[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the preoperative assessment of early-stage cervical cancer using pathologic findings as the reference standard. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective multi-center trial enrolling 209 consecutive women with early-stage cervical cancer (FIGO IA2-IIA) scheduled for surgery. The following parameters were assessed on US and MRI and compared to pathology: remaining tumor, size, tumor stromal invasion<2/3 (superficial) or ≥2/3 (deep), and parametrial invasion. RESULTS: Complete data were available for 182 patients. The agreement between US and pathology was excellent for detecting tumors, correctly classifying bulky tumors (>4cm), and detecting deep stromal invasion (kappa values 0.84, 0.82, and 0.81 respectively); and good for classifying small tumors (<2cm) and detecting parametrial invasion (kappa values 0.78 and 0.75, respectively). The agreement between MRI and histology was good for classifying tumors as <2cm, or >4cm, and detecting deep stromal invasion (kappa values 0.71, 0.76, and 0.77, respectively). It was moderately accurate in tumor detection, and in assessing parametrial invasion (kappa values 0.52 and 0.45, respectively). The agreement between histology and US was significantly better in assessing residual tumor (p<0.001) and parametrial invasion (p<0.001) than the results obtained by MRI. Imaging methods were not significantly influenced by previous cone biopsy. CONCLUSION: US and MRI are highly accurate for the preoperative assessment of women with early-stage cervical cancer, although US may be more accurate in detecting residual tumors and assessing parametrial invasion.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For primary melanomas, tumor thickness, mitotic rate, and ulceration are well-laid cornerstones of prognostication. However, a molecular exposition of melanoma aggressiveness is critically missing. We recently uncovered a four-class structure in metastatic melanoma, which predicts outcome and informs biology. This raises the possibility that a molecular structure exists even in the early stages of melanoma and that molecular determinants could underlie histophenotype and eventual patient outcome.
We subjected 223 archival primary melanomas to a horizontally integrated analysis of RNA expression, oncogenic mutations at 238 lesions, histomorphometry, and survival data.
Our previously described four-class structure that was elucidated in metastatic lesions was evident within the expression space of primary melanomas. Because these subclasses converged into two larger prognostic and phenotypic groups, we used the metastatic lesions to develop a binary subtype-based signature capable of distinguishing between "high" and "low" grade forms of the disease. The two-grade signature was subsequently applied to the primary melanomas. Compared with low-grade tumors, high-grade primary melanomas were significantly associated with increased tumor thickness, mitotic rate, ulceration (all P < 0.01), and poorer relapse-free (HR = 4.94; 95% CI, 2.84-8.59), and overall (HR = 3.66; 95% CI, 2.40-5.58) survival. High-grade melanomas exhibited elevated levels of proliferation and BRCA1/DNA damage signaling genes, whereas low-grade lesions harbored higher expression of immune genes. Importantly, the molecular-grade signature was validated in two external gene expression data sets.
We provide evidence for a molecular organization within melanomas, which is preserved across all stages of disease.
Clinical Cancer Research 06/2012; 18(15):4026-36. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prospective cohort studies about cutaneous melanoma (CM) risk are still few. Host factor- and UVR exposure data were collected prospectively by questionnaire in this population-based cohort study including 40,000 Swedish born women, aged 25-64 years at enrolment (1990). Risk for CM (Cox regression and Stepwise Cox regression [SCR], hazard ratios [HRs] with 95% Confidence Intervals [CI]) in relation to risk factors, age groups (older or younger than 40 years) and primary site, were analyzed. In 29,520 women with complete follow-up through 2007, 155 invasive and 60 in situ CM were recorded. High numbers of nevi (HR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.7-5.0) and heredity (HR, 3.7; 95% CI, 2.0-6.8) were associated with risk for CM. SCR analysis added red hair as a risk factor. Sunbed use >10 times/year increased risk for women <40 years (HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.0-6.2) and a trend for risk associated with sunbathing vacations (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-2.0) was shown for women >40 years. Trunk melanoma showed correlations with high numbers of nevi (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.2-7.3) and heredity (HR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1-9.4). Head/neck site was correlated to sunbathing vacations (HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.3) and heredity (HR, 7.6; 95% CI, 1.8-31.8). Our study supports divergent etiologic pathways to CM, with high numbers of nevi correlated to increased risk for trunk CM. Furthermore, it confirms that high numbers of nevi, red hair and heredity for CM are the most important risk factors and frequent sunbed use might be a risk factor for younger women.
International Journal of Cancer 09/2011; 131(3):706-15. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the gray-scale and vascular characteristics of endometrial cancer in relation to stage, grade and size using two-dimensional (2D)/three-dimensional (3D) transvaginal ultrasound.
This was a prospective multicenter study including 144 women with endometrial cancer undergoing transvaginal ultrasound before surgery. The sonographic characteristics assessed were echogenicity, endometrial/myometrial border, fibroids, vascular pattern, color score and tumor/uterus anteroposterior (AP) ratio. Histological assessment of tumor stage, grade, type and growth pattern was performed.
Hyperechoic or isoechoic tumors were more often seen in Stage IA cancer, whereas mixed or hypoechoic tumors were more often found in cancers of Stage IB or greater (P = 0.003). Hyperechogenicity was more common in Grade 1-2 tumors (i.e. well or moderately differentiated) (P = 0.02) and in tumors with a tumor/uterine AP ratio of < 50% (P = 0.002), whereas a non-hyperechoic appearance was more commonly found in Grade 3 tumors (i.e. poorly differentiated) and in tumors with a tumor/uterine AP ratio of ≥ 50%. Multiple global vessels were more often seen in tumors of Stage IB or greater than in Stage IA tumors (P = 0.02), in Grade 3 tumors than in Grade 1 and 2 tumors (P = 0.02) and in tumors with a tumor/uterine AP ratio of ≥ 50% (P < 0.001). A moderate/high color score was significantly more common in tumors of higher stage (P = 0.03) and larger size (P = 0.001).
The sonographic appearance of endometrial cancer is significantly associated with tumor stage, grade and size. More advanced tumors often have a mixed/hypoechoic echogenicity, a higher color score and multiple globally entering vessels, whereas less advanced tumors are more often hyperechoic and have no or a low color score.
Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 05/2011; 38(5):586-93. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disseminated melanoma is an aggressive disease with fatal outcome. Better understanding of the underlying biology is needed to find effective treatment. We applied microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization, gene expression and CpG island methylation analysis of primary tumors and multiple metastases from five melanoma patients with the aim of analyzing the molecular patterns of melanoma progression. Epigenetic profiling showed that the multiple metastases after a single primary melanoma share similar methylation patterns for many genes, although differences in methylation between the lesions were evident for several genes, example, PTEN, TFAP2C, and RARB. In addition, DNA copy number and global gene expression profiles of tumors from individual patients were highly similar, confirming common origin of metastases. Some of the identified genomic aberrations, for example, gain of chromosome 6p and loss of chromosomes 6q and 10, persisted during progression, indicating early changes highly important for melanoma development. Homozygous deletions at 3p26.1 and 6q23.2-q23.3 appeared in two consecutive metastases originating from the same primary tumor, respectively, in a mutually exclusive manner that provides evidence for two genetically different subclones. However, in another case, the similarity of the copy number aberrations in subsequent metastatic lesions suggests sequential metastatic development through the clonal evolution. These data are further corroborated by a switch in CDH1 and CDH2 expression between metastases from the same patient. In conclusion, our results provide evidence for different models of metastatic progression in melanoma.
Melanoma research 10/2010; 20(5):381-91. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disseminated melanoma is an aggressive disease with fatal outcome. Better understanding of the underlying biology is needed to find effective treatment. We applied microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization, gene expression and CpG island methylation analysis of primary tumors and multiple metastases from five melanoma patients with the aim of analyzing the molecular patterns of melanoma progression. Epigenetic profiling showed that the multiple metastases after a single primary melanoma share similar methylation patterns for many genes, although differences in methylation between the lesions were evident for several genes, example, PTEN, TFAP2C, and RARB. In addition, DNA copy number and global gene expression profiles of tumors from individual patients were highly similar, confirming common origin of metastases. Some of the identified genomic aberrations, for example, gain of chromosome 6p and loss of chromosomes 6q and 10, persisted during progression, indicating early changes highly important for melanoma development. Homozygous deletions at 3p26.1 and 6q23.2–q23.3 appeared in two consecutive metastases originating from the same primary tumor, respectively, in a mutually exclusive manner that provides evidence for two genetically different subclones. However, in another case, the similarity of the copy number aberrations in subsequent metastatic lesions suggests sequential metastatic development through the clonal evolution. These data are further corroborated by a switch in CDH1 and CDH2 expression between metastases from the same patient. In conclusion, our results provide evidence for different models of metastatic progression in melanoma.
Melanoma Research 09/2010; 20(5):381-391. · 2.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phenotypic characteristics were examined in melanoma-prone southern Swedish CDKN2A (p16-113insArg/p14ARF-128insSer) mutation families, in relation to the CDKN2A genotype, nevi, clinically atypical nevi (CAN) and melanoma. Individuals from eight melanoma-prone families, with index patients carrying the CDKN2A mutation, were offered skin examinations and genotyping (CDKN2A and MC1R). Ninety-three individuals above 18 years of age participated; 29 invasive melanomas in 16 patients were recorded, all in the 38 verified CDKN2A mutation carriers. Median age at diagnosis was 36 years. Several MC1R variants were observed. A significant correlation to CAN (P=0.01) and red hair colour (P=0.02) could be confirmed in melanoma patients. A positive mutation status (CDKN2A) was correlated to one or more CAN (P=0.007) but neither to blue eyes, red hair colour, heavy freckling nor high number of nevi. For mutation carriers, median total naevus count was 24 and interquartile range was 12-47 (mean 31); whereas for the whole cohort, median total naevus count was 12 and interquartile range was 5-25 (mean 22). No participant fulfilled the atypical mole syndrome phenotype criteria. Melanomas were diagnosed only in mutation carriers, and melanoma diagnosis was statistically correlated to the presence of one or more CAN and red hair colour, supporting the possible synergistic effect of a MC1R mutation on increased risk of melanoma in patients with a CDKN2A mutation. Family history, with verified tumour diagnoses, remains an important clinical tool for finding mutation carriers for referral to clinical geneticists and simultaneous presence of CAN in probable mutation carriers might strengthen this indication. The atypical mole syndrome phenotype was, however, not verified in the studied families and total naevus counts were low.
Melanoma research 08/2010; 20(4):266-72. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Databases with information on malignant tumors are of great value for epidemiologic studies. From the Regional South Swedish Tumour Registry, which is of documented high quality, 24 patients out of 8008 with reported melanoma diagnosis 1973-2003 were reported as having multiple (> or =3) primary, invasive cutaneous malignant melanomas (CMM). Of the 76 tumours identified in these patients, 7 (9%) were found not to be invasive melanomas. Additional cases could be put into question since the lesions could be interpreted as epidermotropic metastases, a diagnosis which can be difficult to establish reliably by microscopic examination. Among the 24 patients we could also identify 8 (10%) additional lesions representing invasive CMM, not included in the Tumour Registry database. Thorough information concerning an earlier melanoma diagnosis and its site of presentation is needed from the clinician and the pathologist for optimal assessment of the histology and the prognostication of the patient, as well as proper reporting to a tumour registry. Identifying multiple primary malignant melanomas is also of special importance for counselling patients belonging to families with hereditary disease. In this study it is shown that diagnosing and reporting multiple malignant melanomas can be problematic due to insufficient communication and to the rare and deceptive capability of cutaneous metastases to imitate primary tumours.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retroperitoneal ectopic pregnancies are extremely rare and a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge as an early diagnosis is difficult and all treatments entail a risk for severe bleeding. We present a case of a live completely retroperitoneal ectopic pregnancy in the right obturator fossa. Following 3D color Doppler vaginal ultrasonography to evaluate the relation to larger blood vessels the pregnancy was completely removed by robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery. The hypogastric artery was temporarily occluded by removable vessel clips. Time for surgery was 126 minutes, no bleeding occurred. The postoperative course was uneventful and s-betahCG normalized in five weeks. Histopathology of the intact specimen showed trophoblast surrounded by lymphatic tissue. We believe robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery is a feasible and safe technique for surgery of retroperitoneal ectopic pregnancies with similar or other locations allowing occlusion of the main supplying artery. Lymphatic spread may explain retroperitoneal ectopic pregnancies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to describe the sonographic characteristics of squamous cell cancer (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) of the cervix using transvaginal ultrasound.
Women with early stage cervical cancer undergoing transvaginal ultrasound examination before surgery were prospectively included. The sonographic characteristics were assessed with regard to tumor morphology, vascularization, size, extension and location. Histological assessment of tumor subtype, size, growth pattern, extension and location was performed. Both sonographic and histological assessments were carried out according to a standardized protocol.
Fifty-five women were recruited. Ten were excluded because no tumor was seen on ultrasound examination and five were excluded because radical surgery was aborted as a result of positive lymph nodes, detected using the sentinel node technique. Among the remaining 40 women, 20 had AC and 20 had SCC. At pathological examination, 34 women had tumors confined to the cervix, three had parametrial invasion and three had vaginal invasion. Hypoechogenicity was associated with SCC in 73% (11/15) of the women, while isoechogenicity indicated AC in 68% (13/19) of the women (P = 0.03). Mixed echogenicity (n = 4) showed a non-significant association with larger tumor volume (P = 0.23). Hyperechogenicity was found in two women, both of whom had the less malignant villoglandular AC. Color Doppler signals were found in all cases of AC and in 90% (18/20) of cases of SCC, compared with most normal cervical tissue in which virtually no detectable vascularization was found.
We found that the sonographic appearance of SCC and AC differs. This knowledge should be useful in the clinical evaluation of cervical tumors.
Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 03/2010; 36(4):512-6. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate the sentinel node (SLN) concept for lymphatic mapping in early stage cervical cancer.
105 women with early stage (1a1-2a) cervical cancer were scheduled for the sentinel node procedure in conjunction with a complete pelvic lymphadenectomy. The day before surgery, 1-1.5 mL 120MBq Tc(99) albumin nanocolloid was injected submucosally at four points around the tumor followed by a lymphoscintigram (LSG) to achieve an overview of the radiotracer uptake.
During surgery, the overall detection rate (gamma probe) of at least one SLN was 90% (94/105 women) whereas at least one SLN was identified in 94% (61/65 women) with a tumor <or=2 cm. Bilateral SLNs were identified in 62/105 (59%) of the women. Among 18 women with any metastatic lymph node 17 had a metastatic SLN (sensitivity 94%, 95% CI 73-100%). Among 61 women with a tumor <or=2 cm, all five women with any metastatic lymph node also had a metastatic SLN (sensitivity 100%). One woman with a 1.5-cm squamous epithelial carcinoma had metastatic positive SLNs on each side but also one metastatic bulky (>2 cm) node without radiotracer uptake. The negative predictive value for patients with cervical cancers <or=2 cm was 100%.
The SLN-technique seems to be an accurate method for identifying lymph node metastases in cervical cancer patients with tumors of 2 cm or smaller. In case of a unilateral SLN only, a complete lymphadenectomy should be performed on the radionegative side. All bulky nodes must be removed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The results of a treatment method on adenocarcinoma corpus uteri stage I-II based upon cytometrically measured DNA ploidy are presented. All patients had a simple hysterectomy. Adjuvant treatment (postoperative vaginal brachytherapy) were given only to those patients with non-diploid tumours regardless of stage and grade. A total of 1,634 women with endometroid adenocarcinoma corpus uteri stage I-II were included where 1,396 patients were followed-up for at least 5 years or until death and the remaining 238 patients were followed-up 3.5-5 years or until death. By using cytometry only, we identified a low-risk group comprising 83% of the patients (with 5.2% dead from their disease) and a high-risk group of 17% (with 15.7% dead from their disease). By using grade only (well- and moderately differentiated vs poorly differentiated), the low-risk group comprised 87% of the patients (with 4.6% dead from their disease) and the high-risk group 13% (with 13% dead from their disease). By using stage only (stage Ia and Ib vs stage Ic and II), the low-risk group comprised 78% of the patients (with 3.6% dead from their disease) and the high risk group 22% (with 14.5% dead from their disease). By combining these prognostic parameters, we were able to identify small subgroups with increased mortality rates in need of adjuvant therapy. As ploidy still had a strong prognostic strength regardless of given adjuvant radiotherapy, we do not believe that this treatment was effective. We therefore recommend future research to be directed toward cytostatics as an alternative adjuvant treatment.
Anticancer research 11/2009; 29(11):4731-5. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim was to evaluate the outcome of fertility-sparing treatment in ovarian borderline tumors and early invasive ovarian cancer.
All women diagnosed with an ovarian borderline tumor or early invasive ovarian cancer who were treated with fertility-sparing surgery at the University Hospital in Lund between 1988 and 2002 were identified and included in the study (n=23).
During the follow-up period of a median 92 months, range 11-185 months, no relapse was found in the patients with Stage 1a tumors, including both borderline tumors (n=12) and invasive well-differentiated (n=9) and moderately differentiated (n=1) ovarian cancers. One patient with poorly differentiated ovarian cancer Stage 1c was 13 weeks' pregnant at the time of the primary operation. Although, unilateral oophorectomy was performed she insisted on continuing the pregnancy. At 37 weeks she had a cesarean section and the ovarian cancer was disseminated. Chemotherapy was given but she died less than a year later. None of the other patients received chemotherapy. In total, 30 children were born to 15 patients. Prophylactic removal of the remaining ovary+/-hysterectomy was accepted in only in six of the women after fulfilling their desire to have more children.
Young women with Stage 1a epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline tumors do not have to give up their fertility in order to receive successful and safe treatment of their disease. However, several of these patients do not accept the recommendation of prophylactic oophorectomy of the contralateral ovary and hysterectomy after completion of childbearing.
European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 10/2007; 134(1):110-4. · 1.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hypotheses that Swedish patients with four or more primary tumours [including at least one cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM)] harbour an increased number of CDKN2A (formerly p16) germline mutations, and that this group of patients show a predisposition to other tumours, e.g. nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), were studied descriptively. So far the mutation 113insArg explains all CDKN2A-associated CMM in ethnic Swedes.
All patients with four or more primary tumours, of which at least one was a CMM, from the Southern Swedish Regional Tumour Registry, between 1958 and 1999, were included in this study.
Forty-four patients were found and subdivided into three groups according to having multiple CMM (group A) or single CMM +/- NMSC (groups B and C). Screening for the presence of the Swedish founder mutation 113insArg in blood or in tissue blocks was performed.
Patients in group A were younger at the time of the first CMM diagnosis than patients in group B and group C. The 113insArg mutation was found in four of 44 patients (9%), three with multiple CMM. In group C (n = 14) no founder mutation was evident, while in group B (n = 15) one mutation carrier was found. Nonmutation carriers with multiple CMM (group A) also had a predilection for meningiomas and neurinomas (four patients) or multiple NMSC (three patients). In group B CMM were especially associated with adenocarcinomas but in group C CMM were associated with multiple NMSC.
The association between meningiomas and neurinomas (no acoustic neurinoma was seen) might indicate a new syndrome. Patients in groups B and C may harbour unknown genetic defects, which could interact with different environmental risk factors.
British Journal of Dermatology 04/2004; 150(3):531-6. · 3.76 Impact Factor