[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumour biomarker status is being used more and more frequently to guide treatment decisions in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Continued cycles of hypothesis generation and biomarker testing in retrospective, prospective-retrospective and prospective analyses from studies of the epidermal growth factor (EGFR)-targeted monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), panitumumab and cetuximab, have resulted in improved patient selection in mCRC. Initial data suggested EGFR-targeted mAb treatment should be limited to patients with KRAS exon 2 wild-type (WT) tumours, but the availability of tumour samples from large phase III studies permitted evaluation of additional potential biomarkers of activity for these agents. Subsequent analyses further refined the target population to those patients whose tumours were WT for KRAS and NRAS exons 2, 3 and 4 (i.e., those with RAS WT status). Here, we review key clinical data for panitumumab in mCRC across the lines of treatment, assessing in detail the impact of more comprehensive RAS selection on patient outcomes. Panitumumab data across first- to third-line therapy consistently demonstrate that by testing tumour RAS status, it is possible to select patients more likely to benefit from treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aims to compare the efficacy and safety of oral palonosetron with intravenous (IV) palonosetron for the prevention of cisplatin-related chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV).
A multinational, randomized, double-blind study enrolling adult chemotherapy-naive patients with malignant solid tumors scheduled to receive cisplatin-based highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). Patients received oral palonosetron (0.50 mg) or IV palonosetron (0.25 mg), each with oral dexamethasone. The primary objective was to demonstrate non-inferiority in terms of patients with a complete response (CR, no emesis/no rescue medication) within the acute phase (0-24 h after chemotherapy administration).
Of the 743 patients randomized, 739 received study medications and 738 were included in the full analysis set. The CR rate in the acute phase was high for both groups (oral 89.4 %; IV 86.2 %). As this difference in proportions (stratum-adjusted Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel method) was 3.21 % (99 % confidence interval (CI) -2.74 to 9.17 %), non-inferiority was demonstrated (since the lower limit of the 99 % CI was closer to zero than the predefined margin of 15 %). Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) related to the study drug were rare (oral 3.2 %; IV 6.5 %). No TEAEs related to study drug leading to discontinuation were reported.
Non-inferiority of oral versus IV palonosetron was demonstrated. The CR rate in the acute phase was >86 % in both patient groups. The safety profiles were comparable.
Supportive Care Cancer 02/2015; 23(10). DOI:10.1007/s00520-015-2657-1 · 2.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a life-threatening complication in hematological cancer patients. Voriconazole (VCZ) is the established first-line treatment of IA. VCZ has a nonlinear pharmacokinetic profile and exhibits considerable variability of drug exposure. Therefore, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of VCZ may help to improve treatment results in IA patients, but evidence-based data on the clinical use of TDM in patients treated with VCZ for IA are scarce. Evidence-based guidance is needed to support decisions on the use of TDM in routine VCZ therapy of IA. Our present analysis assessed published studies for evidence-based criteria for TDM of VCZ to improve efficacy and safety of IA therapy in cancer patients. Literature searches of MEDLINE and Cochrane database were performed. We identified 27 clinical studies reporting on the use of plasma level monitoring and/or TDM for VCZ. For each study, strength of recommendation and quality of evidence were categorized according to predefined criteria. A number of studies were published on plasma level monitoring (PLM) and TDM in VCZ therapy of IA. Across studies, VCZ levels >5-5.5 mg/L were found to be associated with toxicity, while reaching minimum levels of >1-2 mg/L appeared to improve efficacy. Timing, frequency, and intervention thresholds and dosage increments of VCZ for adjustment of plasma levels remain to be established. Currently, there is still no conclusive evidence for recommendations in routine clinical practice. More data from prospective randomized studies with TDM are desirable to provide a solid evidence basis for these approaches.
Annals of Hematology 02/2015; 94(4). DOI:10.1007/s00277-015-2333-z · 2.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Current guidelines recommend the combination of a neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist (RA) and a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) RA, together with corticosteroids, in order to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting with anthracycline-cyclophosphamide and highly emetogenic chemotherapy, and it is to be considered with moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. Netupitant and palonosetron (NEPA) is a fixed-dose combination of netupitant, a novel, highly selective NK1 RA, and palonosetron, a new-generation 5-HT3 RA, targeting two major emetic pathways in a single oral capsule. In clinical trials, NEPA administered on day 1 together with dexamethasone was highly effective and well tolerated in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with solid tumors undergoing moderately emetogenic chemotherapy or highly emetogenic chemotherapy. NEPA offers maximal convenience, and as a simple guideline-based regimen, has the potential to improve adherence to guidelines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Invasive fungal infections cause substantial morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, particularly in those with haematological malignancies and recipients of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Difficulties in diagnosing invasive fungal infections and subsequent delays in treatment initiation lead to unfavourable outcomes and emphasise the importance of prophylaxis. Since the recommendations of the Infectious Diseases Working Party of the German Society for Haematology and Oncology in 2009, results of 14 additional clinical studies have been published comprising 2,899 patients and initiating this update. Key recommendations for adult patients are as follows: Posaconazole remains the drug of choice during remission-induction chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukaemia, myelodysplastic syndrome and allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation with graft versus host disease (AI). In the pre-engraftment period of allogeneic transplantation, several antifungals are appropriate and can be recommended with equal strength: voriconazole (BI), micafungin (BI), fluconazole (BI) and posaconazole (BII). There is poor evidence regarding antifungal prophylaxis in the post-engraftment period of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation if no steroids for treatment of graft versus host disease are required. Aerosolised liposomal amphotericin B inhalation in conjunction with fluconazole can be used in patients with prolonged neutropenia (BII).
Annals of Hematology 06/2014; 93(9):1449-1456. DOI:10.1007/s00277-014-2108-y. · 2.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate panitumumab plus modified fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) or bevavcizumab plus mFOLFOX6 in patients with previously untreated wild-type (WT) KRAS exon 2 (codons 12 and 13) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). A prespecified secondary objective was to assess treatment effects in an extended RAS analysis that included exons 2, 3, and 4 of KRAS and NRAS.
Patients with WT KRAS exon 2 tumors were randomly assigned at a one-to-one ratio to panitumumab plus mFOLFOX6 or bevacizumab plus mFOLFOX6. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS); secondary end points included overall survival (OS) and safety.
Of 285 randomly assigned patients, 278 received treatment. In the WT KRAS exon 2 intent-to-treat group, PFS was similar between arms (hazard ratio [HR], 0.87; 95% CI, 0.65 to 1.17; P = .353). Median OS was 34.2 and 24.3 months in the panitumumab and bevavcizumab arms, respectively (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.89; P = .009). In the WT RAS subgroup (WT exons 2, 3, and 4 of KRAS and NRAS), PFS favored the panitumumab arm (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.96; P = .029). Median OS was 41.3 and 28.9 months (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.39 to 1.02; P = .058) in the panitumumab and bevavcizumab arms, respectively. Treatment discontinuation rates because of adverse events were similar between arms.
PFS was similar and OS was improved with panitumumab relative to bevacizumab when combined with mFOLFOX6 in patients with WT KRAS exon 2 tumors. Patients with WT RAS tumors seemed to experience more clinical benefit with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current evidence on myelopoietic growth factors is difficult to overview for the practicing haematologist/oncologist. International guidelines are sometimes conflicting, exclude certain patient groups, or cannot directly be applied to the German health system. This guideline by the Infectious Diseases Working Party (AGIHO) of the German Society of Haematology and Medical Oncology (DGHO) gives evidence-based recommendations for the use of G-CSF, pegylated G-CSF, and biosimilars to prevent infectious complications in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, including those with haematological malignancies.
We systematically searched and evaluated current evidence. An expert panel discussed the results and recommendations. We then compared our recommendations to current international guidelines.
We summarised the data from eligible studies in evidence tables, developed recommendations for different entities and risk groups.
Comprehensive literature search and expert panel consensus confirmed many key recommendations given by international guidelines. Evidence for growth factors during acute myeloid leukaemia induction chemotherapy and pegfilgrastim use in haematological malignancies was rated lower compared with other guidelines.
Annals of Oncology 03/2014; 25(9). DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdu035 · 7.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antiemetic guidelines recommend co-administration of agents that target multiple molecular pathways involved in emesis to maximize prevention and control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). NEPA is a new oral fixed-dose combination of 300 mg netupitant, a highly-selective NK1 receptor antagonist (RA) and 0.50 mg palonosetron (PALO), a pharmacologically and clinically distinct 5-HT3 RA, that targets dual antiemetic pathways.
This multinational, randomized, double-blind, parallel group Phase 3 study (NCT01339260) in 1455 chemotherapy-naïve patients receiving moderately emetogenic (anthracycline-cyclophosphamide) chemotherapy evaluated the efficacy and safety of a single oral dose of NEPA versus a single oral dose (0.50 mg) of PALO. All patients also received oral dexamethasone (DEX) on Day 1 only (12 mg in the NEPA arm and 20 mg in the PALO arm). The primary efficacy endpoint was complete response (CR: no emesis, no rescue medication) during the delayed (25-120 hr) phase in cycle 1.
The percentage of patients with CR during the delayed phase was significantly higher in the NEPA group compared with the PALO group (76.9% vs. 69.5%; P=0.001), as were the percentages in the overall (0-120 hr) (74.3% vs. 66.6%; P=0.001) and acute (0-24 hr) (88.4% vs. 85.0; P=0.047) phases. NEPA was also superior to PALO during the delayed and overall phases for all secondary efficacy endpoints of no emesis, no significant nausea and complete protection (CR plus no significant nausea). NEPA was well tolerated with a similar safety profile as PALO.
NEPA plus a single dose of DEX was superior to PALO plus DEX in preventing CINV following moderately emetogenic chemotherapy in acute, delayed and overall phases of observation. As a fixed-dose antiemetic drug combination, NEPA along with a single dose of dexamethasone on day 1 offers guideline-based prophylaxis with a convenient, single-day treatment.
Annals of Oncology 03/2014; 25(7). DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdu101 · 7.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer patients are at increased risk for central venous catheter-related infections (CRIs). Thus, a comprehensive, practical and evidence-based guideline on CRI in patients with malignancies is warranted.
A panel of experts by the Infectious Diseases Working Party (AGIHO) of the German Society of Hematology and Medical Oncology (DGHO) has developed a guideline on CRI in cancer patients. Literature searches of the PubMed, Medline and Cochrane databases were carried out and consensus discussions were held.
Recommendations on diagnosis, management and prevention of CRI in cancer patients are made, and the strength of the recommendation and the level of evidence are presented.
This guideline is an evidence-based approach to the diagnosis, management and prevention of CRI in cancer patients.
Annals of Oncology 01/2014; 25(5). DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdt545 · 7.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aspergillus infections are a threat in patients with hematological malignancies. Known risk factors are profound and long lasting neutropenia, uncontrolled graft versus host disease, continuous administration of steroids and environmental factors as hospital construction. Numerous efforts have been undertaken for prophylaxis of invasive aspergillosis in high-risk populations. Most of them failed to demonstrate survival advantages. Prophylaxis makes sense, since diagnosis and treatment of invasive aspergillosis remain difficult. The introduction of non-culture based tools for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis is an important step forward for early and sensitive diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. Early treatment is the cornerstones for a successful management of invasive aspergillosis. Substantial improvement came from with the introduction of lipid formulations of amphotericin B in the early 1990s. Voriconazole was the first azole that improved the overall survival for patients with invasive aspergillosis. Newer azoles and the echinocandins were introduced for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis since the late 1990s. Voriconazole and liposomal Amphotericin B Lipid allow a safer and more effective treatment of invasive aspergillosis when compared with amphotericin B-desoxycholate. Combination of antifungal agents has been introduced in clinical trials. Up to now no significant benefit has been obtained with antifungal combination compared to voriconazole alone. Because mortality of invasive aspergillosis remains up to more than 50%, prophylaxis, early diagnosis and early initiation of antifungal therapy are of utmost importance for the reduction of invasive aspergillosis related mortality. Beside all advances in the management of invasive aspergillosis important questions remain unresolved. This article reviews the current state and new insights in the management of invasive aspergillosis and points out clinicians unmet needs.
Current pharmaceutical design 12/2012; 19(20). DOI:10.2174/13816128113199990330 · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Integument-related toxicities are common during epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapy. Panitumumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting the EGFR that significantly improves progression-free survival when added to chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who have wild-type (WT) KRAS tumours. Primary efficacy and tolerability results from a phase II single-arm study of first-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer have been reported. Here we report additional descriptive tolerability and quality of life data from this trial. METHODS: Integument-related toxicities and quality of life were analysed; toxicities were graded using modified National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria. Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to and duration of first integument-related toxicity were prepared. Quality of life was measured using EuroQoL EQ-5D and EORTC QLQ-C30. Best overall response was analysed by skin toxicity grade and baseline quality of life. Change in quality of life was analysed by skin toxicity severity. RESULTS: 154 patients were enrolled (WT KRAS n = 86; mutant KRAS n = 59); most (98%) experienced integument-related toxicities (most commonly rash [42%], dry skin [40%] and acne [36%]). Median time to first integument-related toxicity was 8 days; median duration was 334 days. Overall, proportionally more patients with grade 2+ skin toxicity responded (56%) compared with those with grade 0/1 (29%). Mean overall EQ-5D health state index scores (0.81 vs. 0.78), health rating scores (72.5 vs. 71.0) and QLQ-C30 global health status scores (65.8 vs. 66.7) were comparable at baseline vs. safety follow-up (8 weeks after completion), respectively and appeared unaffected by skin toxicity severity. CONCLUSIONS: First-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI has acceptable tolerability and appears to have little impact on quality of life, despite the high incidence of integument-related toxicity.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT00508404.
BMC Cancer 09/2012; 12(1):438. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-12-438 · 3.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: More than 18,000 autolgous transplantation were performed in Europe in the year 2009. It as a routine procedure in experienced centres. Even if there is a low mortality rate, infections are a major issue after transplantation, occurring in more than 60 % of the patients. In this review we discuss all aspects of infections after autologous stem transplantation, including epidemiology, diagnostics, therapeutic algorithms, prophylaxis and supportive therapy.
Annals of Hematology 05/2012; 91(8):1161-74. DOI:10.1007/s00277-012-1456-8 · 2.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Panitumumab monotherapy is approved for KRAS wild-type (WT) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) progressing after standard chemotherapy. This study evaluated first-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI in patients with mCRC.
In this phase II, single-arm study, panitumumab (6 mg/kg) and FOLFIRI [irinotecan (180 mg/m(2)) and leucovorin (400 mg/m(2)) followed by a 5-fluorouracil 400 mg/m(2) bolus and a 2,400-3,000 mg/m(2) continuous infusion] were administered every 14 days until progression. Data were analysed descriptively overall and by tumour KRAS status.
KRAS data were available for 145/154 (94%) patients: 59% KRAS WT and 41% mutant (MT); mean follow-up was 39.5 versus 35.8 weeks, respectively. Objective responses occurred in 49% of patients: 56% versus 38% in the KRAS WT versus MT groups [(18% difference (95% CI 1-35%); odds ratio 2.1 (95% CI 1.0-4.4)]; median duration of response was 13.0 versus 7.4 months. More patients in the WT group underwent R0 resection (8% vs. 5%); median progression-free survival also favoured this group (8.9 vs. 7.2 months). The most common adverse events (any grade) were integument toxicities (98%), diarrhoea (79%) and stomatitis/oral mucositis (51%).
As expected, consistently favourable efficacy was observed in patients with KRAS WT versus MT tumours receiving first-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI treatment.
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 09/2011; 138(1):65-72. DOI:10.1007/s00432-011-1061-6 · 3.08 Impact Factor