 allowed for the unequivocal identification of the analyte and the detection assay was characterized concerning limit of detection (LOD), intraday precision, and specificity as well as analyte recovery under different storage conditions.RESULTSXenon was detected in fortified plasma samples with detection limits of approximately 0.5 nmol/mL to 50 nmol/mL, depending on the type of mass spectrometer used. The method characteristics of intraday precision (coefficient of variation <20%) and specificity demonstrated the fitness-for-purpose of the analytical approach to unambiguously detect xenon at non-physiological concentrations in human plasma and blood. Eventually, authentic plasma and blood samples collected pre-, intra-, and post-operative (4, 8, and 24 h) were positively analyzed after storage for up to 30 h, and provided proof-of-concept for the developed assay.CONCLUSIONS If relevant to doping controls, xenon can be determined from plasma and blood samples, i.e. common specimens of routine sports drug testing in the context of Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) analyses. Optimization of sampling and analytical procedures will allow the detection limit to be further improved and potentially enable accurate quantification of the anesthetic agent. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 07/2014; 28(13). · 2.51 Impact Factor
  • T A Treschan, P Kienbaum
    Der Anaesthesist 05/2014; · 0.85 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background. Dislocation of epidural catheters (EC) is associated with early termination of regional analgesia and rare complications like epidural bleeding. We tested the hypothesis that maximum effort in fixation by tunneling and suture decreases the incidence of catheter dislocation. Methods. Patients scheduled for major surgery (n = 121) were prospectively randomized in 2 groups. Thoracic EC were subcutaneously tunneled and sutured (tunneled) or fixed with adhesive tape (taped). The difference of EC length at skin surface level immediately after insertion and before removal was determined and the absolute values were averaged. Postoperative pain was evaluated by numeric rating scale twice daily and EC tips were screened microbiologically after removal. Results. Both groups did not differ with respect to treatment duration (tunneled: 109 hours ±46, taped: 97 ± 37) and postoperative pain scores. Tunneling significantly reduced average extent (tunneled: 3 mm ±7, taped: 10 ± 18) and incidence of clinically relevant EC dislocation (>20 mm, tunneled: 1/60, taped: 9/61). Bacterial contamination showed a tendency to be lower in patients with tunneled catheters (8/59, taped: 14/54, P = 0.08). Conclusion. Thorough fixation of EC by tunneling and suturing decreases the incidence and extent of dislocation and potentially even that of bacterial contamination.
    TheScientificWorldJournal. 01/2014; 2014:610635.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) of the lungs facilitates visualization of ventilation distribution during mechanical ventilation. Its intraoperative use could provide the basis for individual optimization of ventilator settings, especially in patients at risk for ventilation-perfusion mismatch and impaired gas exchange, such as patients undergoing major open upper abdominal surgery. EIT throughout major open upper abdominal surgery could encounter difficulties in belt positioning and signal quality. Thus, we conducted a pilot-study and tested whether EIT is feasible in patients undergoing major open upper abdominal surgery.
    BMC Anesthesiology 01/2014; 14:51. · 1.19 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pre-hospital hypotension in trauma patients is associated with high mortality. Especially for patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), arterial normotension or even hypertension (AHT) is considered an important mechanism for sustaining adequate cerebral perfusion pressure. The effect of pre-hospital arterial hypertension (pAHT) on in-hospital mortality after trauma has not been studied to date. We retrospectively analyzed data in the trauma registry of the German Society for Trauma Surgery (DGU) on all trauma patients in Germany from 1993 to 2008 who were 16 to 80 years old at the time of the trauma and had an injury severity score (ISS) of 9 or above (total, 42 500 patient data sets). For the analysis, we divided the patients into two groups: those with and those without TBI. We further divided the TBI patients into five subgroups depending on the course of their systolic blood pressure up to the moment of their arrival at the hospital. We also analyzed the patients' demographic data, patterns of injury, and accident mechanisms. Trauma patients with TBI and pAHT (142 of 561 patients) had a significantly higher mortality than normotensive TBI patients (25.3% vs. 13.5%, p<0.001). Arterial hypertension that either rises or falls before the patient reaches the hospital is associated with higher in-hospital mortality. A logistical regression analysis of 5384 patients revealed that patients with pAHT (n = 561) had an odds ratio of 1.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 1.6) for death in the hospital compared to normotensive patients (n = 6020). Systolic blood pressure values above 160 mm Hg before arrival in the hospital worsen the outcome of trauma patients with TBI.
    Deutsches Ärzteblatt International 12/2012; 109(49):849-56. · 3.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Strategies to protect the brain from postoperative delirium (POD) after hip fracture are urgently needed. The development of delirium often is associated with the loss of independence, poor functional recovery, and increased morbidity, as well as increases in length of hospital stay, discharges to nursing facilities, and healthcare costs. We hypothesize that xenon may reduce the burden of POD, (i) by avoiding the need to provide anesthesia with a drug that targets the gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA)A receptor and (ii) through beneficial anesthetic and organ-protective effects.Methods and designAn international, multicenter, phase 2, prospective, randomized, blinded, parallel group and controlled trial to evaluate the incidence of POD, diagnosed with the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), in older patients undergoing hip fracture surgery under general anesthesia with xenon or sevoflurane, for a period of 4 days post surgery (primary outcome) is planned. Secondary objectives are to compare the incidence of POD between xenon and sevoflurane, to evaluate the incidence of POD from day 5 post surgery until discharge from hospital, to determine the time to first POD diagnosis, to evaluate the duration of POD, to evaluate the evolution of the physiological status of the patients in the postoperative period, to evaluate the recovery parameters, to collect preliminary data to evaluate the economical impact of POD in the postoperative period and to collect safety data. Patients are eligible if they are older aged (>= 75 years) and assigned to a planned hip fracture surgery within 48 h after the hip fracture. Furthermore, patients need to be willing and able to complete the requirements of this study including the signature of the written informed consent. A total of 256 randomized patients in the 10 participating centers will be recruited, that is, 128 randomized patients in each of the 2 study groups (receiving either xenon or sevoflurane).Trial registrationEudraCT Identifier: 2009-017153-35; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01199276.
    Trials 09/2012; 13(1):180. · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: /st>Intraoperative hypotension is associated with increased risk of perioperative complications. The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDA-R) antagonist xenon (Xe) induces general anaesthesia without impairment of cardiac output and vascular resistance. Mechanisms involved in cardiovascular stability have not been identified. METHODS: /st>Muscle sympathetic activity (MSA) (microneurography), sympathetic baroreflex gain, norepinephrine (NE) plasma concentration (high-performance liquid chromatography), anaesthetic depth (Narcotrend(®) EEG monitoring), and vital parameters were analysed in vivo during Xe mono-anaesthesia in human volunteers (n=8). In vitro, NE transporter (NET) expressing HEK293 cells and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were pre-treated with ketamine, MK-801, NMDA/glycine, or vehicle. Subsequently, cells were incubated with or without Xe (65%). NE uptake was measured by using a fluorescent NET substrate (n=4) or [(3)H]NE (n=6). RESULTS: /st>In vivo, Xe anaesthesia increased mean (standard deviation) arterial pressure from 93 (4) to 107 (6) mm Hg and NE plasma concentration from 156 (55) to 292 (106) pg ml(-1), P<0.01. MSA and baroreflex gain were unaltered. In vitro, ketamine decreased NET activity (P<0.01) in NET-expressing HEK293 cells, while Xe, MK-801, and NMDA/glycine did not. Xe reduced uptake in SH-SY5Y cells expressing NET and NMDA-Rs (P<0.01). MK-801 (P<0.01) and ketamine (P<0.01) also reduced NET activity, but NMDA/glycine blocked the effect of Xe on [(3)H]NE uptake. CONCLUSIONS: /st>In vivo, Xe anaesthesia does not alter sympathetic activity and baroreflex gain, despite increased mean arterial pressure. In vitro, Xe decreases the uptake of NE in neuronal cells by the inhibition of NET. This inhibition might be related to NMDA-R antagonism and explain increased NE concentrations at the synaptic cleft and in plasma, contributing to cardiovascular stability during Xe anaesthesia.
    BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 09/2012; · 4.24 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prolonged postoperative decrease in lung function is common after major upper abdominal surgery. Evidence suggests that ventilation with low tidal volumes may limit the damage during mechanical ventilation. We compared postoperative lung function of patients undergoing upper abdominal surgery, mechanically ventilated with high or low tidal volumes. This was a double-blind, prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial. One hundred and one patients (age ≥ 50 yr, ASA ≥ II, duration of surgery ≥ 3 h) were ventilated with: (i) high [12 ml kg(-1) predicted body weight (PBW)] or (ii) low (6 ml kg(-1) PBW) tidal volumes intraoperatively. The positive end-expiratory pressure was 5 cm H(2)O in both groups and breathing frequency adjusted to normocapnia. Time-weighted averages (TWAs) of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) until 120 h after operation were compared (P<0.025 considered statistically significant). Secondary outcomes were oxygenation, respiratory and non-respiratory complications, length of stay and mortality. The mean (sd) values of TWAs of FVC and FEV(1) were similar in both groups: FVC: 6 ml group 1.8 (0.7) litre vs 12 ml group 1.6 (0.5) litre (P=0.12); FEV(1): 6 ml group 1.4 (0.5) litre vs 12 ml group 1.2 (0.4) litre (P=0.15). FVC and FEV(1) at any single time point and secondary outcomes did not differ significantly between groups. Prolonged impaired lung function after major abdominal surgery is not ameliorated by low tidal volume ventilation.
    BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 06/2012; 109(2):263-71. · 4.24 Impact Factor
  • P Kienbaum
    Der Anaesthesist 05/2012; 61(5):399-400. · 0.85 Impact Factor
  • P Kienbaum
    Der Anaesthesist 03/2012; 61(3):191-2. · 0.85 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Desmopressin (DDAVP) and fibrinogen improve platelet function and clot stability. We investigated the influence of DDAVP and fibrinogen on whole blood coagulation in an in vitro model of hypothermia and acidosis. After IRB approval and written consent blood samples were taken from 10 healthy volunteers. Samples were prepared with hydrochloric acid to maintain--beside normal pH--reduced pH (∼7.2) and severely reduced pH (∼7.0), and were assigned to four treatment groups: addition of either isotonic saline for compensation of dilutional effects (ISO), desmopressin (DDAVP+), fibrinogen (FIB+), or both substances (DDAVP+FIB+). Baseline was ISO at 37°C and normal pH. Remaining samples were incubated for 30 min and measured at 32°. Rotation thrombelastometry (ROTEM) after extrinsically activation and fibrin polymerization was tested. Repeated measures ANOVA were performed (p < 0.05). Hypothermia and acidosis synergistically impaired whole blood coagulation. DDAVP+ normalized maximum clot firmness (MCF) at normal pH. Coagulation time (CT) was not affected. FIB+ normalized MCF at pH 7.35 and pH 7.2. CT was normalized independently of pH. DDAVP+FIB+ did not show additional effects to FIB+. Fibrin polymerization was increased by FIB+ and DDAVP+FIB+ independently of pH. DDAVP+ did not alter fibrin polymerization. DDAVP and fibrinogen increased whole blood coagulation under hypothermia. Acidosis diminished this effect. Thus, acidosis should be corrected first and then both substances could be used for bridging until normothermia can be achieved. In combination, the effects of fibrinogen were overwhelming DDAVP effects. Thus, combined administration did not show any benefit compared to fibrinogen administration alone.
    Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation 07/2011; 71(4):292-8. · 1.38 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch (HH) has been recommended for first line treatment of hemorrhagic shock. Its effects on coagulation are unclear. We studied in vitro effects of HH dilution on whole blood coagulation and platelet function. Furthermore 7.2% hypertonic saline, 6% hydroxyethylstarch (as ingredients of HH), and 0.9% saline solution (as control) were tested in comparable dilutions to estimate specific component effects of HH on coagulation. The study was designed as experimental non-randomized comparative in vitro study. Following institutional review board approval and informed consent blood samples were taken from 10 healthy volunteers and diluted in vitro with either HH (HyperHaes, Fresenius Kabi, Germany), hypertonic saline (HT, 7.2% NaCl), hydroxyethylstarch (HS, HAES6%, Fresenius Kabi, Germany) or NaCl 0.9% (ISO) in a proportion of 5%, 10%, 20% and 40%. Coagulation was studied in whole blood by rotation thrombelastometry (ROTEM) after thromboplastin activation without (ExTEM) and with inhibition of thrombocyte function by cytochalasin D (FibTEM), the latter was performed to determine fibrin polymerisation alone. Values are expressed as maximal clot firmness (MCF, [mm]) and clotting time (CT, [s]). Platelet aggregation was determined by impedance aggregrometry (Multiplate) after activation with thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6 (TRAP) and quantified by the area under the aggregation curve (AUC [aggregation units (AU)/min]). Scanning electron microscopy was performed to evaluate HyperHaes induced cell shape changes of thrombocytes.Statistics: 2-way ANOVA for repeated measurements, Bonferroni post hoc test, p < 0.01. Dilution impaired whole blood coagulation and thrombocyte aggregation in all dilutions in a dose dependent fashion. In contrast to dilution with ISO and HS, respectively, dilution with HH as well as HT almost abolished coagulation (MCFExTEM from 57.3 ± 4.9 mm (native) to 1.7 ± 2.2 mm (HH 40% dilution; p < 0.0001) and to 6.6 ± 3.4 mm (HT 40% dilution; p < 0.0001) and thrombocyte aggregation (AUC from 1067 ± 234 AU/mm (native) to 14.5 ± 12.5 AU/mm (HH 40% dilution; p < 0.0001) and to 20.4 ± 10.4 AU/min (HT 40% dilution; p < 0.0001) without differences between HH and HT (MCF: p = 0.452; AUC: p = 0.449). HH impairs platelet function during in vitro dilution already at 5% dilution. Impairment of whole blood coagulation is significant after 10% dilution or more. This effect can be pinpointed to the platelet function impairing hypertonic saline component and to a lesser extend to fibrin polymerization inhibition by the colloid component or dilution effects.Accordingly, repeated administration and overdosage should be avoided.
    Scandinavian Journal of Trauma Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 02/2011; 19:12. · 1.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: the constantly growing amount of different kinds of colloid fluids necessitates comparative investigations with regards to the safety and effectivity in clinical use of these preparations. Hence we compared three colloid fluids in an observational study. The objective was the exploration of the influence of these three colloids on blood coagulation, hemodynamics and renal function of the cardiac surgical patient. we included 90 patients undergoing an elective open-heart surgery with the use of the heart-lung machine and observed them consecutively. Group 1 [gelatin 4% (n = 30)], Group 2 [HES 200/0,5 (n = 30)] and Group 3 [HES 130/0,42 (n = 30)]. We measured the perioperative volume replacement, the administration of blood- and coagulation-products, the application of catecholamines, the renal function, blood gas and the platelet aggregation using multiplate electrode analyzer (Multiplate, Dynabyte medical, Munich, Germany). the gelatin-group needed significantly more norepinephrine than the HES 130/0.42 group. The responsible surgeon considered the blood coagulation in the HES 200/0.5 group most frequently as impaired. Furthermore we saw a significant decrease in platelet function in the HES 200/0.5 group when performing the multiplate-analysis (ADP-and COL-test). HES 130/0.4 as well as gelatin 4% showed no significant change in platelet function. The gelatin-group and the HES 200/0.5 needed significantly more aprotinine than the HES 130/0.4 group. We saw no significant difference with regards to administration of blood and coagulation products between the three groups. The urinary excretion during the intervention was significantly higher in the HES 200/0.5 group and in the gelatin group than in the HES 130/0.4 group. our results confirm the lower stabilizing effect of gelatin on circulation during fluid resuscitation. The blood coagulation was mostly impaired due to HES 200/0.5 confirmed by the multiplate®-analysis as well as by different clinical findings.
    European journal of medical research 09/2010; 15(9):383-9. · 1.10 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY: Hypothermia and acidosis lead to an impairment of coagulation. It has been demonstrated that desmopressin improves platelet function under hypothermia. We tested platelet function ex vivo during hypothermia and acidosis. Blood samples were taken from 12 healthy subjects and assigned as follows: normal pH, pH 7.2, and pH 7.0, each with and without incubation with desmopressin. Platelet aggregation was assessed by multiple electrode aggregometry. Baseline was normal pH and 36 degrees C. The other samples were incubated for 30 min and measured at 32 degrees C. Acidosis significantly impaired aggregation. Desmopressin significantly increased aggregability during hypothermia and acidosis regardless of pH, but did not return it to normal values at low pH. During acidosis and hypothermia, acidosis should be corrected first; desmopressin can then be administered to improve platelet function as a bridge until normothermia can be achieved.
    Anaesthesia 07/2010; 65(7):688-91. · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Updated cardiologic guidelines constitute the background for an extended spectrum of indications for the implantation of automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillators (AICDs) and lead to an increasing number of operative implantations of AICDs. Moreover, during implantation of devices for cardiac resynchronization therapy the anesthesiologist is responsible for the most critically ill patients with the longest duration of surgery. As a result anesthesiologists face an increasing number of critically ill patients, whose management contributes to perioperative outcome. Automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillators can be implanted either during general anesthesia, local anesthesia or during a combination of local anesthesia combined with deep conscious sedation accomplished by an anesthesiologist. Besides economic aspects there is an increasing demand for anesthesia with the least cardiovascular side effects and rapid recovery in the often seriously ill patient with preexisting limitations of cardiac and pulmonary functions. Accordingly procedure and anesthesia-associated risks are reviewed and an algorithm for anesthesia management is suggested.
    Der Anaesthesist 06/2010; 59(6):507-18. · 0.85 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sympathetic stimulation leads to a change in electrical skin impedance. So far it is unclear whether this effect can be used to measure the effects of anaesthetics during general anaesthesia. The aim of this prospective study is to determine the electrical skin impedance during induction of anaesthesia for coronary artery bypass surgery with fentanyl and etomidate. The electrical skin impedance was measured with the help of an electro-sympathicograph (ESG). In 47 patients scheduled for elective cardiac surgery, anaesthesia was induced with intravenous fentanyl 10 mug/kg and etomidate 0.3mg/kg. During induction, the ESG (Electrosympathicograph), BIS (Bispectral IndeX), BP (arterial blood pressure) and HR (heart rate) values of each patient were recorded every 20 seconds.The observation period from administration of fentanyl to intubation for surgery lasted 4 min. - The ESG recorded significant changes in the electrical skin impedance after administration of fentanyl and etomidate(p <0.05). During induction of anaesthesia, significant changes of BIS, HR and blood pressure were observed as well (p <0.05). The electrical skin impedance measurement may be used to monitor the effects of anesthetics during general anaesthesia.
    European journal of medical research 02/2010; 15(2):47-53. · 1.10 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Serious thrombembolic events occur in otherwise healthy marathon athletes during competition. We tested the hypothesis that during heavy endurance sports coagulation and platelets are activated depending on the type of endurance sport with respect to its running fraction. 68 healthy athletes participating in marathon (MAR, running 42 km, n = 24), triathlon (TRI, swimming 2.5 km + cycling 90 km + running 21 km, n = 22), and long distance cycling (CYC, 151 km, n = 22) were included in the study. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after completion of competition to perform rotational thrombelastometry. We assessed coagulation time (CT), maximum clot firmness (MCF) after intrinsically activation and fibrin polymerization (FIBTEM). Furthermore, platelet aggregation was tested after activation with ADP and thrombin activating peptide 6 (TRAP) by using multiple platelet function analyzer. Complete data sets were obtained in 58 athletes (MAR: n = 20, TRI: n = 19, CYC: n = 19). CT significantly decreased in all groups (MAR -9.9%, TRI -8.3%, CYC -7.4%) without differences between groups. In parallel, MCF (MAR +7.4%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3%) and fibrin polymerization (MAR +14.7%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3%) were significantly increased in all groups. However, platelets were only activated during MAR and TRI as indicated by increased AUC during TRAP-activation (MAR +15.8%) and increased AUC during ADP-activation in MAR (+50.3%) and TRI (+57.5%). While coagulation is activated during physical activity irrespective of type we observed significant platelet activation only during marathon and to a lesser extent during triathlon. We speculate that prolonged running may increase platelet activity, possibly, due to mechanical alteration. Thus, particularly prolonged running may increase the risk of thrombembolic incidents in running athletes.
    European journal of medical research 02/2010; 15(2):59-65. · 1.10 Impact Factor
  • Martin Neukirchen, Peter Kienbaum
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: For more than 100 yr, scientists have studied the sympathetic nervous system and its cardiovascular control mechanisms. Muscle sympathetic activity is the most important direct and rapidly responding variable for evaluation of sympathetic neural outflow. Because of its significance in response to environmental challenges and its role in cardiovascular control, great attention has been paid to the sympathetic nervous system in both health and disease and, more recently, also during general anesthesia. In fact, general anesthesia can also be considered as an investigational tool to assess mechanisms of cardiovascular regulation. This review evaluates different methods for determination of sympathetic nervous system activity and describes its role in human neurohumoral circulatory control. Furthermore, the effects of general anesthesia on sympathetic nervous system activity and their relevance for clinical anesthesia are discussed.
    Anesthesiology 01/2009; 109(6):1113-31. · 5.16 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patients with septic shock are haemodynamically unstable and suffer from vasodilation. Studying the human forearm vascular bed in patients with septic shock, we tested the hypothesis that the responses to regionally infused endothelium-(in)dependent vasodilators and vasoconstrictors are uniformly impaired. Forearm blood flow (FBF, venous occlusion plethysmography) and brachial arterial pressure were determined to calculate forearm vascular resistance (FVR) in eight consecutive sedated, mechanically ventilated patients with septic shock (APACHE II Score range 21-34, SOFA Score 11-16) and 11 healthy volunteers. Despite increased baseline FBF in patients with septic shock (6.1 (SD 1.5) ml x min(-1) x (100 ml of tissue)(-1) compared to 4.7 (1.4) in volunteers) the significant decreases in FVR seen in response to exogenous nitric oxide (nitroprusside) and acetylcholine did not differ between groups. However, compared to volunteers, mitigation of endogenous nitric oxide production by a low dose of N(G)-methyl-L-arginine acetate (L-NMMA) caused a significant increase (+6.7 mmHg x min x ml(-1)) in septic patients. Regional vasoconstriction in response to phenylephrine (FVR: +9.9 vs +30.7 mmHg x min x ml(-1) in controls) and angiotensin II (FVR: +9.0 vs +67.4 mmHg x min x ml(-1)) was markedly impaired. In contrast, vasopressin, in dosages evoking no vasoconstriction in volunteers, induced a significant increase in FVR in septic patients (+10.0 mmHg x min x ml(-1)). In the forearm of patients with septic shock, vasoconstriction by alpha1- and angiotensin II receptor agonists is selectively impaired, whereas the vasoconstrictor response to vasopressin is exaggerated. These findings exclude a generalised impairment of vasomotor activity in patients with septic shock and provide a rationale for vasopressin administration.
    Anaesthesia 03/2008; 63(2):121-8. · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Critical Care 01/2008; 12. · 4.93 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

560 Citations
193.46 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2014
    • Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf
      • Klinik für Anästhesiologie
      Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2008–2014
    • Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf
      • Klinik für Anästhesiologie
      Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2011
    • Hannover Medical School
      • Clinic for Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine
      Hannover, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 2001–2008
    • University Hospital Essen
      • • Klinik für Anästhesiologie und Intensivmedizin
      • • Klinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie
      Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2001–2007
    • University of Duisburg-Essen
      • Department of Internal and Integrative Medicine
      Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany