[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of personality on health related quality of life (QoL) and physical functioning in the setting of allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (alloHSCT) is unknown. We conducted a joint evaluation within two independent cohorts of alloHSCT recipients to investigate the impact of personality on reported QoL and physical functioning. Two-hundred-eight patients (median age 44 years, range 18-72) of cohort 1 and 93 patients (median age 55 years, range 19-79) of cohort 2 after alloHSCT were evaluated. Personality was assessed using the 24-adjective measure (AM), which measures the Big-Five personality domains and the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R), measuring optimism and pessimism. QoL was measured using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy with bone marrow transplantation subscale (FACT-BMT), Short Form 36 (SF-36), the human activity profile (HAP), as well as the NIH criteria-based cGVHD activity assessment form and the Lee cGVHD symptom scale. Neuroticism was significantly associated with worse function measured by the HAP and FACT-BMT. Optimism significantly improved QoL captured by the FACT-BMT. Pessimism significantly impaired physical function captured by the HAP and SF-36. Extraversion was significantly associated with reduced depression and lower severity of cGVHD symptoms reported by the patient and the physician. The results suggest that personality traits and pre-treatment QoL assessments should be measured in clinical trials to facilitate the interpretation of QoL data.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 21 May 2012; doi:10.1038/bmt.2012.83.
Bone marrow transplantation 05/2012; · 3.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 20 patients enrolled in a multicenter phase II dose escalation study of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using yttrium-90-ibritumomab tiuxetan at two dose levels (22 and 30 MBq/kg) in 10 patients, combined with reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) using fludarabine, melphalan and alemtuzumab followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from either matched-related (n=5) or matched-unrelated donors (n=15). Postgrafting immunosuppression with cyclosporine was administered. Diagnoses were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (n=13), transformed CLL (n=4), blastic mantle cell lymphoma (n=2) and follicular lymphoma grade 3 (n=1). Median age was 51 (range, 29-69) years. All patients were high risk with relapsed/refractory disease or relapse after preceding autologous HCT. Median follow-up of patients alive was 1115 (range, 1006-1252) days. No directly RIT-related toxicities were observed. The cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality was 30%. Incidences of grade II-IV acute and chronic GvHD was 45% and 70%, respectively. Kaplan-Meier estimated 3-year OS and EFS were 20% for both dose levels. In conclusion, dose escalation of RIT and combined use with RIC is feasible with no additional toxicity due to dose escalation. This study is registered on http://clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00302757.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 16 April 2012; doi:10.1038/bmt.2012.62.
Bone marrow transplantation 04/2012; · 3.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Steroid refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. Although first-line treatment of cGVHD is based on controlled trials, second-line treatment is almost solely based on phase II trials or retrospective analyses. The consensus conference on clinical practice in cGVHD held in Regensburg aimed to achieve a consensus on the current evidence of treatment options as well as to provide guidelines for daily clinical practice. Treatment modalities are the use of steroids and calcineurin inhibitors as well as immunomodulating modalities (photopheresis, mTOR-inhibitors, thalidomide, hydroxychloroquine, vitamin A analogs, clofazimine), and cytostatic agents (mycophenolate mofetil, methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, pentostatin). Recent reports showed some efficacy of rituximab, alemtuzumab, and etanercept in selected patients. Moreover, tyrosine kinase inihibitors such as imatinib came into the field because of their ability to interfere with the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-R) pathway involved in fibrosis. An other treatment option is low-dose thoracoabdominal irradiation. Although different treatment options are available, the "trial-and-error system" remains the only way to identify the drug effective in the individual patient, and valid biomarkers are eagerly needed to identify the likelihood of response to a drug in advance. Moreover, the sparse evidence for most treatment entities indicates the urgent need for systematic evaluation of second-line treatment options in cGVHD.
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 01/2011; 17(1):1-17. · 3.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) associated morbidity and mortality remain major barriers for successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT). Currently, no reliable measures are established to monitor cGVHD activity changes for use in clinical trials. The Human Activity Profile (HAP) patient self-report was proposed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) cGVHD consensus project as an independent measure of patients' functional status that could also indirectly reflect improvement of cGVHD, but that has not been validated in an alloHSCT patient population. One hundred seventy-six patients (median age 44 years [range: 18-72 years] after alloHSCT were evaluated with a German translation of the HAP, the NIH criteria-based cGVHD activity assessment, the Lee cGVHD Symptom-Scale, FACT-BMT, SF36, Berlin Social Support Scale, 24-Item Adjective Measure (24-AM), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the NCCN-Distress-Thermometer. Enrollment occurred a median of 286 (range: 85-4003) days after alloHSCT. Follow-up surveys were conducted at 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, and 12 months after the baseline survey. Although 117 patient had cGVHD at time of enrollment (mild n = 33, moderate n = 50, or severe n = 34), 59 patients were included into the study in the absence of cGVHD between days 85 and 395 after transplantation. The maximum activity score (MAS) and adjusted activity score (AAS) of the HAP correlated inversely with grading of cGVHD severity (mild, moderate, or severe) (r = -0.25 for MAS and -0.24 for AAS). Lung manifestations of cGVHD correlated with AAS (r = 0.17), but not with MAS. HAP scores correlated with subscales from other instruments measuring physical domains, especially the physical functioning scale of the SF36. Performance was improved by use of an HSCT-modified HAP scoring system that excluded activities prohibited within the first year after alloHSCT. No significant correlation of the HAP was found with personality, age, sex, symptom burden, or social functioning or social well-being. Moreover, the HAP displayed a higher sensitivity to change of cGVHD activity compared to the SF36 and the FACT-BMT. In addition, steroid myopathy correlated with both HAP scores, but not the SF36. The HAP is a simple and valid questionnaire for the evaluation of the physical activity in patients after alloHSCT, with the advantage of detecting changes in cGVHD status independently of other quality-of-life measures and with a superior sensitivity compared to the SF36.
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 12/2010; 16(12):1707-17. · 3.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease constitutes a serious complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. For the clearance of CMV, CD8+ T cells are pivotal.
Here, the novel streptamer technology was used at good manufacturing practice (GMP) level for adoptive transfer of CMV-specific T cells into acute leukemia patients with recurrent high CMV antigenemia after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
After a single transfusion, the frequency of CMV-specific CD8+CD45RA+CCR7- effector T cells increased dramatically from 0.0% to a maximum of 27.1% of all T cells. These T cells were clearly donor derived and did not stem from intrinsic reconstitution, as demonstrated by analysis of 1) donor chimerism through single-tandem repeats, 2) T-cell receptor excision circles, and 3) Vβ-chain typing by polymerase chain reaction. Clinically, the specific T-cell transfer resulted in a persistent clearance of the CMV antigenemia, which allowed the patients to discontinue toxic antiviral drug therapy without further high-level reactivation of CMV, demonstrating the power of the streptamer technology.
Taken together, the streptamer technology offers the advantage of selecting virus-specific CD8+ T cells at GMP level for adoptive T-cell transfer, thus inducing long-lasting specific CD8+ T-cell responses without increasing the risk for graft-versus-host disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed the frequency of neoplastic meningitis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia prior to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at our institution. Between 1996 and 2009, cerebrospinal fluid samples of 204 adult patients were examined during pre-transplant work-up for cell counts and, if abnormal, morphologically. We found blasts in cerebrospinal fluid samples of 17 patients with either persistent (n=9) or newly diagnosed (n=8) neoplastic meningitis. All patients proceeded to transplant. The proportion of patients with central nervous system involvement was significantly higher in patients with refractory disease at the time of transplantation compared with patients responding to prior systemic therapy (19% vs. 4.6%; P=0.003). Since most of the patients with central nervous system involvement were asymptomatic, cerebrospinal fluid evaluation should be considered at least in patients with refractory acute myeloid leukemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Forty patients were enrolled in this phase 2 study combining radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using yttrium-90-ibritumomab-tiuxetan (15 MBq [0.4 mCi]/kg) with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) using fludarabine (90 mg/m(2)) and 2 Gy total body irradiation followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from related (n = 13) or unrelated (n = 27) donors for the treatment of advanced non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Diagnoses were follicular lymphoma (n = 17), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n = 13), mantle cell lymphoma (n = 8), marginal zone lymphoma (n = 1), and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (n = 1). Median age was 55 years (range, 34-68 years). All patients were high risk with refractory disease or relapse after preceding autologous HCT. No additional toxicities attributable to RIT were observed. Engraftment was rapid and sustained. Incidences of acute graft-versus-host disease 2-4 and chronic graft-versus-host disease were 43% and 53%, respectively. Kaplan-Meier-estimated nonrelapse mortality was 45% at 2 years. Twenty-two of 40 patients (55%) are alive, resulting in a Kaplan-Meier-estimated 2-year survival of 51% for all, 67% for follicular lymphoma, 49% for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and 37% for mantle cell lymphoma patients. The combined use of RIT with RIC is feasible with acceptable toxicity, even in elderly and heavily pretreated patients. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00302757.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease represents a serious complication after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation. If possible, stem cell donors for transplantation are selected on the basis of their CMV serostatus. However, the cytomegalovirus-specific immune status can be further characterized by measuring CMV phosphoprotein 65-specific CD8(+) T cell frequencies using tetramers, pentamers, and streptamers. We therefore investigated the specificity and sensitivity of all 3 methods and compared the results to patient serostatus.
Twenty-three samples from CMV-seropositive healthy volunteers and 15 samples from CMV-seropositive patients before and after allogeneic PBSC transplantation were stained with tetramers, pentamers, or streptamers and analyzed by flow cytometry.
Similar frequencies of CD8(+) and multimer(+) T cells could be measured by all 3 multimer technologies. The lowest background signals (< or =0.02%) were obtained using tetramer technology. Frequencies of 0.19%-2.48% of CMV phosphoprotein 65 495-503-specific CD8(+) T cells were detected in healthy volunteers. Antigen-specific T cells were detected in only 11 (48%) of 23 seropositive healthy volunteers. CMV antigenemia before day 100 after allogeneic PBSC transplantation occurred in 2 of 3 patients without any specific T cells.
These findings demonstrate the power of multimer staining and a certain limitation of serologic testing to define appropriate donors for transplantation. Therefore, whenever possible, CMV-seropositive donors of transplants to seropositive recipients should be screened for their CD8(+) T cell frequency. All 3 multimer technologies can be used, yielding similar results. The streptamer technology additionally offers the advantage of selecting CMV phosphoprotein 65-specific CD8(+) T cells at the good manufacturing practice level for adoptive T cell transfer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The novel selective BCR-ABL Breakpoint cluster region--Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (BCR-AML) inhibitor nilotinib (AMN107) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is more potent against leukaemia cells in vitro than imatinib. As nilotinib might be used in the context of allogeneic stem cell transplantation where CD8+ T lymphocytes play a pivotal role in the graft-versus-leukaemia (GVL) effect, we investigated effects of nilotinib on this lymphocyte subpopulation. Nilotinib inhibits phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced proliferation of CD8+T lymphocytes in vitro at therapeutically relevant concentrations (0.5-4 microM). The inhibition of CD8+ T lymphocytes specific for leukaemia or viral antigens through nilotinib was associated with a reduced expansion of antigen peptide specific CD8+ T lymphocytes and with a decreased release of interferon-gamma and granzyme B by these cells as analysed by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays. The inhibitory effect caused by nilotinib was two times stronger than by imatinib. These effects were mediated through the inhibition of the phosphorylation of ZAP-70, Lck and ERK 1/2 and the NF-kappaB signalling transduction pathway. Taken together, we observed a strong suppressive impact of nilotinib on the CD8+ T lymphocyte function which should be considered carefully in the framework of allogeneic stem cell transplantation or other T cell based immunotherapies.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 02/2008; 12(5B):2107-18. · 4.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate is highly effective in the front-line treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and is increasingly used in patients with residual disease or relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Since an impairment of anti-viral CD8+ T-lymphocyte function by imatinib has been described, we question whether imatinib also affects specific anti-leukemic CD8+ T lymphocytes generated from the peripheral blood of healthy donors, and of CML patients after allo-SCT. Here, we assessed CD8+ T-cell expansion and function from healthy donors and patients with CML. The release of IFN-gamma and granzyme B by CD8+ T-lymphocytes specific for R3, a recently described T-cell epitope peptide derived from a leukemia-associated antigen designated RHAMM/CD168 (receptor for hyaluronic acid mediated motility), was inhibited by imatinib in a dose-dependent fashion (range: 1-25 microM). These T cells were able to lyse cognate peptide labeled T2 cells and CD34+ CML progenitor cells. This lysis was inhibited by imatinib. The inhibitory effect was not associated with an increased rate of apoptosis of T cells and reversible after removal of imatinib. In the light of these findings, clinical administration of imatinib might result in the reduction of efficacy of the graft-versus-leukemia effect or other T-cell-based immunotherapies.
Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 07/2007; 56(6):849-61. · 3.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A pilot trial was initiated for chronic myeloid leukaemia patients, which employed imatinib for remission induction, followed by reduced-intensity conditioning and an in vivo T-cell depleted graft. Out of nine patients, six experienced a molecular relapse and one patient had a haematological relapse at a median interval of 5 months after transplantation. Five relapsing patients achieved a 2nd molecular remission after treatment with either donor lymphocyte infusions (n = 4) or imatinib (n = 1). Two of nine patients died due to infectious complications. The probability of survival 2 years after transplant was 74% (95% CI 42-100%).
British Journal of Haematology 02/2007; 136(1):127-30. · 4.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A sequential regimen of chemotherapy, reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) for allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), and prophylactic donor lymphocyte transfusion (pDLT) was studied in 103 patients with refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). According to published criteria, refractoriness was defined by primary induction failure (PIF; n = 37), early (n = 53), refractory (n = 8), or second (n = 5) relapse. Chemotherapy consisted of fludarabine (4 x 30 mg/m(2)), cytarabine (4 x 2 g/m(2)), and amsacrine (4 x 100 mg/m(2)), followed 4 days later by RIC, comprising 4 Gy total body irradiation (TBI), cyclophosphamide, and antithymocyte globulin. Patients without graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) at day +120 received pDLT in escalating doses. Patients' median age was 51.8 years. Before conditioning, 99 patients had active disease, 3 were aplastic, 1 was in second complete remission (CR2). Forty-one patients had family donors, 62 had unrelated donors. With a 25-month median follow-up, overall survival (OS) at 1, 2, and 4 years was 54%, 40%, and 32%; the respective leukemia-free survival (LFS) was 47%, 37%, and 30%. Patients with PIF showed a 2-year OS of 62.5%. OS was 87% in 17 patients receiving pDLT. One-year cumulative incidence of leukemic death and non-relapse-mortality was 28.7% and 17.2%. In a multivariate analysis, more than 2 courses of prior chemotherapy were the strongest predictor for poor outcome (P = .007; HR = 3.01 [OS]; P = .002; HR = 3.25 [LFS]). These results indicate a high activity of the regimen in refractory AML.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intensification of the conditioning regimen with a radioactively labeled anti-CD66 antibody is feasible before allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The use of radioimmunotherapy may deliver a significant dose of radiation to the kidneys. We therefore studied the incidence and clinical picture of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) nephropathy in our patients receiving radioimmunotherapy before allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
This study was a clinical trial of 114 consecutive patients who received conditioning with a radiolabeled anti-CD66 antibody-188Re (n = 93) or 90Y (n = 21)-between 1998 and 2003.
Although BMT nephropathy has developed in none of the patients in the [90Y]anti-CD66 group, 6 of 93 patients receiving [188Re]anti-CD66 presented with signs of BMT nephropathy at a median of 11.5 mo after stem cell transplantation. The absorbed renal dose was significantly lower in the 90Y group (4 vs. 7 Gy, P < 0.0001). Of the patients receiving [188Re]anti-CD66 who are alive, BMT nephropathy developed in 19% (6/32). Five of 6 patients with BMT nephropathy received total-body irradiation. The patients presented with elevated serum creatinine, proteinuria, anemia, hypertension, and signs of microangiopathy. All 6 patients in whom BMT nephropathy has developed are alive at a median follow-up of 58 mo after stem cell transplantation, and 1 patient has entered a dialysis program.
BMT nephropathy appears to be a significant problem after allogeneic stem cell transplantation with intensified conditioning using the 188Re-labeled anti-CD66 applied in this study, particularly when combined with total-body irradiation.
Journal of Nuclear Medicine 02/2006; 47(2):278-86. · 5.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a phase I-II study for patients aged 55-65 years, we employed radioimmunotherapy using an anti-CD-66 antibody as part of a dose-reduced conditioning regimen, which was followed by a T-cell-depleted graft. 20 patients with a median age of 63 years suffering from acute leukaemia (n=17) or myelodysplastic syndrome (n=3) received the antibody labelled either with 188Rhenium (n=8) or with 90Yttrium (n=12) during conditioning. Radioimmunotherapy provided a mean dose of 21.9 (+/-8.4) Gy to the bone marrow with a significantly higher dose when 90Yttrium was used. Additional conditioning was fludarabine-based plus anti-thymocyte globulin in matched related donor transplants (n=11), or plus melphalan in matched unrelated donor transplants (n=9). Regimen-related toxicity was low, with two patients developing three episodes of grade III organ toxicity. All patients engrafted, grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) was observed in one patient (5%) and chronic GvHD in three patients (15%). The cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality was 25%, the cumulative incidence of relapse 55%. The probability of survival was estimated to be 70% at 1 year and 52% at 2 years post-transplant, although no plateau was reached afterwards. In conclusion, radioimmunotherapy using the anti-CD66 antibody was feasible and safe in our elderly patient group and provided a high marrow dose.
British Journal of Haematology 09/2005; 130(4):604-13. · 4.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the effects of CD34(+) cell selection in 102 patients using the CliniMACS device. Patients were at high risk for the development of graft versus host disease (GvHD) because of age, or the use of a haploidentical, mismatched or unrelated donor (UD). The median age of the patients was 44 years. The CliniMACS procedure yielded 8.0 x 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg and the number of residual T cells was 1.3 x 10(4)/kg (median). The median follow up was 20.6 months. The probability of graft failure was 7%. The rate of acute GvHD was low (compatible family donors 10%, UDs 17%, and haploidentical donors 26%) with no patient enduring more than grade II disease. The cumulative incidence of chronic GvHD at the median follow up after transplant was 15% for the compatible family donor group, 40% for the UD group and 78% in the group transplanted from a haploidentical donor Treatment failure was mainly because of transplant-related mortality, especially aspergillus infection, and not due to relapse. The probability of disease-free survival, stratified for the risk of treatment failure, was 27% for the high risk, 46% for the intermediate risk and 83% for the low risk group.
British Journal of Haematology 09/2004; 126(4):527-35. · 4.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The conditioning regimen prior to stem cell transplantation in 36 patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) was intensified by treating patients with a rhenium 188-labeled anti-CD66 monoclonal antibody. Dosimetry was performed prior to therapy, and a favorable dosimetry was observed in all cases. Radioimmunotherapy with the labeled antibody provided a mean of 15.3 Gy of additional radiation to the marrow; the kidney was the normal organ receiving the highest dose of supplemental radiation (mean 7.4 Gy). Radioimmunotherapy was followed by standard full-dose conditioning with total body irradiation (12 Gy) or busulfan and high-dose cyclophosphamide with or without thiotepa. Patients subsequently received a T-cell-depleted allogeneic graft from a HLA-identical family donor (n = 15) or an alternative donor (n = 17). In 4 patients without an allogeneic donor, an unmanipulated autologous graft was used. Infusion-related toxicity due to the labeled antibody was minimal, and no increase in treatment-related mortality due to the radioimmunoconjugate was observed. Day +30 and day +100 mortalities were 3% and 6%, respectively, and after a median follow-up of 18 months treatment-related mortality was 22%. Late renal toxicity was observed in 17% of patients. The relapse rate of 15 patients undergoing transplantation in first CR (complete remission) or second CR was 20%; 21 patients not in remission at the time of transplantation had a 30% relapse rate. (Blood. 2001;98:565-572)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose. Determination of biodistribution, radiation absorbed organ doses, toxicities and outcome of myeloablative radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with Re-188 labelled anti-CD66 monoclonal antibody (mAb) in 20 high-risk ALL (n=11) and CML (n=9) patients prior to stem cell transplantation (SCT). High-risk was defined as Philadelphia + or >1st CR (ALL) or accelerated / > 1st chronical phase (CML). Materials and methods. Dosimetric measurements were performed 1.5, 3, 20, 26, and 44 h p.i., followed by RIT with 10.8 plusminus 2.4 GBq Re-188 14 days prior to SCT. Standard conditioning consisted of high-dose chemotherapy and 12 Gy total body irradiation (TBI). Ten patients received unrelated and 10 patients related allogeneic stem cell grafts. Results. The radiation absorbed doses (Gy) were 14.3 plusminus 4.6 bone marrow (BM), 5.2 plusminus 2.5 liver, 27.5 plusminus 21.5 spleen, 5.7 plusminus 2.6 kidneys, 0.7 plusminus 0.7 lungs, 1.8 plusminus 0.3 total body. Specific BM doses did correlate neither with state of disease prior to SCT nor type of leukemia. BM doses of patients relapsing after SCT were not significantly lower than specific BM doses from patients in ongoing CR. Immediate side effects were mild. All patients showed primary engraftment. After a median follow-up of 8.6 plusminus 5.9 months 10/20 patients (50%) are still in ongoing complete remission. Ten patients died: Eight treatment-related, 2 of leukemic relapse. Conclusion. Myeloablative RIT is a promising approach for the improvement of conventional conditioning of high-risk leukemia patients prior to SCT.
American Society of Hematology (ASH), 42nd annual meeting 2000, San Francisco; 12/2000