[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Information exchange executed by extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, is a newly described form of intercellular communication important in the development and physiology of neural systems. These vesicles can be released from cells, are packed with information including signaling proteins and both coding and regulatory RNAs, and can be taken up by target cells, thereby facilitating the transfer of multilevel information. Recent studies demonstrate their critical role in physiological processes, including nerve regeneration, synaptic function, and behavior. These vesicles also have a sinister role in the propagation of toxic amyloid proteins in neurodegenerative conditions, including prion diseases and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, in inducing neuroinflammation by exchange of information between the neurons and glia, as well as in aiding tumor progression in the brain by subversion of normal cells. This article provides a summary of topics covered in a symposium and is not meant to be a comprehensive review of the subject.
Journal of Neuroscience 11/2014; 34(46):15482-9. · 6.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The β-site APP cleaving enzymes 1 and 2 (BACE1 and BACE2) were initially identified as transmembrane aspartyl proteases cleaving the amyloid precursor protein (APP). BACE1 is a major drug target for Alzheimer's disease (AD) because BACE1-mediated cleavage of APP is the first step in the generation of the pathogenic amyloid-β peptides. BACE1, which is highly expressed in the nervous system, is also required for myelination by cleaving neuregulin 1. Several recent proteomic and in vivo studies using BACE1- and BACE2-deficient mice demonstrate a much wider range of physiological substrates and functions for both proteases within and outside of the nervous system. For BACE1 this includes axon guidance, neurogenesis, muscle spindle formation and neuronal network functions, whereas BACE2 was shown to be involved in pigmentation and pancreatic β-cell function. This review highlights the recent progress in understanding cell biology, substrates and functions of BACE proteases and discusses the therapeutic options and potential mechanism-based liabilities, in particular for BACE inhibitors in AD.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Journal of Neurochemistry 03/2014; · 4.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivative Works License, which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. SUMMARY Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by cerebral deposition of b-amyloid (Ab) peptides, which are generated from amyloid precursor protein (APP) by b-and g-secretases. APP and the secretases are membrane associated, but whether membrane trafficking controls Ab levels is unclear. Here, we per-formed an RNAi screen of all human Rab-GTPases, which regulate membrane trafficking, complemented with a Rab-GTPase-activating protein screen, and present a road map of the membrane-trafficking events regulating Ab production. We identify Rab11 and Rab3 as key players. Although retromers and ret-romer-associated proteins control APP recycling, we show that Rab11 controlled b-secretase endosomal recycling to the plasma membrane and thus affected Ab production. Exome sequencing revealed a signif-icant genetic association of Rab11A with late-onset AD, and network analysis identified Rab11A and Rab11B as components of the late-onset AD risk network, suggesting a causal link between Rab11 and AD. Our results reveal trafficking pathways that regulate Ab levels and show how systems biology approaches can unravel the molecular complexity underlying AD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abnormal accumulation of β-secretase (BACE1) in dystrophic neurites and presynaptic β-amyloid (Aβ) production contribute to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Little, however, is known about BACE1 sorting and dynamic transport in neurons. We investigated BACE1 trafficking in hippocampal neurons using live-cell imaging and selective labeling. We report that transport vesicles containing internalized BACE1 in dendrites undergo exclusive retrograde transport toward the soma, whereas they undergo bidirectional transport in axons. Unidirectional dendritic transport requires Eps15-homology-domain-containing (EHD) 1 and 3 protein function. Furthermore, loss of EHD function compromises dynamic axonal transport and overall BACE1 levels in axons. EHD1/3 colocalize with BACE1 and APP β-C-terminal fragments in hippocampal mossy fiber terminals, and their depletion in neurons significantly attenuates Aβ levels. These results demonstrate unidirectional endocytic transport of a dendritic cargo and reveal a role for EHD proteins in neuronal BACE1 transcytosis and Aβ production, processes that are highly relevant for Alzheimer's disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From Molecular Neurodegeneration: Basic biology and disease pathways Cannes, France. 10-12 September 2013 Proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by b-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and g-secretase generates Ab peptides. APP is constitutively trafficked through the secretory and endocytic pathways in cultured cells and neurons. The identities of cellular organelles and sorting pathways involved in amyloidogenic processing of APP have been extensively investigated. Although a con-sensus has not yet emerged, there is a general agreement from biochemical and genetic studies on the importance of endocytic APP trafficking for Ab production. In neu-rons, APP is trafficked anterogradely along peripheral and central axons, and proteolytically processed during transit. Recent in vivo studies estimated that ~70% of Ab released in the brain requires ongoing endocytosis, and synaptic activity regulates the vast majority of this endocytosis-dependent Ab. BACE1 cleavage is thought to be the rate-limiting step in amyloidogenic processing of APP. Little, however, is known about endocytic BACE1 sorting and dynamic transport in neurons. We investigated BACE1 trafficking in cultured hippocampal neurons using live-cell imaging and selective labeling. This approach revealed dynamic neuronal transport of internalized BACE1 in den-drites and axons. BACE1 was transported in vesicles that were positive for markers of recycling endosomes. Domi-nant-negative expression and siRNA knock-down of pro-teins involved in endocytic transit revealed that BACE1 is dynamically transported in recycling endosomes and this process significantly contributes to amyloidogenic APP processing. Our results suggest that BACE1 trafficking in neuronal recycling endosomes is likely relevant for presy-naptic Ab production and contributes to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Authors' details
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein misfolding into amyloid-like aggregates underlies many neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, insights into the structure and function of these amyloids will provide valuable information on the pathological mechanisms involved and aid in the design of improved drugs for treating amyloid-based disorders. However, determining the structure of endogenous amyloids at high resolution has been difficult. Here we employ binding-activated localization microscopy (BALM) to acquire superresolution images of α-synuclein amyloid fibrils with unprecedented optical resolution. We propose that BALM imaging can be extended to study the structure of other amyloids, for differential diagnosis of amyloid-related diseases and for discovery of drugs that perturb amyloid structure for therapy.
ACS Chemical Neuroscience 04/2013; · 4.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracellular micro-and nano-scale membrane vesicles produced by different cells are recognised as an essential entity of physiological fluids in a variety of organisms and function as mediators of intercellular communication employed for the regulation of multiple systemic and local processes. In the last decade, an exponential amount of experimental work was dedicated to exploring the biogenesis and secretion mechanisms, physiological and pathological functions and potential applications of the extracellular vesicles (EVs). Noteworthy is the large heterogeneity of in vitro and in vivo models applied, technical approaches developed in these studies and the diversity of designations assigned to different or similar types of EVs. Hence, there is a clear necessity for a uniform nomenclature and standardisation of methods to isolate and characterise these vesicles. In April 2012, the first meeting of the International Society for Extracel-lular Vesicles (ISEV) took place bringing together this exponentially grown scientific community. The University of Gothenburg (Krefting Research Centre) together with the Interim Board of the Society created in September 2011 (Jan Lö tvall, strand and Esbjö rn Telemo) organised this fantastic event that counted 488 registered and contributing participants. This meeting report provides a retrospective summary of the broad spectrum of ISEV-2012 sessions. Again, we emphasise novel findings, discussions and decisions met by the community during the meeting.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membraneous vesicles released by a variety of cells into their microenvironment. Recent studies have elucidated the role of EVs in intercellular communication, pathogenesis, drug, vaccine and gene-vector delivery, and as possible reservoirs of biomarkers. These findings have generated immense interest, along with an exponential increase in molecular data pertaining to EVs. Here, we describe Vesiclepedia, a manually curated compendium of molecular data (lipid, RNA, and protein) identified in different classes of EVs from more than 300 independent studies published over the past several years. Even though databases are indispensable resources for the scientific community, recent studies have shown that more than 50% of the databases are not regularly updated. In addition, more than 20% of the database links are inactive. To prevent such database and link decay, we have initiated a continuous community annotation project with the active involvement of EV researchers. The EV research community can set a gold standard in data sharing with Vesiclepedia, which could evolve as a primary resource for the field.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of toxic protein aggregates or plaques composed of the amyloid β (Aβ) peptide. Various lengths of Aβ peptide are generated by proteolytic cleavages of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Mutations in many familial AD-associated genes affect the production of the longer Aβ42 variant that preferentially accumulates in plaques. In the case of sporadic or late-onset AD, which accounts for greater than 95% of cases, several genes are implicated in increasing the risk, but whether they also cause the disease by altering amyloid levels is currently unknown. Through loss of function studies in a model cell line, here RNAi-mediated silencing of several late onset AD genes affected Aβ levels is shown. However, unlike the genes underlying familial AD, late onset AD-susceptibility genes do not specifically alter the Aβ42/40 ratios and suggest that these genes probably contribute to AD through distinct mechanisms.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2012; 109(38):15307-11. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum antibodies against amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) in humans with or without diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) indicate the possibility of immune responses against brain antigens. In an unbiased screening for antibodies directed against brain proteins, we found in AD patients high serum levels of antibodies against the neuronal cytoskeletal protein ankyrin G (ankG); these correlated with slower rates of cognitive decline. Neuronal expression of ankG was higher in AD brains than in nondemented age-matched healthy control subjects. AnkG was present in exosomal vesicles, and it accumulated in β-amyloid plaques. Active immunization with ankG of arcAβ transgenic mice reduced brain β-amyloid pathology and increased brain levels of soluble Aβ(42). AnkG immunization induced a reduction in β-amyloid pathology, also in Swedish transgenic mice(.) Anti-ankG monoclonal antibodies reduced Aβ-induced loss of dendritic spines in hippocampal ArcAβ organotypic cultures. Together, these data established a role for ankG in the human adaptive immune response against resident brain proteins, and they show that ankG immunization reduces brain β-amyloid and its related neuropathology.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 12 June 2012; doi:10.1038/mp.2012.70.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Freshly isolated human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are small and round cells which upon cultivation adopt a polarized morphology and redistribute certain cell surface antigens. To functionally dissect this polarization process, we addressed impacts of protein synthesis, HSPC trafficking, cytoskeleton organization or lipid raft integrity on the establishment and maintenance of the cell polarity of human HSPCs. Effects on the morphology, sub-cellular distribution of lipid raft-associated molecular polarization markers (Flotillin-1, Flotillin-2, ICAM-3) and in vitro migration capabilities of treated cells were studied. We could distinguish two levels of cellular polarization, a molecular and a morphological level. Our data suggest that protein synthesis, lipid raft integrity and enzymatic activities of PI3K and aPKC are required to organize the molecular cell polarity. The morphological cell polarization process, however, also depends on actin polymerization and rho-GTPase activities. In summary, our data qualify HSPC polarization processes as new pharmaceutical target to interfere with migratory and with homing capabilities of HSPCs.
The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 04/2012; 44(7):1121-32. · 4.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), the key pathogenic agent in Alzheimer's disease (AD), is released after sequential proteolytic cleavage of the transmembrane amyloid precursor protein (APP). β-Site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) cleaves APP in early endosomes, and the cause of increased BACE cleavage of APP in AD is not fully resolved yet. It has been proposed that perturbed intracellular trafficking of APP, which leads to prolonged residence time in early endosomes, influences Aβ production and hence the risk for AD. Retromers are a family of proteins that mediate the retrieval of transmembrane proteins from the endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. Misregulation of retromers or retromer-associated proteins influences endosomal localization of APP/BACE1. Here we review the role of retromers in the amyloidogenic processing of APP and their pathogenic role in AD.