[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the fastest growing cause of disability worldwide. Current treatments for OA are severely limited and a large proportion of people with OA live in constant, debilitating pain. There is therefore an urgent need for novel treatments to reduce pain. Synovitis is highly prevalent in OA and is associated with pain. In inflammatory arthritides such as rheumatoid arthritis, methotrexate (MTX) is the gold standard treatment for synovitis and has a well-known, acceptable toxicity profile. We propose that using MTX to treat patients with symptomatic knee OA will be a practical and safe treatment to reduce synovitis and, consequently, pain.
Pain Reduction with Oral Methotrexate in knee Osteoarthritis, a pragmatic phase III trial of Treatment Effectiveness (PROMOTE) is an investigator-initiated, multi-centre, randomized, double-blind, pragmatic placebo-controlled trial. A total of 160 participants with symptomatic knee OA will be recruited across primary and secondary care sites in the United Kingdom and randomized on a 1:1 basis to active treatment or placebo, in addition to usual care, for 12 months. As is usual practice for MTX, dosing will be escalated over six weeks to 25 mg (or maximum tolerated dose) weekly for the remainder of the study. The primary endpoint is change in average knee pain during the past week (measured on an 11-point numerical rating scale) between baseline and six months. Secondary endpoints include other self-reported pain, function and quality-of-life measures. A health economics analysis will also be performed. A magnetic resonance imaging substudy will be conducted to provide an explanatory mechanism for associated symptom change by examining whether MTX reduces synovitis and whether this is related to symptom change. Linear and logistic regression will be used to compare changes between groups using univariable and multivariable modelling analyses. All analyses will be conducted on an intention-to-treat basis.
The PROMOTE trial is designed to examine whether MTX is an effective analgesic treatment for OA. The MRI substudy will address the relationship between synovitis and symptom change. This will potentially provide a much needed new treatment for knee OA.
Current Controlled Trials identifier: ISRCTN77854383 (registered: 25 October 2013).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To assess changes following treatment and the reliability and responsiveness to change of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Psoriatic Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (PsAMRIS) in a randomized controlled trial.
Forty patients with PsA randomized to either placebo or abatacept (ABA) had MRI of either 1 hand (n = 20) or 1 foot (n = 20) at baseline and after 6 months. Images were scored blindly twice by 3 independent readers according to the PsAMRIS (for synovitis, tenosynovitis, periarticular inflammation, bone edema, bone erosion, and bone proliferation).
Inflammatory features improved numerically but statistically nonsignificantly in the ABA group but not the placebo group. Baseline intrareader intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were good (≥ 0.50) to very good (≥ 0.80) for all features in both hand and foot. Baseline interreader ICC were good (ICC 0.72-0.96) for all features, except periarticular inflammation and bone proliferation in the hand and tenosynovitis in the foot (ICC 0.25-0.44). Intrareader and interreader ICC for change scores varied. Guyatt's responsiveness index (GRI) was high for inflammatory features in the hand and metatarsophalangeal joints (GRI -0.67 to -3.13; bone edema not calculable). Minimal change and low prevalence resulted in low ICC and GRI for bone damage.
PsAMRIS showed overall good intrareader agreement in the hand and foot, and inflammatory feature scores were responsive to change, suggesting that PsAMRIS may be a valid tool for MRI assessment of hands and feet in PsA clinical trials.
The Journal of Rheumatology 11/2015; DOI:10.3899/jrheum.141010 · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To assess the current state of reporting of pain outcomes in Cochrane reviews on chronic musculoskeletal painful conditions and to elicit opinions of patients, healthcare practitioners, and methodologists on presenting pain outcomes to patients, clinicians, and policymakers.
We identified all reviews in the Cochrane Library of chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions from Cochrane review groups (Back, Musculoskeletal, and Pain, Palliative, and Supportive Care) that contained a summary of findings (SoF) table. We extracted data on reported pain domains and instruments and conducted a survey and interviews on considerations for SoF tables (e.g., pain domains, presentation of results).
Fifty-seven SoF tables in 133 Cochrane reviews were eligible. SoF tables reported pain in 56/57, with all presenting results for pain intensity (20 different outcome instruments), pain interference in 8 SoF tables (5 different outcome instruments), and pain frequency in 1 multiple domain instrument. Other domains like pain quality or pain affect were not reported. From the survey and interviews [response rate 80% (36/45)], we derived 4 themes for a future research agenda: pain domains, considerations for assessing truth, discrimination, and feasibility; clinically important thresholds for responder analyses and presenting results; and establishing hierarchies of outcome instruments.
There is a lack of standardization in the domains of pain selected and the manner that pain outcomes are reported in SoF tables, hampering efforts to synthesize evidence. Future research should focus on the themes identified, building partnerships to achieve consensus and develop guidance on best practices for reporting pain outcomes.
The Journal of Rheumatology 10/2015; 42(10). DOI:10.3899/jrheum.141423) · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
To review the association between patellofemoral joint (PFJ) imaging features and patellofemoral pain (PFP).
A systematic review of the literature from AMED, CiNAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PEDro, EMBASE and SPORTDiscus was undertaken from their inception to September 2014. Studies were eligible if they used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US) or x-ray (XR) to compare PFJ features between a PFP group and an asymptomatic control group in people < 45 years of age. A pooled meta-analysis was conducted and data was interpreted using a best evidence synthesis.
Forty studies (all moderate to high quality) describing 1,043 people with PFP and 839 controls were included. Two features were deemed to have a large standardised mean difference (SMD) based on meta-analysis: an increased MRI bisect offset at 0° knee flexion under load (0.99; 95% CI: 0.49, 1.49) and an increased CT congruence angle at 15° knee flexion, both under load (1.40 95% CI: 0.04, 2.76) and without load (1.24; 95% CI: 0.37,2.12). A medium SMD was identified for MRI patella tilt and patellofemoral contact area. Limited evidence was found to support the association of other imaging features with PFP. A sensitivity analysis showed an increase in the SMD for patella bisect offset at 0° knee flexion (1.91; 95% CI: 1.31,2.52) and patella tilt at 0° knee flexion (0.99; 95% CI: 0.47,1.52) under full weight bearing.
Certain PFJ imaging features were associated with PFP. Future interventional strategies may be targeted at these features.
Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.joca.2015.09.004 · 4.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
There are unique challenges to designing and carrying out high-quality trials testing therapeutic devices in OA and other rheumatic diseases. Such challenges include determining the mechanisms of action of the device and the appropriate sham. Design of device trials is more challenging than that of placebo-controlled drug trials. Our aim was to develop recommendations for designing device trials.
An Arthritis Research UK study group comprised of 30 rheumatologists, physiotherapists, podiatrists, engineers, orthopaedists, trialists and patients, including many who have carried out device trials, met and (using a Delphi-styled approach) came to consensus on recommendations for device trials.
Challenges unique to device trials include defining the mechanism of action of the device and, therefore, the appropriate sham that provides a placebo effect without duplicating the action of the active device. Should there be no clear-cut mechanism of action, a three-arm trial including a no-treatment arm and one with presumed sham action was recommended. For individualized devices, generalizable indications and standardization of the devices are needed so that treatments can be generalized.
A consensus set of recommendations for device trials was developed, providing a basis for improved trial design, and hopefully improvement in the number of effective therapeutic devices for rheumatic diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the interreader reliability of change scores and the responsiveness of the OMERACT Hand Osteoarthritis (OA) Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) Scoring System (HOAMRIS).
Paired MRI (baseline and 5-yr followup) from 20 patients with hand OA were scored with known time sequence by 3 readers according to the HOAMRIS: Synovitis, erosive damage, cysts, osteophytes, cartilage space loss, malalignment, and bone marrow lesions (BML; 0-3 scales with 0.5 increments for synovitis, erosive damage, and BML). Interreader reliability for status and change scores were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), percentage exact agreement and percentage close agreement (PEA/PCA), and smallest detectable change (SDC). Responsiveness was assessed by standardized response means (SRM).
Cross-sectional interreader ICC were good to very good (≥ 0.74) for all features except synovitis, cysts, and malalignment (ICC 0.50-0.58). The range of change values was small, leading to low ICC for change scores. The SDC values for sum scores (total range 0-24) varied between 1.97-3.05 (except 1.08 for malalignment). For status scores, PEA/PCA on scores in individual joints across the readers were 8.1-50.0 and 43.8-78.1, respectively. Similarly, PEA/PCA for change scores were 20.6-63.8 and 66.3-93.1, respectively. All features except cysts and BML demonstrated good responsiveness with higher SRM for sum scores (range 0.46-1.62) than for scores in individual joints (range 0.24-0.73).
Good to very good interreader ICC values were found for cross-sectional readings, whereas the longitudinal reliability was lower because of a smaller range of change scores. All features, except cysts and BML, showed good responsiveness.
The Journal of Rheumatology 09/2015; DOI:10.3899/jrheum.140983 · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone is an integral part of the osteoarthritis (OA) process. We conducted a systematic literature review in order to understand the relationship between non-conventional radiographic imaging of subchondral bone, pain, structural pathology and joint replacement in peripheral joint OA.
A search of the Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane library databases was performed for original articles reporting association between non-conventional radiographic imaging-assessed subchondral bone pathologies and joint replacement, pain or structural progression in knee, hip, hand, ankle and foot OA. Each association was qualitatively characterised by a synthesis of the data from each analysis based upon study design, adequacy of covariate adjustment and quality scoring.
In total 2456 abstracts were screened and 139 papers were included (70 cross-sectional, 71 longitudinal analyses; 116 knee, 15 hip, six hand, two ankle and involved 113 MRI, eight DXA, four CT, eight scintigraphic and eight 2D shape analyses). BMLs, osteophytes and bone shape were independently associated with structural progression or joint replacement. BMLs and bone shape were independently associated with longitudinal change in pain and incident frequent knee pain respectively.
Subchondral bone features have independent associations with structural progression, pain and joint replacement in peripheral OA in the hip and hand but especially in the knee. For peripheral OA sites other than the knee, there are fewer associations and independent associations of bone pathologies with these important OA outcomes which may reflect fewer studies; for example the foot and ankle were poorly studied. Subchondral OA bone appears to be a relevant therapeutic target.
PROSPERO registration number: CRD 42013005009.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim was to systematically review the literature describing the prevalence, impact and current management of musculoskeletal pain in older people living in care homes. Published literature (AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, psycINFO, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library) and unpublished literature (OpenGrey, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Current Controlled Trials, UK National Research Register Archive) were searched on 1 March 2015. All studies assessing the prevalence, impact and management of musculoskeletal disorders in older people living in care homes were included. Literature was appraised using the CASP cohort and qualitative critical appraisal tools. Data were analysed using descriptive statistical approaches, meta-analysis and meta-ethnography techniques. Twenty-four papers reporting the results of 263,775 care home residents in 12 countries were identified. The evidence base was moderate in quality. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain for people in care homes was 30.2 % (95 % confidence intervals 29.9–30.5 %; n = 105,463). Care home residents reported that musculoskeletal pain had a significant impact on their perceived independence and overall ability to participate in everyday activities of daily living. Three papers which presented data on interventions demonstrated that whilst multi-component assessment and management packages did not significantly change clinical outcomes, these empowered care home staff to feel more confident in managing these patients. Musculoskeletal pain is a common problem in care homes worldwide, and residents report significant impact on their lives. However, there is uncertainty regarding how to assess and manage such pain.
PROSPERO Registration Number: CRD42014009824.
Rheumatology International 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00296-015-3322-1 · 1.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A variety of authorities in pain measurement and outcome methodology met prior to the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 12 meeting in May 2014 to develop partnerships for consensus on pain outcomes.
Following overview presentations, discussion centered on pain-specific and global constructs in the domain of chronic pain. Practical issues for clinical trial implementation were also discussed. Breakout sessions were completed regarding additional details of domain constructs. A nominal group process involving all workshop participants confirmed that chronic pain outcome measures encompass a broad range of constructs and that existing scales may be inadequate for assessment in clinical trials.
Participants endorsed that both pain intensity and pain interference are important constructs to be measured in clinical trials of chronic pain as it pertains to rheumatologic diagnoses.
Further work is needed on inclusion of the patient perspective in the development of pain domains as well as Cochrane Collaboration summary of findings tables.
The Journal of Rheumatology 08/2015; 42(10). DOI:10.3899/jrheum.141386 · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We thank Drs Schwarz and Mullins for their comments1 on our paper,2 and we agree with many of their points. The absolute risks of the studied adverse events were small, and paracetamol still has a better adverse event profile than traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or opioids. However, we would like to highlight that there are also non-pharmacological alternatives for chronic pain conditions, especially those of the musculoskeletal system: muscle strengthening, increased activity and weight loss if overweight.3 … [Full text of this article]
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 08/2015; 74(8). DOI:10.1136/annrheumdis-2015-207691 · 10.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At the pain workshop held prior to the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 12 conference, chronic nonmalignant pain (CP) as a "disease" was discussed, in response to growing interest in this concept and in terms of the effect on the OMERACT Filter 2.0 framework. CP is often assessed as a unidimensional outcome measure; however, if CP is a disease, then outcome measures need to define the disease state and identify all its manifestations as well as its effects, as specified by Filter 2.0. The aim was to write a discussion piece, reflecting the workshop contributions and debate, as an important step in opening a dialogue around future OMERACT Filter 2.0 Framework developments.
The Journal of Rheumatology 07/2015; 42(10). DOI:10.3899/jrheum.141328 · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During OMERACT 12, a workshop was held with the aim to endorse a core set of domains for 3 settings: clinical trials of symptom and structure modification and observational studies. Additional goals were to endorse a core set of contextual factors for these settings, and to define preliminary instruments for each core domain. Finally, an agenda for future research in hand osteoarthritis (OA) was to be proposed.
Literature reviews of preliminary instruments for each core domain of the proposed core set for hand OA in the settings described above. Literature review of radiographic scoring methods and modern imaging in hand OA were also performed. Proposed contextual factors for a core set were identified through 2 Delphi exercises with participation of hand OA experts, patient partners, and OMERACT participants.
Results from Delphi exercises and systematic literature reviews were presented and discussed. It was agreed that a preliminary core domain set for the setting clinical trials of symptom modification should contain at least "pain, physical function, patient global assessment, joint activity and hand strength." The settings clinical trial of structure modification and observational studies would in addition include structural damage. Preliminary instruments for the proposed domains were agreed on. A list of prioritized contextual factors was defined and endorsed for further research. A research agenda was proposed for domain instrument validation according to the OMERACT Filter 2.0.
Preliminary core sets for clinical trials of symptom and structure modification and observational studies in hand osteoarthritis, including preliminary instruments and contextual factors, were agreed upon during OMERACT 12.
The Journal of Rheumatology 07/2015; 42(11). DOI:10.3899/jrheum.141017 · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the construct validity of the rheumatoid arthritis MRI score (RAMRIS) erosion evaluation as structural damage end point and to assess the potential impact of incorporation in clinical trials.
In a randomised trial of early methotrexate-naïve RA (GO-BEFORE), RAMRIS scores were determined from MRIs and van der Heijde-Sharp (vdHS) scores from radiographs, at baseline, week 12, week 24 and week 52. Progression in damage scores was defined as change >0.5. Associations of X-ray and MRI outcomes with clinical features were evaluated for convergent validity. Iterative Wilcoxon rank sum tests and tests of proportion estimated the sample size required to detect differences between combination therapy (methotrexate+golimumab) and methotrexate-monotherapy arms in (A) change in damage score and (B) proportion of patients progressing.
Patients with early MRI progression had higher DAS28, C reactive protein (CRP) and vdHS at baseline, and higher 2-year HAQ. Associations were similar to those with 1-year vdHS progression. Differences in change in structural damage between treatment arms achieved significance with fewer subjects when 12-week or 24-week MRI erosion score was the outcome (150 patients; 100 among an enriched sample with baseline-synovitis >5) compared with the 52-week vdHS (275 patients). Differences in the proportion progressing could be detected in 234 total subjects with 12-week MRI in an enriched sample whereas 1-year X-ray required between 468 and 1160 subjects.
Early MRI erosion progression is a valid measure of structural damage that could substantially decrease sample size and study duration if used as structural damage end point in RA clinical trials.
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases 06/2015; DOI:10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-206934 · 10.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to evaluate how minimal (clinically) important differences (MCID/MID) were calculated in rheumatology in the past 2 decades and demonstrate how the calculation is compromised by the lack of interval scaling.
We conducted a systematic literature review on articles reporting MCID calculation in osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from January 1, 1989, to May 9, 2014. We evaluated the methods of MCID calculation and recorded the ranges of MCID for common patient-reported outcome measures (PROM). Taking data from the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), we showed the effects of performing mathematical calculations on ordinal data.
A total of 330 abstracts were reviewed and 123 articles chosen for full text review. Thirty-six (19 OA, 16 RA and 1 OA-RA) articles were included in the final evaluation. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) was the most frequently reported PROM with relevant calculations in OA, and the HAQ in RA. Sixteen articles used anchor-based methods alone for calculation of MCID, and 1 article used distribution-based methods alone. Nineteen articles used both anchor and distribution-based methods. Only 1 article calculated MCID using an interval scale. Wide ranges in MCID for the WOMAC in OA and HAQ in RA were noted. Ordinal-based derivations of MCID are shown to understate true change at the margins, and overstate change in the mid-range of a scale.
The anchor-based method is commonly used in the calculation of MCID. However, the lack of interval scaling is shown to compromise validity of MCID calculation.
The Journal of Rheumatology 06/2015; DOI:10.3899/jrheum.141150 · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Given the paucity of effective therapies and the increasing prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) with ageing and overweight populations, new therapies for this painful, life-impairing condition are desperately needed, for both symptom relief and structural modification. With a growing understanding that OA involves multiple tissue pathologies including inflammation, many more therapeutic targets have been identified. This review will provide a current overview on the role of biologics in OA, including anti-tumour necrosis factor agents, growth factors and interleukin-1 antagonists.
Current Pharmaceutical Design 03/2015; 21(17). DOI:10.2174/1381612821666150310144940 · 3.45 Impact Factor