Mark McNamara

City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California, United States

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Publications (15)49.54 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Inhibition of the HER-2 pathway via the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab has had a major impact in treatment of HER-2 positive breast cancer, but de novo or acquired resistance may reduce its effectiveness. The known interplay between the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER-2 receptors and pathways creates a rationale for combined anti-EGFR and anti-HER-2 therapy in HER-2 positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC), and toxicities associated with the use of multiple chemotherapeutic agents together with biological therapies may also be reduced. We conducted a prospective, single arm, phase I/II trial to determine the efficacy and toxicity of the combination of trastuzumab with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib and docetaxel, in patients with HER-2 positive MBC. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was determined in the phase I portion. The primary end point of the phase II portion was progression-free survival (PFS). Immunohistochemical analysis of biomarker expression of the PKA-related proteins cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), phospho-CREB and DARPP-32 (dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa) plus t-DARPP (the truncated isoform of DARPP-32); PTEN; p-p70 S6K; and EGFR was conducted on tissue from metastatic sites. Nine patients were treated in the phase I portion of the study and 22 in the phase II portion. The MTD was gefitinib 250 mg on days 2-14, trastuzumab 6 mg/kg, and docetaxel 60 mg/m(2) every 21 days. For the 29 patients treated at the MTD, median PFS was 12.7 months, with complete and partial response rates of 18 and 46%, and a stable disease rate of 29%. No statistically significant correlation was found between response and expression of any biomarkers. We conclude that the combination of gefitinib, trastuzumab, and docetaxel is feasible and effective. Expression of the biomarkers examined did not predict outcome in this sample of HER-2 overexpressing metastatic breast cancer.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 02/2012; 131(3):899-906. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 3-Aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP) is a novel small-molecule ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor. This study was designed to estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and oral bioavailability of 3-AP in patients with advanced-stage solid tumors. Twenty patients received one dose of intravenous and subsequent cycles of oral 3-AP following a 3 + 3 patient dose escalation. Intravenous 3-AP was administered to every patient at a fixed dose of 100 mg over a 2-h infusion 1 week prior to the first oral cycle. Oral 3-AP was administered every 12 h for 5 consecutive doses on days 1-3, days 8-10, and days 15-17 of every 28-day cycle. 3-AP was started at 50 mg with a planned dose escalation to 100, 150, and 200 mg. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) and bioavailability were evaluated. Twenty patients were enrolled. For dose level 1 (50 mg), the second of three treated patients had a DLT of grade 3 hypertension. In the dose level 1 expansion cohort, three patients had no DLTs. No further DLTs were encountered during escalation until the 200-mg dose was reached. At the 200 mg 3-AP dose level, two treated patients had DLTs of grade 3 hypoxia. One additional DLT of grade 4 febrile neutropenia was subsequently observed at the de-escalated 150 mg dose. One DLT in 6 evaluable patients established the MTD as 150 mg per dose on this dosing schedule. Responses in the form of stable disease occurred in 5 (25%) of 20 patients. The oral bioavailability of 3-AP was 67 ± 29% and was consistent with the finding that the MTD by the oral route was 33% higher than by the intravenous route. Oral 3-AP is well tolerated and has an MTD similar to its intravenous form after accounting for the oral bioavailability. Oral 3-AP is associated with a modest clinical benefit rate of 25% in our treated patient population with advanced solid tumors.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 11/2011; 69(3):835-43. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fenretinide is a synthetic retinoid that is cytotoxic to a variety of cancers. We conducted a phase II trial of oral fenretinide in patients with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer. Eligible patients had histologically confirmed prostate cancer and a confirmed rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >or= 2 ng/mL following either radical prostatectomy and/or pelvic radiation therapy, without clinical or radiographic evidence of metastasis. The primary endpoint was PSA response, which was defined as a confirmed decrease by >or=50%, and >or=5 ng/mL, from the pretreatment value. Treatment comprised oral fenretinide 900 mg/m2 twice daily for 1 week, every 3 weeks, for 1 year. After a median follow-up of 17.7 months, out of 23 patients, 7 (30%) patients had PSA stable disease (SD), 11 (48%) patients had PSA progression within 3 months, 4 patients had minimal increases over 3 months that did not qualify as SD or progression (17%), and one patient (4%) was not evaluable. Median time to PSA progression was 4.6 months (95% CI, 3.2-8.2 months). Observed grade 3 toxicities included fatigue, pain, hypermagnesemia, a rise in lipase, and nyctalopia. Although well-tolerated, oral fenretinide did not meet prespecified PSA criteria for response in biochemically recurrent prostate cancer; however, 30% of patients had SD, which suggests modest single-agent clinical activity. The role of different formulations of fenretinide, which might allow for higher serum concentrations of the drug, is currently under investigation.
    Clinical Genitourinary Cancer 01/2009; 7(1):43-50. · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The primary goal of this trial was to determine the response rate of single-agent vorinostat in patients with metastatic breast cancer. The secondary goals included assessment of time to progression, evaluation of toxicities, and overall survival. From June 2005 to March 2006, 14 patients received vorinostat, 200 mg p.o., twice daily for 14 days of each 21 day cycle. Response and progression were evaluated using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria. The median age for all patients was 60.5 years (range, 37-88). Eight patients were estrogen receptor and/or progesterone positive, four were Her-2 positive. Sites of metastatic disease included brain, liver, lungs, bones, pelvis, pleura, chest wall, and distant lymph nodes. Patients received a median of 1.5 prior (range, 0-2) chemotherapeutic regimens for metastatic disease. Fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, and lymphopenia were the most frequent clinically significant adverse effects. The median number of cycles delivered was 2 (range, 1-20). There were no complete or partial responses, and the study was terminated after the first stage; however, 4 patients were observed with stable disease with time to progression of 4, 8, 9, and 14 months. The median number of months that patients received treatment on this study was 1.7 (range, 0.5-14). Although not meeting the RECIST response criteria for adequate single-agent activity, the observed tolerable toxicities and the potential for clinical benefit in terms of stable disease suggest that further assessment of vorinostat as a part of combination therapy with either chemotherapeutic or targeted agents in metastatic breast might be undertaken.
    Clinical Cancer Research 12/2008; 14(21):7138-42. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the antitumor activity of tandem cycles of high-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation (aPSCT) in relapsed germ cell tumors by using high-dose paclitaxel, carboplatin, etoposide, and ifosfamide. Thirty-three patients were entered, and 31 underwent protocol therapy. Paclitaxel 350 mg/m2 (5 patients) or 425 mg/m2 (26 patients) by 24-hour continuous intravenous infusion was followed by 3 daily doses of carboplatin and either etoposide (cycle 1) or ifosfamide/mesna (cycle 2). The carboplatin dose had a calculated area under the curve of 7 mg-min/mL, and the daily dose of etoposide was 20 mg/kg (cycle 1). Ifosfamide 3 g/m2/d for 3 days (with mesna uroprotection) was substituted for etoposide in cycle 2. Each cycle was supported by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells. Thirty-one patients were evaluable for response, toxicity, and long-term disease control. Two patients did not undergo aPSCT because of rapid disease progression. Nineteen patients received both cycles of aPSCT, 8 progressed after cycle 1, 3 refused the second cycle, and 1 died of fungal infection during cycle 1. Twelve patients remain relapse free at a median of 67 months from the initiation of therapy. Whereas the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group category at the time of initial diagnosis did not seem to predict outcome, the patient's probability of achieving durable remission was significantly associated with the Beyer prognostic score at the time of protocol entry. Regimens containing the most active agents in relapsed nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, including high-dose paclitaxel, are well tolerated and have promising activity even in patients with poor-risk features who do not achieve durable remissions with standard therapy. The Beyer prognostic system is a valuable predictor for patients undergoing aPSCT.
    Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 12/2005; 11(11):903-11. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on a predictive model of long-term outcome in 114 high-risk breast cancer patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy between 1989 and 1994. Paraffin-blocks from 90 of the 114 primaries were assessed for the presence of five risk factors: grade, mitotic index, protein expression of p53, HER2/neu, and oestrogen/progesterone receptor status; we could analyse the effect of risk factors in 84 of these 90 tumours. Seven-year relapse-free and overall survival was 58% (95% confidence interval 44-74%) and 82% (95% confidence interval 71-94%) vs 33% (95% confidence interval 21-52%) and 41% (95% confidence interval 28-60%) for patients whose primary tumours displayed > or =3 risk factors vs patients with < or =2 risk factors. For the entire group of 168 high-risk breast cancer patients, inflammatory stage IIIB disease and involved post-mastectomy margins were associated with decreased relapse-free survival and overall survival; patients treated with non-doxorubicin containing standard adjuvant therapy experienced worse overall survival (RR, 2.08; 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 4.16; P=0.04), while adjuvant tamoxifen improved overall survival (RR, 0.65; 95% confidence interval 0.41-1.01; P=0.054). Future trial designs and patient selection for studies specific for high-risk breast cancer patients should include appropriate prognostic models. Validation of such models could come from recently completed randomised, prospective trials.
    British Journal of Cancer 07/2002; 87(3):281-8. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was performed in order to evaluate the toxicities, progression-free and overall survival of patients with responsive residual or recurrent ovarian cancer treated with high-dose chemotherapy. Twenty-seven patients were treated. Doxorubicin, 165 mg/m(2) over 96 h (days -12 to -8), etoposide 700 mg/m(2) every day x3 (days -6 to -4), and cyclophosphamide 4.2 g/m(2) on d -3 was followed by stem cells and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. The median days of granulocyte count <500/microl was 14 (range 10-42) and platelets <20,000/microl was 13 (range 2-80). Median numbers of red cell and platelet transfusions were 15 (5-16) and 14 (4-103). Toxicity included mucositis requiring narcotic analgesia in all patients. Asymptomatic decreases in ejection fraction to values <50% were observed in four patients. No clinical congestive heart failure was observed. One death due to sepsis was observed. Median progression-free survival is 7.5 months (1.0-56 months); five patients remain alive, two of whom remain progression-free at 19.5 and 24.5 months post transplant. Median overall survival is 14.0 months (1-68 months). We conclude that high-dose anthracyclines may be safely administered to ovarian cancer patients. The short overall and progression-free survivals observed in our population suggest that this combination is not optimal.
    Bone Marrow Transplantation 11/2001; 28(9):859-63. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of these sequential phase I studies was to evaluate the antiemetic efficacy and pharmacokinetics of high-dose continuous infusion prochlorperazine. A total of 52 patients with advanced cancer were treated in two sequential phase I studies utilizing high-dose prochlorperazine. In study 1, designed to investigate the antiemetic effects of dose-intensive prochlorperazine, various cisplatin-based multiagent chemotherapeutic regimens were administered in combination with escalating doses of prochlorperazine. In study 2, a fixed dose of cisplatin (60 mg/m2) was administered over 24 h as a continuous intravenous infusion in combination with infusional high-dose prochlorperazine. Antiemetic efficacy in the first trial was assessed in terms of the number of episodes of nausea, retching, and/or emesis during the 24 h following cisplatin administration. The pharmacokinetics of high-dose prochlorperazine were evaluated in eight patients treated in study 2 at the two dose levels below those at which dose-limiting toxicity was noted. The maximally tolerated dose of prochlorperazine in combination with cisplatin (60 mg/m2 administered as a continuous infusion over 24 h) was 24 mg/h. The dose-limiting toxicity was grade 4 agitation and confusion noted in one patient treated at 26 mg/h. This patient died 3 days following cessation of chemotherapy due to the toxicity of the regimen in combination with the debilitating pulmonary effects of the disease. The mean end of infusion prochlorperazine level at the 24 mg/h dose level was 1.1 microM, a concentration previously reported to be consistent with the reversal of the multidrug resistance phenotype. Two partial responses were observed in study 2. We conclude that the antiemetic efficacy of high-dose infusional prochlorperazine does not appear to be improved over more convenient bolus administration. However, prochlorperazine levels consistent with those required in vitro for drug resistance reversal are attainable within the dose range having a tolerable toxicity profile.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 05/2001; 47(4):327-32. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of these sequential phase I studies was to evaluate the antiemetic efficacy and pharmacokinetics of high-dose continuous infusion prochlorperazine. Methods: A total of 52 patients with advanced cancer were treated in two sequential phase I studies utilizing high-dose prochlorperazine. In study 1, designed to investigate the antiemetic effects of dose-intensive prochlorperazine, various cisplatin-based multiagent chemotherapeutic regimens were administered in combination with escalating doses of prochlorperazine. In study 2, a fixed dose of cisplatin (60 mg/m2) was administered over 24 h as a continuous intravenous infusion in combination with infusional high-dose prochlorperazine. Antiemetic efficacy in the first trial was assessed in terms of the number of episodes of nausea, retching, and/or emesis during the 24 h following cisplatin administration. The pharmacokinetics of high-dose prochlorperazine were evaluated in eight patients treated in study 2 at the two dose levels below those at which dose-limiting toxicity was noted. Results: The maximally tolerated dose of prochlorperazine in combination with cisplatin (60 mg/m2 administered as a continuous infusion over 24 h) was 24 mg/h. The dose-limiting toxicity was grade 4 agitation and confusion noted in one patient treated at 26 mg/h. This patient died 3 days following cessation of chemotherapy due to the toxicity of the regimen in combination with the debilitating pulmonary effects of the disease. The mean end of infusion prochlorperazine level at the 24 mg/h dose level was 1.1 M, a concentration previously reported to be consistent with the reversal of the multidrug resistance phenotype. Two partial responses were observed in study 2. Conclusions: We conclude that the antiemetic efficacy of high-dose infusional prochlorperazine does not appear to be improved over more convenient bolus administration. However, prochlorperazine levels consistent with those required in vitro for drug resistance reversal are attainable within the dose range having a tolerable toxicity profile.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 03/2001; 47(4):327-332. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. This trial was performed to determine the response rate and progression-free and overall survivals of patients with advanced recurrent ovarian cancer who were treated with intraperitoneal cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil.Methods. Twenty-four patients with ovarian cancer were entered on this trial and treated with intraperitoneal (ip) cisplatin (DDP) and ip 5-fluorouracil, every 3 weeks for eight cycles. Following iv hydration, the cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil were administered through an ip catheter in 2 liters of 0.9% normal saline with a 4-h dwell.Results. All patients were evaluable for progression-free and overall survival and toxicity analysis, and 22 patients for response. The median age was 59 (range, 35–71); initial disease status included 9 patients with residual disease following chemotherapy prior to entry on this study; 5 patients had progressed, and 10 patients had recurrent disease more than 6 months following initial chemotherapy. Of the 9 patients with residual disease, 1 complete response and 3 partial responses were observed; of 10 patients with recurrent disease, 1 complete and 1 partial response were observed for an overall response rate of 27%. No objective responses were seen in the 7 patients who were platinum-refractory on protocol entry. The median progression-free and overall survivals are 7.0 (range, 0.5–137) and 15.5 (range, 3–147) months, respectively. Toxicity included hypomagnesemia, vomiting, abdominal pain, and mild anemia. Only one patient required a dosage adjustment of cisplatin for a serum creatinine elevation >2.0 mg/dl.Conclusions. We conclude that the combination of ip cisplatin and 5-FU is an effective regimen for patients with residual or relapsed epithelial ovarian cancer with survival durations, response rates, and toxicity profiles that compare favorably with those of other second-line ovarian cancer regimens. Patients who are primarily platinum-refractory are unlikely to benefit from these agents administered into the peritoneal cavity.
    Gynecologic Oncology. 06/2000; 77(3):433-438.
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    ABSTRACT: This trial was performed to determine the response rate and progression-free and overall survivals of patients with advanced recurrent ovarian cancer who were treated with intraperitoneal cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. Twenty-four patients with ovarian cancer were entered on this trial and treated with intraperitoneal (ip) cisplatin (DDP) and ip 5-fluorouracil, every 3 weeks for eight cycles. Following iv hydration, the cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil were administered through an ip catheter in 2 liters of 0.9% normal saline with a 4-h dwell. All patients were evaluable for progression-free and overall survival and toxicity analysis, and 22 patients for response. The median age was 59 (range, 35-71); initial disease status included 9 patients with residual disease following chemotherapy prior to entry on this study; 5 patients had progressed, and 10 patients had recurrent disease more than 6 months following initial chemotherapy. Of the 9 patients with residual disease, 1 complete response and 3 partial responses were observed; of 10 patients with recurrent disease, 1 complete and 1 partial response were observed for an overall response rate of 27%. No objective responses were seen in the 7 patients who were platinum-refractory on protocol entry. The median progression-free and overall survivals are 7.0 (range, 0.5-137) and 15.5 (range, 3-147) months, respectively. Toxicity included hypomagnesemia, vomiting, abdominal pain, and mild anemia. Only one patient required a dosage adjustment of cisplatin for a serum creatinine elevation >2.0 mg/dl. We conclude that the combination of ip cisplatin and 5-FU is an effective regimen for patients with residual or relapsed epithelial ovarian cancer with survival durations, response rates, and toxicity profiles that compare favorably with those of other second-line ovarian cancer regimens. Patients who are primarily platinum-refractory are unlikely to benefit from these agents administered into the peritoneal cavity.
    Gynecologic Oncology 06/2000; 77(3):433-8. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Forty-three patients with ovarian cancer were entered on this trial and treated with intravenous (iv) cyclophosphamide (C) and doxorubicin (A), and intraperitoneal (ip) cisplatin (DDP), every 21 days for eight cycles. Following iv hydration, the cisplatin was administered through an intraperitoneal catheter in 2 L of 0.9% normal saline with a 4-h dwell. All patients are evaluable for overall and progression-free survival with a median follow-up of 70 months (range: 3-162 months); 39 patients are evaluable for response. All complete responses were surgically confirmed. The median age was 59 (range 28-82 years); 3 patients were stage IC, 5 were IIC, 14 patients were stage III (optimally debulked), 14 patients were stage III (suboptimally debulked), and 7 patients were stage IV. Two patients had received prior alkylator therapy. Six of 8 patients with Stage IC or II remain without evidence of disease at a mean of 12 years following chemotherapy. Of 14 optimally debulked stage III patients, there were 7 complete responses, 3 partial responses, 1 patient with stable disease, and 3 inevaluable patients. Of 14 suboptimally debulked stage III patients there were 4 complete responses, 4 partial responses, 3 with stable disease, 2 progressions on treatment, and 1 inevaluable patient. Five-year progression-free and overall survivals for stage III optimally debulked patients are 21 and 64%, respectively. At 10 years, progression-free and overall survivals for this group are 21 and 29%, respectively. Toxicity included neutropenia (complicated by sepsis in 2 patients), infrequent thrombocytopenia, and mild anemia. Three patients developed transient serum creatinine elevations >2.0 mg/dl; however, decreased creatinine clearance was noted in 93/258 (36%) of evaluable courses which required a cisplatin dose reduction per protocol. Controllable hypomagnesemia, nausea, and emesis were also observed. We conclude that the combination of iv CA and ip DDP is an effective regimen with long-term progression-free and overall survivals that compare favorably with those of other published studies of intravenous or intraperitoneal chemotherapy. This report is unusual in terms of the prolonged follow-up for all patients enrolled. These long-term results lend further support to recently published trials documenting the efficacy of intraperitoneal chemotherapy for patients with this disease.
    Gynecologic Oncology 12/1999; 75(3):419-26. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Forty-three patients with ovarian cancer were entered on this trial and treated with intravenous (iv) cyclophosphamide (C) and doxorubicin (A), and intraperitoneal (ip) cisplatin (DDP), every 21 days for eight cycles. Following iv hydration, the cisplatin was administered through an intraperitoneal catheter in 2 L of 0.9% normal saline with a 4-h dwell. All patients are evaluable for overall and progression-free survival with a median follow-up of 70 months (range: 3–162 months); 39 patients are evaluable for response. All complete responses were surgically confirmed. The median age was 59 (range 28–82 years); 3 patients were stage IC, 5 were IIC, 14 patients were stage III (optimally debulked), 14 patients were stage III (suboptimally debulked), and 7 patients were stage IV. Two patients had received prior alkylator therapy. Six of 8 patients with Stage IC or II remain without evidence of disease at a mean of 12 years following chemotherapy. Of 14 optimally debulked stage III patients, there were 7 complete responses, 3 partial responses, 1 patient with stable disease, and 3 inevaluable patients. Of 14 suboptimally debulked stage III patients there were 4 complete responses, 4 partial responses, 3 with stable disease, 2 progressions on treatment, and 1 inevaluable patient. Five-year progression-free and overall survivals for stage III optimally debulked patients are 21 and 64%, respectively. At 10 years, progression-free and overall survivals for this group are 21 and 29%, respectively. Toxicity included neutropenia (complicated by sepsis in 2 patients), infrequent thrombocytopenia, and mild anemia. Three patients developed transient serum creatinine elevations >2.0 mg/dl; however, decreased creatinine clearance was noted in 93/258 (36%) of evaluable courses which required a cisplatin dose reduction per protocol. Controllable hypomagnesemia, nausea, and emesis were also observed. We conclude that the combination of iv CA and ip DDP is an effective regimen with long-term progression-free and overall survivals that compare favorably with those of other published studies of intravenous or intraperitoneal chemotherapy. This report is unusual in terms of the prolonged follow-up for all patients enrolled. These long-term results lend further support to recently published trials documenting the efficacy of intraperitoneal chemotherapy for patients with this disease.
    Gynecologic Oncology. 01/1999; 75(3):419-426.
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    ABSTRACT: 4'-deoxydoxorubicin (DxDx) was administered to 17 patients with locally advanced or metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma. Treatment cycles were repeated every 21 days. 15 eligible patients with a Karnofsky performance status of 50% or better (median: 70%) received at least one course of treatment; a median of 2 courses of DxDx was delivered (range 1 to 13). The median dose per treatment course was 26 mg/m2 (range 8.5 mg/m2 to 53 mg/m2). 69% of patients required dose reduction following the first course of therapy due to grade 3 or 4 myelosuppression, primarily neutropenia. The principal side effects included anemia, mild gastrointestinal toxicities, and alopecia; one patient experienced a 10% decrease in cardiac ejection fraction without clinical cardiac toxicity. Of the 15 patients assessable for response and toxicities, 1 patient had a partial response lasting 2.5 months. The median survival from the time of the first treatment was 3.3 months. We conclude that DxDx has only limited activity in the treatment of advanced gastric adenocarcinoma.
    Investigational New Drugs 03/1991; 9(1):83-5. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 4 -deoxydoxorubicin (DxDx) was administered to 17 patients with locally advanced or metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma. Treatment cycles were repeated every 21 days. 15 eligible patients with a Karnofsky performance status of 50% or better (median: 70%) received at least one course of treatment; a median of 2 courses of DxDx was delivered (range 1 to 13). The median dose per treatment course was 26 mg/m2 (range 8.5 mg/m2 to 53 mg/m2). 69% of patients required dose reduction following the first course of therapy due to grade 3 or 4 myelosuppression, primarily neutropenia. The principal side effects included anemia, mild gastrointestinal toxicities, and alopecia; one patient experienced a 10% decrease in cardiac ejection fraction without clinical cardiac toxicity. Of the 15 patients assessable for response and toxicities, 1 patient had a partial response lasting 2.5 months. The median survival from the time of the first treatment was 3.3 months. We conclude that DxDx has only limited activity in the treatment of advanced gastric adenocarcinoma.
    Investigational New Drugs 01/1991; 9(1):83-85. · 3.50 Impact Factor