[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little empirical research has directly examined the extent to which early and consistent participation in outpatient services and adherence to prescribed psychotropic medications after a psychiatric hospitalization can help people with serious mental illnesses avoid arrest and incarceration and what impact this might have on state and local costs. The authors examined effects of medication adherence in the first 90 days after a psychiatric hospitalization among 1,367 adults with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder served by the public behavioral health systems of Miami-Dade County and Pinellas County in Florida. Better adherence was associated with lower subsequent criminal justice costs and greater use of treatment services. A modest investment in promoting treatment participation and medication adherence may reduce criminal justice involvement and costs for persons with serious mental illness.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives. In a large heterogeneous sample of adults with mental illnesses, we examined the 6-month prevalence and nature of community violence perpetration and victimization, as well as associations between these outcomes. Methods. Baseline data were pooled from 5 studies of adults with mental illnesses from across the United States (n = 4480); the studies took place from 1992 to 2007. The MacArthur Community Violence Screening Instrument was administered to all participants. Results. Prevalence of perpetration ranged from 11.0% to 43.4% across studies, with approximately one quarter (23.9%) of participants reporting violence. Prevalence of victimization was higher overall (30.9%), ranging from 17.0% to 56.6% across studies. Most violence (63.5%) was perpetrated in residential settings. The prevalence of violence-related physical injury was approximately 1 in 10 overall and 1 in 3 for those involved in violent incidents. There were strong associations between perpetration and victimization. Conclusions. Results provided further evidence that adults with mental illnesses experienced violent outcomes at high rates, and that they were more likely to be victims than perpetrators of community violence. There is a critical need for public health interventions designed to reduce violence in this vulnerable population. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print February 13, 2014: e1-e8. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301680).
American Journal of Public Health 02/2014; · 3.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction Aggressive behavior can be a dangerous complication of schizophrenia. Hostility is related to aggression. This study aimed to compare the effects of olanzapine, perphenazine, risperidone, quetiapine, and ziprasidone on hostility in schizophrenia.
We used the data that were acquired in the 18-month Phase 1 of the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study. We analyzed the scores of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) hostility item in a subset of 614 patients who showed at least minimal hostility (a score ≥ 2) at baseline.
The primary analysis of hostility indicated an effect of difference between treatments (F4,1487 = 7.78, P < 0.0001). Olanzapine was significantly superior to perphenazine and quetiapine at months 1, 3, 6, and 9. It was also significantly superior to ziprasidone at months 1, 3, and 6, and to risperidone at months 3 and 6. Discussion Our results are consistent with those of a similar post-hoc analysis of hostility in first-episode subjects with schizophrenia enrolled in the European First-Episode Schizophrenia Trial (EUFEST) trial, where olanzapine demonstrated advantages compared with haloperidol, quetiapine, and amisulpride.
Olanzapine demonstrated advantages in terms of a specific antihostility effect over the other antipsychotics tested in Phase 1 of the CATIE trial.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Though considerable research has examined the validity of risk assessment tools in predicting adverse outcomes in justice-involved adolescents, the extent to which risk assessments are translated into risk management strategies and, importantly, the association between this link and adverse outcomes has gone largely unexamined. To address these shortcomings, the Risk–Need–Responsivity (RNR) model was used to examine associations between identified strengths and vulnerabilities, interventions, and institutional outcomes for justice-involved youth. Data were collected from risk assessments completed using the Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability: Adolescent Version (START:AV) for 120 adolescent offenders (96 boys and 24 girls). Interventions and outcomes were extracted from institutional records. Mixed evidence of adherence to RNR principles was found. Accordant to the risk principle, adolescent offenders judged to have more strengths had more strength-based interventions in their service plans, though adolescent offenders with more vulnerabilities did not have more interventions targeting their vulnerabilities. With respect to the need and responsivity principles, vulnerabilities and strengths identified as particularly relevant to the individual youth's risk of adverse outcomes were addressed in the service plans about half and a quarter of the time, respectively. Greater adherence to the risk and need principles was found to predict significantly the likelihood of externalizing outcomes. Findings suggest some gaps between risk assessment and risk management and highlight the potential usefulness of strength-based approaches to intervention.
Children and Youth Services Review 10/2013; · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous reviews on risk and protective factors for violence in psychosis have produced contrasting findings. There is therefore a need to clarify the direction and strength of association of risk and protective factors for violent outcomes in individuals with psychosis.
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis using 6 electronic databases (CINAHL, EBSCO, EMBASE, Global Health, PsycINFO, PUBMED) and Google Scholar. Studies were identified that reported factors associated with violence in adults diagnosed, using DSM or ICD criteria, with schizophrenia and other psychoses. We considered non-English language studies and dissertations. Risk and protective factors were meta-analysed if reported in three or more primary studies. Meta-regression examined sources of heterogeneity. A novel meta-epidemiological approach was used to group similar risk factors into one of 10 domains. Sub-group analyses were then used to investigate whether risk domains differed for studies reporting severe violence (rather than aggression or hostility) and studies based in inpatient (rather than outpatient) settings.
There were 110 eligible studies reporting on 45,533 individuals, 8,439 (18.5%) of whom were violent. A total of 39,995 (87.8%) were diagnosed with schizophrenia, 209 (0.4%) were diagnosed with bipolar disorder, and 5,329 (11.8%) were diagnosed with other psychoses. Dynamic (or modifiable) risk factors included hostile behaviour, recent drug misuse, non-adherence with psychological therapies (p values<0.001), higher poor impulse control scores, recent substance misuse, recent alcohol misuse (p values<0.01), and non-adherence with medication (p value <0.05). We also examined a number of static factors, the strongest of which were criminal history factors. When restricting outcomes to severe violence, these associations did not change materially. In studies investigating inpatient violence, associations differed in strength but not direction.
Certain dynamic risk factors are strongly associated with increased violence risk in individuals with psychosis and their role in risk assessment and management warrants further examination.
PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(2):e55942. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE The study examined risk factors for readmission to acute care among Florida Medicaid enrollees with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics. METHODS Medicaid and service use data for 2004 to 2008 were used to identify adults with schizophrenia discharged from hospitals and crisis units who were taking antipsychotics. Data were extracted on demographic characteristics, service use before admission, psychopharmacologic treatment after discharge, and readmission to acute behavioral health care. Cox proportional hazards regression estimated readmission risk in the 30 days after discharge and in the period after 30 days for participants not readmitted in the first 30 days. RESULTS The mean±SD age of the 3,563 participants was 43.4±11.1; 61% were male, and 38% were white. Participants had 6,633 inpatient episodes; duration of hospitalization was 10.6±7.0 days. Readmission occurred for 84% of episodes, 23% within 30 days. Variables associated with an increased readmission risk in the first 30 days were shorter hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR]=1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.10-1.27, p<.001), shorter time on medication before discharge (HR=1.19, CI=1.06-1.35, p=.003), greater prehospitalization use of acute care (HR=2.64, CI=2.29-3.05, p<.001), serious general medical comorbidity (HR=1.21, CI=1.06-1.38, p=.005), and prior substance abuse treatment (HR=1.58, CI=1.37-1.83, p<.001). After 30 days, hospitalization duration and time on medication were not significant risk factors. CONCLUSIONS Short hospital stays for persons with schizophrenia may be associated with risk of early readmission, possibly because the person is insufficiently stabilized. More chronic risk factors include prior acute care, general medical comorbidity, and substance abuse.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE The authors assessed a state's net costs for assisted outpatient treatment, a controversial court-ordered program of community-based mental health services designed to improve outcomes for persons with serious mental illness and a history of repeated hospitalizations attributable to nonadherence with outpatient treatment. METHOD A comprehensive cost analysis was conducted using 36 months of observational data for 634 assisted outpatient treatment participants and 255 voluntary recipients of intensive community-based treatment in New York City and in five counties elsewhere in New York State. Administrative, budgetary, and service claims data were used to calculate and summarize costs for program administration, legal and court services, mental health and other medical treatment, and criminal justice involvement. Adjusted effects of assisted outpatient treatment and voluntary intensive services on total service costs were examined using multivariate time-series regression analysis. RESULTS In the New York City sample, net costs declined 50% in the first year after assisted outpatient treatment began and an additional 13% in the second year. In the five-county sample, costs declined 62% in the first year and an additional 27% in the second year. Psychotropic drug costs increased during the first year after initiation of assisted outpatient treatment, by 40% and 44% in the city and five-county samples, respectively. Regression analyses revealed significant declines in costs associated with both assisted outpatient treatment and voluntary participation in intensive services, although the cost declines associated with assisted outpatient treatment were about twice as large as those seen for voluntary services. CONCLUSIONS Assisted outpatient treatment requires a substantial investment of state resources but can reduce overall service costs for persons with serious mental illness. For those who do not qualify for assisted outpatient treatment, voluntary participation in intensive community-based services may also reduce overall service costs over time, depending on characteristics of the target population and local service system.
American Journal of Psychiatry 07/2013; · 14.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Auteur en een groot aantal alumni-collega's van de Universiteit van Maastricht, hebben gekeken welke risicotaxatie-instrumenten SPV-en gebruiken om het risico van recidive in te schatten bij clienten uit de forensische psychiatrie. Met behulp van START kan volgens hen het risico voor anderen, het risico op victimisatie, risico op zelfbeschadigend gedrag, suïcidegevaar, ongeoorloofde afwezigheid, middelenmisbruik en zelfverwaarlozing bij deze forensische groep vastgesteld worden.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The primary aim is to describe drug and alcohol trajectories in adults with schizophrenia. METHOD: Growth mixture models were used to examine disordered and non-disordered use and abstinence in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness study. RESULTS: Five classes - always abstinent; fluctuating use, abuse, and occasional abstinence; occasional (ab)use; stopped (ab)use; abusing - fit best. Overlap exists between always abstinent drug and alcohol classes; less overlap exists across other classes. CONCLUSION: There is heterogeneity in drug and alcohol use among adults with schizophrenia. The lack of overlap between classes, save always abstinent, suggests modeling drug and alcohol use separately.
Schizophrenia Research 05/2013; · 4.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE This study examined whether possession of psychotropic medication and receipt of outpatient services reduce the likelihood of posthospitalization arrest among adults with serious mental illness. A secondary aim was to compare service system costs for individuals who were involved with the justice system and those who were not. METHODS Claims data for prescriptions and treatments were used to describe patterns and costs of outpatient services between 2005 and 2012 for 4,056 adult Florida Medicaid enrollees with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder after discharge from an index hospitalization. Multivariable time-series analysis tested the effects of medication and outpatient services on arrest (any, felony, or misdemeanor) in subsequent 30-day periods. RESULTS A total of 1,263 participants (31%) were arrested at least once during follow-up. Monthly medication possession and receipt of outpatient services reduced the likelihood of any arrests (misdemeanor or felony) and of misdemeanor arrests. Possession of medications for 90 days after hospital discharge also reduced the likelihood of arrest. Prior justice involvement, minority racial-ethnic status, and male sex increased the risk of arrest, whereas older age decreased it. Criminal justice and behavioral health system costs were significantly higher for the justice-involved group than for the group with no justice involvement. CONCLUSIONS Routine outpatient treatment, including medication and outpatient services, may reduce the likelihood of arrest among adults with serious mental illness. Medication possession over a 90-day period after hospitalization appears to confer additional protection. Overall, costs were lower for those who were not arrested, even when they used more outpatient services.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Identifying substance use disorders among adults with schizophrenia presents unique challenges but is critical to research and practice. This study examined: (a) the accuracy of assessments completed using various approaches in identifying substance use disorders, (b) their ability to discriminate between disorders of abuse and dependence, and (c) the benefits of using multiple indicators to identify substance use disorders. Data are from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness study. The sample comprised 1,460 community-based adults with schizophrenia, 15.8% (n = 230) of whom were positive for a current (past month) drug or alcohol use disorder using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID). Clinician ratings, self-report, collateral reports, and results of hair and urine tests were compared to SCID diagnoses. Congruence with SCID diagnoses was good across approaches and evidence for superiority of one approach over another was limited. No approach discriminated between abuse and dependence. There was limited benefit of using multiple indicators. Findings suggest that the decision regarding the "best" approach for identifying substance use disorders among adults with schizophrenia may be made through consideration of practical issues and assessment purpose, rather than selection of the approach that yields the most accurate diagnostic assessment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 12/2012; · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many different instruments have been developed to assist in the assessment of risk for violence and other criminal behavior. However, there is limited evidence regarding how these instruments work in the 'real world'. Even less is known about how these instruments might work for assessing risk in jail diversion populations, whether in research or practice. To address these knowledge gaps, the present study examined the characteristics of risk assessments completed by program staff (n=10) on 96 mental health jail diversion clients (72 men and 24 women) using the Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START). The findings provide preliminary support for the reliability and validity of START assessments completed in jail diversion programs, the first evidence of the transportability of START outside psychiatric settings, and further evidence regarding the reliability and validity of START assessments completed in the field. They additionally support the consideration of an eighth, general offending risk domain in START assessments.
Behavioral Sciences & the Law 07/2012; 30(4):448-69. · 0.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accurate drug use assessment is vital to understanding the prevalence, course, treatment needs, and outcomes among individuals with schizophrenia because they are thought to remain at long-term risk for negative drug use outcomes, even in the absence of drug use disorder. This study evaluated self-report and biological measures for assessing illicit drug use in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness study (N=1460). Performance was good across assessment methods, but differed as a function of drug type, measure, and race. With the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R as the criterion, self-report evidenced greater concordance, accuracy and agreement overall, and for marijuana, cocaine, and stimulants specifically, than did urinalysis and hair assays, whereas biological measures outperformed self-report for detection of opiates. Performance of the biological measures was better when self-report was the criterion, but poorer for black compared white participants. Overall, findings suggest that self-report is able to garner accurate information regarding illicit drug use among adults with schizophrenia. Further work is needed to understand the differential performance of assessment approaches by drug type, overall and as a function of race, in this population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a meta-analysis of studies examining the association between the Val158Met COMT polymorphism and violence against others in schizophrenia. A systematic search current to November 1, 2011 was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ProQuest, and the National Criminal Justice Reference Service and identified 15 studies comprising 2,370 individuals with schizophrenia for inclusion. Bivariate analyses of study sensitivities and specificities were conducted. This methodology allowed for the calculation of pooled diagnostic odds ratios (DOR). Evidence of a significant association between the presence of a Met allele and violence was found such that men's violence risk increased by approximately 50% for those with at least one Met allele compared with homozygous Val individuals (DOR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.05-2.00; z = 2.37, p = 0.02). No significant association between the presence of a Met allele and violence was found for women or when outcome was restricted to homicide. We conclude that male schizophrenia patients who carry the low activity Met allele in the COMT gene are at a modestly elevated risk of violence. This finding has potential implications for the pharmacogenetics of violent behavior in schizophrenia.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e43423. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Examine the prevalence and correlates of past-year acute behavioral healthcare utilization (i.e., care delivered in inpatient/residential or hospital/emergency room settings). Methods: Data were derived from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (n = 10,069 adults with behavioral health disorders). Associations between past-year acute care use and factors related to healthcare use were examined through bivariate and logistic regression analyses. The logistic regression model examined the relationship between acute behavioral healthcare utilization and theoretically relevant variables per Anderson's Behavioral Model of Healthcare Utilization. Results: Five percent of those with a behavioral health disorder utilized acute behavioral healthcare services in the past year. Several variables were significantly associated with acute care use in the final logistic regression model (R2 = .179, p
139st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2011; 10/2011
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine (1) arrest outcomes for adults with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder who were treated with first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) or second-generation atypical antipsychotics (SGAs) and (2) the interaction between medication class and outpatient services in a Florida Medicaid program.
In a secondary data analysis, Florida Medicaid data covering the period from July 1, 2002, to March 31, 2008, were used to identify persons diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder and to examine antipsychotic medication episodes lasting at least 60 days. There were 93,999 medication episodes in the population examined (N = 36,519). Medication episodes were coded as (1) SGA-aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine, risperidone, risperidone long-acting therapy, or ziprasidone; or (2) FGA-any other antipsychotic medication. Outpatient services were defined as the proportion of 30-day periods of each medication episode with at least 1 behavioral health visit. Survival analyses were used to analyze the data, and they were adjusted for the baseline propensity for receiving an SGA.
Second-generation antipsychotic episodes were not associated with reduced arrests compared to FGA episodes; however, the interaction between outpatient services and SGA episodes was significant (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.50-0.93; P = .02) such that an SGA episode with an outpatient visit during at least 80% of every 30-day period of the episode was associated with reduced arrests compared to SGA episodes with fewer outpatient services. There was no significant effect for concurrent FGA episodes and outpatient treatment (HR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.60-1.10; P = .18). Substance use, poor refill compliance, and prior arrest increased risk of subsequent arrest.
The interaction between outpatient visits and treatment with SGAs was significantly associated with reduced arrests. These findings indicate the importance of concurrent antipsychotic medications and outpatient services to affect arrest outcomes for adults with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 04/2011; 72(4):502-8. · 5.81 Impact Factor