Geoffrey L Chupp

Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, United States

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Publications (24)286.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Rationale: Growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) is a secreted vitamin K-dependent protein with pleiotropic effects via activation of receptor tyrosine kinase Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk receptors but little is known about its role in allergic airway disease. Objectives: We investigated the role of Gas6 in the development of fungal allergic airway disease in mice. Methods: The immune response was evaluated in Gas6 deficient (Gas6-/-) and wildtype (WT) mice, and in recombinant Gas6-treated WT mice during Aspergillus fumigatus-induced allergic airway disease. Measurements and Main Results: Gas6 plasma levels were significantly elevated in adult, clinical asthma of all severities compared with non-asthmatics. In a murine model of fungal allergic airway disease, increased protein expression of both Axl and Mertk were observed in the lung. Airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), whole lung Th2 cytokine levels, goblet cell metaplasia, and peribronchial fibrosis were ameliorated in Gas6-/- mice compared with WT mice with fungal allergic airway disease. Intranasal Gas6 administration into WT mice had a divergent effect on airway inflammation and AHR. Specifically, a total dose of 2 μg of exogenous Gas6 (i.e. low dose) significantly increased whole lung Th2 cytokine levels and subsequent AHR, whereas a total dose of 7 μg of exogenous Gas6 (i.e. high dose) significantly suppressed both Th1 and Th2 cytokines and AHR compared with appropriate control groups. Mechanistically, Gas6 promoted Th2 activation via its highest affinity receptor Axl expressed by myeloid DCs. Intranasal administration of Gas6 consistently exacerbated airway remodeling compared with control WT groups. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that Gas6 enhances several features of fungal allergic airway disease.
    American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 05/2014; · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Observational studies suggest that asthma control improves after adenotonsillectomy, but longitudinal studies that correlate the effect of the procedure on the levels of biomarkers associated with airway inflammation are limited.Methods:We conducted a longitudinal, observational study on pediatric patients, both with and without asthma, undergoing adenotonsillectomy. Asthma control test (ACT) scores and chitinase activity in the circulation were measured at time of surgery and at 6-mo follow-up.Results:Sixty-six children with asthma and 64 control subjects were enrolled. Mean ACT scores improved by three points (P < 0.001) after 6 mo. 85% of children with poorly controlled asthma demonstrated an increase in ACT score of at least three points or a decrease in emergency department/urgent care visits, oral corticosteroid courses, or rescue short acting bronchodilator usage. Chitinase activity decreased significantly in asthmatics who improved (P < 0.01). Higher chitinase activity levels at baseline were associated with improved asthma control following surgery (P < 0.01).Conclusion:In children with high preoperative circulating chitinase activity levels, asthma control and healthcare utilization were significantly improved after adenotonsillecotmy. Chitinase activity decreased after surgery in children with improved control. This suggests that adenotonsillectomy modulates chitinase activity, affecting airway inflammation and improving airway disease.Pediatric Research (2014); doi:10.1038/pr.2013.237.
    Pediatric Research 12/2013; · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Allergic airway inflammation contributes to the airway remodelling that has been linked to increased obstruction and morbidity in asthma. However, the mechanisms by which allergens contribute to airway remodelling in humans are not fully established. CCL18, chitotriosidase (CHIT1) and YKL-40 are readily detectable in the lungs and contribute to remodelling in other fibrotic diseases, but their involvement in allergic asthma is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that CCL18, YKL-40 and CHIT1 bioactivity are enhanced in allergic asthma subjects after segmental allergen challenge and are related to increased pro-fibrotic and Th2-associated mediators in the lungs. METHODS: Levels of CCL18 and YKL-40 protein and chitotriosidase (CHIT1) bioactivity in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as CCL18, YKL-40 and CHIT1 mRNA levels in BAL cells were evaluated in patients with asthma at baseline and 48 h after segmental allergen challenge. We also examined the correlation between CCL18 and YKL-40 levels and CHIT1 activity with the levels of other pro-fibrotic factors and chemokines previously shown to be up-regulated after allergen challenge. RESULTS: Chitotriosidase activity and YKL-40 and CCL18 levels were elevated after segmental allergen challenge and these levels correlated with those of other pro-fibrotic factors, T cell chemokines, and inflammatory cells after allergen challenge. CCL18 and YKL-40 mRNA levels also increased in BAL cells after allergen challenge. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Our results suggest that CCL18 and YKL-40 levels and CHIT1 activity are enhanced in allergic airway inflammation and thus may contribute to airway remodelling in asthma.
    Clinical & Experimental Allergy 02/2013; 43(2):187-197. · 4.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kidney hypoperfusion during episodes of systemic hypotension or after surgical procurement for transplantation can lead to tubular cell death via necrosis and apoptosis, which trigger a series of responses that promote repair. The factors that contribute to the repair phase after kidney injury are not well understood. Using a urine proteomic screen in mice, we identified the macrophage-secreted chitinase-like protein Brp-39, the murine protein product of the chitinase 3-like 1 gene, as a critical component of this reparative response that serves to limit tubular cell apoptotic death via activation of Akt, improving animal survival after kidney ischemia/reperfusion. Examination of graded times of renal ischemia revealed a direct correlation between the degree of kidney injury and both Chi3l1/Brp-39 expression in the kidney and its levels in the urine. In samples collected from patients undergoing deceased-donor kidney transplantation, we found higher levels of the orthologous human protein, YKL-40, in urine and blood from allografts subjected to sufficient peri-transplant ischemia to cause delayed graft function than from allografts with slow or immediate graft function. Urinary levels of YKL-40 obtained within hours of transplant predicted the need for subsequent dialysis in these patients. In summary, these data suggest that Brp-39/YKL-40 is a sensor of the degree of injury, a critical mediator of the reparative response, and a possible biomarker to identify patients at greatest risk of sustained renal failure after transplantation.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 01/2013; · 8.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IL-33 and its soluble receptor and cell-associated receptor (ST2L) are all increased in clinical and experimental asthma. The present study addressed the hypothesis that ST2L impairs the therapeutic effects of CpG in a fungal model of asthma. C57BL/6 mice were sensitized to Aspergillus fumigatus and challenged via i.t. instillation with live A. fumigatus conidia. Mice were treated with IgG alone, anti-ST2L monoclonal antibody (mAb) alone, CpG alone, IgG plus CpG, or anti-ST2L mAb plus CpG every other day from day 14 to day 28 and investigated on day 28 after conidia. Lung ST2L and toll-like receptor 9 protein expression levels concomitantly increased in a time-dependent manner during fungal asthma. Therapeutic blockade of ST2L with an mAb attenuated key pathological features of this model. At subtherapeutic doses, neither anti-ST2L mAb nor CpG alone affected fungal asthma severity. However, airway hyperresponsiveness, mucus cell metaplasia, peribronchial fibrosis, and fungus retention were markedly reduced in asthmatic mice treated with the combination of both. Whole lung CXCL9 levels were significantly elevated in the combination group but not in the controls. Furthermore, in asthmatic mice treated with the combination therapy, dendritic cells generated significantly greater IL-12p70 with CpG in vitro compared with control dendritic cells. The combination of anti-ST2L mAb with CpG significantly attenuated experimental asthma, suggesting that targeting ST2L might enhance the therapeutic efficacy of CpG during allergic inflammation.
    American Journal Of Pathology 07/2011; 179(1):104-15. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The exaggerated expression of chitinase-like protein YKL-40, the human homologue of breast regression protein-39 (BRP-39), was reported in a number of diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the in vivo roles of YKL-40 in normal physiology or in the pathogenesis of specific diseases such as COPD remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that BRP-39/YKL-40 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema. To test this hypothesis, 10-week-old wild-type and BRP-39 null mutant mice (BRP-39(-/-)) were exposed to room air (RA) and CS for up to 10 months. The expression of BRP-39 was significantly induced in macrophages, airway epithelial cells, and alveolar Type II cells in the lungs of CS-exposed mice compared with RA-exposed mice, at least in part via an IL-18 signaling-dependent pathway. The null mutation of BRP-39 significantly reduced CS-induced bronchoalveolar lavage and tissue inflammation. However, CS-induced epithelial cell apoptosis and alveolar destruction were further enhanced in the absence of BRP-39. Consistent with these findings in mice, the tissue expression of YKL-40 was significantly increased in the lungs of current smokers compared with the lungs of ex-smokers or nonsmokers. In addition, serum concentrations of YKL-40 were significantly higher in smokers with COPD than in nonsmokers or smokers without COPD. These studies demonstrate a novel regulatory role of BRP-39/YKL-40 in CS-induced inflammation and emphysematous destruction. These studies also underscore that maintaining physiologic concentrations of YKL-40 in the lung is therapeutically important in preventing excessive inflammatory responses or emphysematous alveolar destruction.
    American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 06/2011; 44(6):777-86. · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Asthma exacerbations remain a major unmet clinical need. The difficulty in obtaining airway tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage samples during exacerbations has greatly hampered study of naturally occurring exacerbations. This study was conducted to determine if mRNA profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) could provide information on the systemic molecular pathways involved during asthma exacerbations. Over the course of one year, gene expression levels during stable asthma, exacerbation, and two weeks after an exacerbation were compared using oligonucleotide arrays. For each of 118 subjects who experienced at least one asthma exacerbation, the gene expression patterns in a sample of peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected during an exacerbation episode were compared to patterns observed in multiple samples from the same subject collected during quiescent asthma. Analysis of covariance identified genes whose levels of expression changed during exacerbations and returned to quiescent levels by two weeks. Heterogeneity among visits in expression profiles was examined using K-means clustering. Three distinct exacerbation-associated gene expression signatures were identified. One signature indicated that, even among patients without symptoms of respiratory infection, genes of innate immunity were activated. Antigen-independent T cell activation mediated by IL15 was also indicated by this signature. A second signature revealed strong evidence of lymphocyte activation through antigen receptors and subsequent downstream events of adaptive immunity. The number of genes identified in the third signature was too few to draw conclusions on the mechanisms driving those exacerbations. This study has shown that analysis of PBMCs reveals systemic changes accompanying asthma exacerbation and has laid the foundation for future comparative studies using PBMCs.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(7):e21902. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fungi can exacerbate symptoms in patients with asthma. To our knowledge, genetic risk factors for fungal-associated asthma have not been described. We present here the cases of 6 children who carried the diagnosis of severe asthma with fungal sensitization, 3 of whom were treated with and responded clinically to itraconazole therapy. All 6 patients were heterozygous for a 24-base pair duplication in the CHIT1 gene, which has been associated with decreased levels of circulating chitotriosidase and susceptibility to fungal infection.
    PEDIATRICS 10/2010; 126(4):e982-5. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nogo-B is a member of the reticulon family of proteins (RTN-4B) that is highly expressed in lung tissue; however, its function remains unknown. We show that mice with Th2-driven lung inflammation results in a loss of Nogo expression in airway epithelium and smooth muscle compared with nonallergic mice, a finding which is replicated in severe human asthma. Mice lacking Nogo-A/B (Nogo-KO) display an exaggerated asthma-like phenotype, and epithelial reconstitution of Nogo-B in transgenic mice blunts Th2-mediated lung inflammation. Microarray analysis of lungs from Nogo-KO mice reveals a marked reduction in palate lung and nasal clone (PLUNC) gene expression, and the levels of PLUNC are enhanced in epithelial Nogo-B transgenic mice. Finally, transgenic expression of PLUNC into Nogo-KO mice rescues the enhanced asthmatic-like responsiveness in these KO mice. These data identify Nogo-B as a novel protective gene expressed in lung epithelia, and its expression regulates the levels of the antibacterial antiinflammatory protein PLUNC.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 10/2010; 207(12):2595-607. · 13.21 Impact Factor
  • Peter S. Marshall, Jennifer Possick, Geoffrey L. Chupp
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with severe asthma exacerbations, status asthmaticus (SA), or near-fatal asthma, account for almost 2 million emergency department visits annually in the United States, 497,000 hospital admissions, and 5000 deaths. Approximately, 2% to 70% (mean, 30%) of ICU admissions for asthma require mechanical ventilation, and the mortality rate of mechanically ventilated patients can range from 6% to 42% in high-risk populations. Risk stratifying patients presenting with a severe exacerbation is difficult. In this article, the pathophysiology of near-fatal asthma and SA is reviewed. Many patients who died of SA lack the typical risk factors for death. The 2 phenotypes of severe asthma (acute and subacute onset) are similar with respect to presenting signs but their demographics and rate of decline differ after illness onset. The clinical evaluation and risk stratification of patients presenting with severe asthma exacerbations are a vital and challenging component of their care. The rational use of inhaled and systemic therapies is also required to minimize complications and maximize benefits. Strategies for the use of mechanical ventilation that minimize the risk of barotrauma and use of permissive hypercapnia are a key to reduce mortality. The use of extrinsic positive end expiratory pressure is not contraindicated and may benefit a subset of patients. At this time, the use of noninvasive mechanical ventilation in the most severe asthma exacerbations cannot be recommended. The use of sedatives, inhalational anesthetics, and paralytics as adjuncts to mechanical ventilation have potential risks and their use must be individualized.
    Clinical Pulmonary Medicine 10/2009; 16(6):293-301.
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    Carole Ober, Geoffrey L Chupp
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    ABSTRACT: The present review provides an overview of the chitinase and chitinase-like proteins, chitotriosidase (CHIT1), YKL-40, and acid mammalian chitinase, and summarizes the genetic studies of asthma and immune-mediated diseases with polymorphisms in the genes encoding these proteins, CHIT1, CHI3L1, and CHIA, respectively. Polymorphisms in the CHIT1, CHIA, and CHI3L1 genes influence chitotriosidase enzyme activity, acid mammalian chitinase activity, and YKL-40 levels, respectively. Regulatory SNPs in CHI3L1 were also associated with asthma, atopy, and immune-mediated diseases, and nonsynonymous SNPs in CHIA were associated with asthma. No CHIT1 polymorphisms, including a common nonfunctional 24-bp duplication allele, have been associated with asthma. These genes represent novel asthma susceptibility genes. Variations in CHI3L1 and CHIA have been associated with asthma risk. Polymorphisms in CHIT1 have not yet been associated with asthma, but few studies have been reported. Given that chitotriosidase is the major chitinase in the airways and a common nonfunctional allele is present in many populations, additional studies of this gene are warranted. Lastly, studies of all three genes need to be conducted in populations of diverse ancestries.
    Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 08/2009; 9(5):401-8. · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mouse breast regression protein 39 (BRP-39; Chi3l1) and its human homologue YKL-40 are chitinase-like proteins that lack chitinase activity. Although YKL-40 is expressed in exaggerated quantities and correlates with disease activity in asthma and many other disorders, the biological properties of BRP-39/YKL-40 have only been rudimentarily defined. We describe the generation and characterization of BRP-39(-/-) mice, YKL-40 transgenic mice, and mice that lack BRP-39 and produce YKL-40 only in their pulmonary epithelium. Studies of these mice demonstrated that BRP-39(-/-) animals have markedly diminished antigen-induced Th2 responses and that epithelial YKL-40 rescues the Th2 responses in these animals. The ability of interleukin13 to induce tissue inflammation and fibrosis was also markedly diminished in the absence of BRP-39. Mechanistic investigations demonstrated that BRP-39 and YKL-40 play an essential role in antigen sensitization and immunoglobulin E induction, stimulate dendritic cell accumulation and activation, and induce alternative macrophage activation. These proteins also inhibit inflammatory cell apoptosis/cell death while inhibiting Fas expression, activating protein kinase B/AKT, and inducing Faim 3. These studies establish novel regulatory roles for BRP-39/YKL-40 in the initiation and effector phases of Th2 inflammation and remodeling and suggest that these proteins are therapeutic targets in Th2- and macrophage-mediated disorders.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 06/2009; 206(5):1149-66. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Allergic asthma is a frequent lung disease in Western civilizations and is characterized by airway inflammation and tissue remodeling. Without early diagnosis and specific treatment, asthma results in a loss of lung function, impaired quality of life and the risk to die from uncontrolled asthma attacks. Thus, there is a need for specific biomarkers to detect asthma as soon as possible and to initiate the correct clinical treatment. Recent studies have highlighted the potential role of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 and the chitinase-like protein YKL-40 as novel biomarkers in asthma. Patient studies suggest that these proteins could be useful to identify asthmatics, to characterize disease severity or both in patients with asthma. Functional studies indicate that these molecules are more than correlated epiphenomena and instead contribute in significant ways to asthma pathogenesis. Assessments of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 and YKL-40 may allow physicians to more accurately diagnose and predict the course of asthma and thereby allow therapy to be appropriately tailored for a given patient.
    Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 03/2009; 9(1):60-6. · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The chitinase-like protein YKL-40 is involved in inflammation and tissue remodeling. We recently showed that serum YKL-40 levels were elevated in patients with asthma and were correlated with severity, thickening of the subepithelial basement membrane, and pulmonary function. We hypothesized that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that affect YKL-40 levels also influence asthma status and lung function. We carried out a genomewide association study of serum YKL-40 levels in a founder population of European descent, the Hutterites, and then tested for an association between an implicated SNP and asthma and lung function. One associated variant was genotyped in a birth cohort at high risk for asthma, in which YKL-40 levels were measured from birth through 5 years of age, and in two populations of unrelated case patients of European descent with asthma and controls. A promoter SNP (-131C-->G) in CHI3L1, the chitinase 3-like 1 gene encoding YKL-40, was associated with elevated serum YKL-40 levels (P=1.1 x 10(-13)), asthma (P=0.047), bronchial hyperresponsiveness (P=0.002), and measures of pulmonary function (P=0.046 to 0.002) in the Hutterites. The same SNP could be used to predict the presence of asthma in the two case-control populations (combined P=1.2 x 10(-5)) and serum YKL-40 levels at birth (in cord-blood specimens) through 5 years of age in the birth cohort (P=8.9 x 10(-3) to 2.5 x 10(-4)). CHI3L1 is a susceptibility gene for asthma, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and reduced lung function, and elevated circulating YKL-40 levels are a biomarker for asthma and decline in lung function.
    New England Journal of Medicine 05/2008; 358(16):1682-91. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The evolutionarily conserved 18-glycosyl-hydrolase family contains true chitinases and chitinase-like proteins that lack enzymatic activity. Acidic mammalian chitinase has recently been associated with animal models of asthma. The related chitinase-like protein, YKL-40 (also called human cartilage glycoprotein 39 [HCgp-39] and chitinase 3-like 1), can be readily measured in the serum. However, its relationship to asthma has not been evaluated. We quantified serum YKL-40 levels in three cohorts of patients with asthma--one recruited from the patient population at Yale University, one from the University of Paris, and one from the University of Wisconsin--as well as in controls from the surrounding communities. In the Paris cohort, immunohistochemical analysis and morphometric quantitation were used to evaluate the locus of expression of YKL-40 in the lung. The clinical characteristics of the patients with high serum or lung YKL-40 levels were also evaluated. Serum YKL-40 levels were significantly elevated in patients with asthma as compared with controls. In the Paris cohort, lung YKL-40 levels were elevated and were correlated with circulating YKL-40 levels (r=0.55, P<0.001) and with airway remodeling (measured as the thickness of the subepithelial basement membrane) (r=0.51, P=0.003). In all three cohorts, serum YKL-40 levels correlated positively with the severity of asthma and inversely with the forced expiratory volume in 1 second. Patients with elevated levels of YKL-40 had significantly more frequent rescue-inhaler use, greater oral corticosteroid use, and a greater rate of hospitalization than patients with lower levels. YKL-40 is found in increased quantities in the serum and lungs in a subgroup of patients with asthma, in whom expression of chitinase in both compartments correlates with the severity of asthma. The recovery of YKL-40 from these patients indicates either a causative or a sentinel role for this molecule in asthma.
    New England Journal of Medicine 11/2007; 357(20):2016-27. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Th1 inflammation and remodeling characterized by local tissue destruction coexist in pulmonary emphysema and other diseases. To test the hypothesis that IL-18 plays an important role in these responses, we characterized the regulation of IL-18 in lungs from cigarette smoke (CS) and room air-exposed mice and characterized the effects of CS in wild-type mice and mice with null mutations of IL-18Ralpha (IL-18Ralpha(-/-)). CS was a potent stimulator and activator of IL-18 and caspases 1 and 11. In addition, although CS caused inflammation and emphysema in wild-type mice, both of these responses were significantly decreased in IL-18Ralpha(-/-) animals. CS also induced epithelial apoptosis, activated effector caspases and stimulated proteases and chemokines via IL-18Ralpha-dependent pathways. Importantly, the levels of IL-18 and its targets, cathepsins S and B, were increased in pulmonary macrophages from smokers and patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. Elevated levels of circulating IL-18 were also seen in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. These studies demonstrate that IL-18 and the IL-18 pathway are activated in CS-exposed mice and man. They also demonstrate, in a murine modeling system, that IL-18R signaling plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of CS-induced inflammation and emphysema.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/2007; 178(3):1948-59. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The angiogenic growth factor angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) destabilizes blood vessels, enhances vascular leak and induces vascular regression and endothelial cell apoptosis. We considered that Ang2 might be important in hyperoxic acute lung injury (ALI). Here we have characterized the responses in lungs induced by hyperoxia in wild-type and Ang2-/- mice or those given either recombinant Ang2 or short interfering RNA (siRNA) targeted to Ang2. During hyperoxia Ang2 expression is induced in lung epithelial cells, while hyperoxia-induced oxidant injury, cell death, inflammation, permeability alterations and mortality are ameliorated in Ang2-/- and siRNA-treated mice. Hyperoxia induces and activates the extrinsic and mitochondrial cell death pathways and activates initiator and effector caspases through Ang2-dependent pathways in vivo. Ang2 increases inflammation and cell death during hyperoxia in vivo and stimulates epithelial necrosis in hyperoxia in vitro. Ang2 in plasma and alveolar edema fluid is increased in adults with ALI and pulmonary edema. Tracheal Ang2 is also increased in neonates that develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Ang2 is thus a mediator of epithelial necrosis with an important role in hyperoxic ALI and pulmonary edema.
    Nature Medicine 12/2006; 12(11):1286-93. · 22.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The case of a 52-yr-old female with rheumatoid arthritis and HIV who developed massive, progressive, cavitary pulmonary nodules is described. Multiple diagnostic bronchoscopies and lung biopsies failed to demonstrate the presence of any microorganisms. Pathological analysis showed palisading histiocytes with necrobiosis consistent with rheumatoid nodules. The effect of co-existing HIV infection on the course and prognosis of rheumatoid arthritis is discussed, and it is concluded that the complex relationship between these two disease processes warrants further investigation.
    European Respiratory Journal 11/2006; 28(4):872-4. · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammation and tissue remodeling with pathologic fibrosis are common consequences of Th2 responses in the lung and other organs. Interleukin (IL)-13 and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta(1)) are frequently coexpressed in these responses and are believed to play important roles in the pathogenesis of Th2-induced pathologies. To shed light on the mechanisms of these responses, overexpression transgenic approaches were used to selectively target each of these cytokines to the murine lung. IL-13 proved to be a potent stimulator of eosinophilic inflammation, mucus metaplasia, tissue fibrosis, and alveolar remodeling. CC chemokines, specific chemokine receptors (CCR2, CCR1), adenosine metabolism, vascular endothelial growth factor, and IL-11 contributed to the genesis of these responses. IL-13 also induced tissue fibrosis, at least in part, via its ability to induce and activate TGF-beta(1). In the TGF-beta(1) transgenic mouse, epithelial apoptosis preceded the onset of tissue fibrosis and alveolar remodeling. In addition, chemical (Z-VAD-fmk) and genetic (null mutations of early growth response gene 1) interventions blocked apoptosis and ameliorated TGF-beta(1)-induced fibrosis and alveolar restructuring. These studies define an IL-13-TGF-beta(1) pathway of tissue remodeling that regulates inflammation, mucus metaplasia, apoptosis, vascular responses, and fibrosis in the lung. They also highlight the intimate relationship between apoptosis and fibrosis induced by TGF-beta(1). By defining the complexities of this pathway, these studies highlight sites at which therapies can be directed to control these important responses.
    Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society 08/2006; 3(5):418-23.
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    Lauren Cohn, Jack A Elias, Geoffrey L Chupp
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    ABSTRACT: When asthma is diagnosed, eosinophilic inflammation and airway remodeling are established in the bronchial airways and can no longer be separated as cause and effect because both processes contribute to persistence and progression of disease, despite anti-inflammatory therapy. Th2 cells are continually active in the airways, even when disease is quiescent. IL-13 is the key effector cytokine in asthma and stimulates airway fibrosis through the action of matrix metalloproteinases on TGF-beta and promotes epithelial damage, mucus production, and eosinophilia. The production of IL-13 and other Th2 cytokines by non-T cells augments the inflammatory response. Inflammation is amplified by local responses of the epithelium, smooth muscle, and fibroblasts through the production of chemokines, cytokines, and proteases. Injured cells produce adenosine that enhances IL-13 production. We review human and animal data detailing the cellular and molecular interactions in established allergic asthma that promote persistent disease, amplify inflammation, and, in turn, cause disease progression.
    Annual Review of Immunology 02/2004; 22:789-815. · 36.56 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
286.20 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2013
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2004–2009
    • Yale University
      • Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine
      New Haven, CT, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Human Genetics
      Chicago, IL, United States