Gen Tamiya

Yamagata University, Ямагата, Yamagata, Japan

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Publications (92)465.46 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human skin pigmentation varies according to geographical region and also differs between and among human populations. With human beings migrating from central Africa to other parts of the world during the last 60,000-50,000 years, skin pigmentation levels have changed. These levels are primarily determined by the amount, type, and distribution of melanin, which is likely related to environmental adaptation (Jablonski and Chaplin, 2000). To date, approximately 400 genes have been identified as pigmentation candidate genes that contribute to determination of skin color (Montoliu et al., 2013). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research 12/2014; · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neonates have physiologically increased bilirubin production and immature bilirubin metabolism, and present hyperbilirubinemia in association with genetic and or epigenetic factors. We previously reported that maximal body weight loss (inadequate feeding) is an independent risk factor for the development of hyperbilirubinemia in breast-fed Japanese neonates, and the UGT1A1 211G>A genotype becomes a risk factor under conditions of inadequate feeding. We extended the study to the association of other genetic factors, the UGT1A1 (TA)7 and solute-carrier organic anion transporters (SLCOs) polymorphisms with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. We enrolled 401 full-term Japanese infants who were exclusively breastfeeding and classified them into two groups based on the degree of maximal body weight loss. We analyzed the clinical characteristics and UGT1A1 and SLCOs genotypes. Statistical analysis revealed that maximal body weight loss is the only independent risk factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. UGT1A1, SLCO1B1 and SLCO1B3 polymorphisms become risk factors in neonates showing 10% or greater body weight loss during the neonatal period. Inadequate feeding may increase the bilirubin burden and cause apparent hyperbilirubinemia in neonates, who have a polymorphic change in the genes involved in the transport and/or metabolism of bilirubin.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 13 November 2014; doi:10.1038/jhg.2014.98.
    Journal of Human Genetics 11/2014; · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common inherited neuropathy characterized by clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Although more than 30 loci harboring CMT-causing mutations have been identified, many other genes still remain to be discovered for many affected individuals. For two consanguineous families with CMT (axonal and mixed phenotypes), a parametric linkage analysis using genome-wide SNP chip identified a 4.3 Mb region on 12q24 showing a maximum multipoint LOD score of 4.23. Subsequent whole-genome sequencing study in one of the probands, followed by mutation screening in the two families, revealed a disease-specific 5 bp deletion (c.247-10_247-6delCACTC) in a splicing element (pyrimidine tract) of intron 2 adjacent to the third exon of cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIa polypeptide 1 (COX6A1), which is a component of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase [COX]), within the autozygous linkage region. Functional analysis showed that expression of COX6A1 in peripheral white blood cells from the affected individuals and COX activity in their EB-virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines were significantly reduced. In addition, Cox6a1-null mice showed significantly reduced COX activity and neurogenic muscular atrophy leading to a difficulty in walking. Those data indicated that COX6A1 mutation causes the autosomal-recessive axonal or mixed CMT.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 08/2014; · 10.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To facilitate personalized health care for multifactorial diseases, risks of genetic and clinical/environmental factors should be assessed together for each individual in an integrated fashion. This approach is possible with the likelihood ratio (LR)-based risk assessment system, as this system can incorporate manifold tests. We examined the usefulness of this system for assessing type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our system employed 29 genetic susceptibility variants, body mass index (BMI), and hypertension as risk factors whose LRs can be estimated from openly available T2D association data for the Japanese population. The pretest probability was set at a sex- and age-appropriate population average of diabetes prevalence. The classification performance of our LR-based risk assessment was compared to that of a non-invasive screening test for diabetes called TOPICS (with score based on age, sex, family history, smoking, BMI, and hypertension) using receiver operating characteristic analysis with a community cohort (n = 1263). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the LR-based assessment and TOPICS was 0.707 (95% CI 0.665-0.750) and 0.719 (0.675-0.762), respectively. These AUCs were much higher than that of a genetic risk score constructed using the same genetic susceptibility variants, 0.624 (0.574-0.674). The use of ethnically matched LRs is necessary for proper personal risk assessment. In conclusion, although LR-based integrated risk assessment for T2D still requires additional tests that evaluate other factors, such as risks involved in missing heritability, our results indicate the potential usability of LR-based assessment system and stress the importance of stratified epidemiological investigations in personalized medicine.
    Endocrine Journal 07/2014; 61. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract We describe a successful pregnancy and delivery in a patient with platelet disorder. Prophylactic platelet transfusions ensured that there were no bleeding complications during and after cesarean section. Following delivery, we performed whole exome sequencing, using next generation sequencing, to analyze the DNA samples of the patient and her family, and to identify the disease-causing mutation or variant. To identify de-novo mutations systematically, we also analyzed DNA isolated from the parents of the patient and the neonate. We successfully identified a causative novel mutation c.419 G > A (p.S140N) in RUNX1 in the patient and the neonate. Mutations of RUNX1 have been reported to be associated with familial platelet disorder and with a predisposition for myelodysplasia and/or acute myeloid leukemia. The patient and the neonate require careful long-term hematological follow-up. Identification of mutations by a through whole-exome analysis using next-generation sequencing may be useful in the determination of a long-term follow-up schedule for the patient.
    Platelets 05/2014; · 2.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human skin color is known to be associated with the risk of cutaneous cancer. Some reports indicated that pigmentation-related gene variants were associated with cutaneous cancer risk in Caucasian populations, but there are no similar reports in East Asian populations. This study aimed to evaluate the association between pigmentation-related genes and the risk of skin cancer in Japanese populations. We studied the associations between 12 variants of four pigmentation-related genes and melanin index variations in 198 Japanese patients with skin cancer and compared these findings to those of 500 Japanese controls by using multiple logistic regression analysis. Furthermore, we analyzed an independent sample of 107 Japanese patients with skin cancer. A non-synonymous variant, H615R in the oculocutaneous albinism 2 gene (OCA2), was associated with the risk of malignant melanoma in the Yamagata group (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17-0.86; P = 0.020). Another non-synonymous variant, A481T in OCA2, was associated with the risk of squamous cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis in the Osaka group (OR, 3.16; 95% CI, 1.41-7.04; P = 0.005). In malignant melanoma cases, the minor allele in OCA2 H615R might have induced the development of lesions in sun-exposed skin (OR, 26.32; 95% CI, 1.96-333; P = 0.014). Our results suggest that some OCA2 variants are definite risk factors for the onset of cutaneous cancer in Japanese populations.
    The Journal of Dermatology 03/2014; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the male and female lineages of East Asian and European humans, we have sequenced 25 short tandem repeat markers on 453 Y-chromosomes and collected sequences of 72 complete mitochondrial genomes to construct independent phylogenetic trees for male and female lineages. The results indicate that East Asian individuals fall into two clades, one that includes East Asian individuals only and a second that contains East Asian and European individuals. Surprisingly, the European individuals did not form an independent clade, but branched within in the East Asians. We then estimated the divergence time of the root of the European clade as ∼41,000 years ago. These data indicate that, contrary to traditional views, Europeans diverged from East Asians around that time. We also address the origin of the Ainu lineage in northern Japan.
    Genome Biology and Evolution 03/2014; 6(3):466-73. · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the Brassicaceae, intraspecific non-self pollen (compatible pollen) can germinate and grow into stigmatic papilla cells, while self-pollen or interspecific pollen is rejected at this stage. However, the mechanisms underlying this selective acceptance of compatible pollen remain unclear. Here, using a cell-impermeant calcium indicator, we showed that the compatible pollen coat contains signaling molecules that stimulate Ca(2+) export from the papilla cells. Transcriptome analyses of stigmas suggested that autoinhibited Ca(2+)-ATPase13 (ACA13) was induced after both compatible pollination and compatible pollen coat treatment. A complementation test using a yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain lacking major Ca(2+) transport systems suggested that ACA13 indeed functions as an autoinhibited Ca(2+) transporter. ACA13 transcription increased in papilla cells and in transmitting tracts after pollination. ACA13 protein localized to the plasma membrane and to vesicles near the Golgi body and accumulated at the pollen tube penetration site after pollination. The stigma of a T-DNA insertion line of ACA13 exhibited reduced Ca(2+) export, as well as defects in compatible pollen germination and seed production. These findings suggest that stigmatic ACA13 functions in the export of Ca(2+) to the compatible pollen tube, which promotes successful fertilization.
    The Plant Cell 02/2014; · 9.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fertilization requires recognition, attachment, and membrane fusion between gametes. In metazoans, rapidly evolving surface proteins contribute to gamete recognition and adhesion [1]. Flowering plants evolved a double fertilization process wherein two immotile sperm cells are delivered to female gametes by the pollen tube, guided by elaborate communications between male and female reproductive organs [2-7]. Once released, the sperm cells contact female gametes directly prior to gamete fusion. It remains unclear whether active gamete recognition and attachment mechanisms are required for double fertilization. Here, we provide functional characterization of Arabidopsis GAMETE EXPRESSED 2 (GEX2), which encodes a sperm-expressed protein of unknown function [8]. GEX2 is localized to the sperm membrane and contains extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains, similar to gamete interaction factors in algae and mammals [9, 10]. Using a new in vivo assay, we demonstrate that GEX2 is required for gamete attachment, in the absence of which double fertilization is compromised. Ka/Ks analyses indicate relatively rapid evolution of GEX2, like other proteins involved in male and female interactions [1, 3]. We conclude that surface proteins involved in gamete attachment and recognition exist in plants with immotile gametes, similar to algae and metazoans [11, 12]. This conservation broadens the repertoire of research for plant reproduction factors to mechanisms demonstrated in animals.
    Current biology: CB 12/2013; · 10.99 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Dermatology 07/2013; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of cryptic relatedness (CR) on genomic association studies is well studied and known to inflate false-positive rates as reported by several groups. In contrast, conventional epidemiological studies for environmental risks, the confounding effect of CR is still uninvestigated. In this study, we investigated the confounding effect of unadjusted CR among a rural cohort in the relationship between environmental risk factors (body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption) and systolic blood pressure. We applied the methods of population-based whole-genome association studies for the analysis of the genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data in 1622 subjects, and detected 20.2% CR in this cohort population. In the case of the sample size, approximately 1000, the ratio of CR to the population was 20.2%, the population prevalence 25%, the prevalence in the CR 26%, heritability for liability 14.3% and prevalence in the subpopulation without CR 26%, the difference of estimated regression coefficient between samples with and without CR was not significant (P-value = 0.55). On the other hand, in another case with approximately >20% heritability for liability, we showed that confounding due to CR biased the estimation of exposure effects.
    Molecular genetics & genomic medicine. 05/2013; 1(1):45-53.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Japan and the United States (US) have different cultures of caregiving including differences in family structure and social programs that may influence caregiver strain. Differences in caregiver strain between regions in Japan and in the US have not been investigated in patient-spouse dyads in PD. OBJECTIVES: To compare caregiver strain in spouses of PD patients between Yamagata, Japan and Maryland, US. Correlations between caregiver strain and patient/spousal variables are also examined. METHODS: In Yamagata and Maryland, spouses of patients with PD completed questionnaires assessing caregiver strain. Patients and spouses completed scales assessing mental health, and medical co-morbidity. PD severity and disability were assessed with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and the Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living Scale. Results in the two regions were compared with Chi-square and Student's t-tests. Relationships between caregiver strain and patient/spousal variables were analyzed with univariate correlations and multivariate regression. RESULTS: 178 Spouse-patient pairs were assessed. The level of caregiver strain in PD did not differ between Yamagata, Japan and Maryland, US despite differences in demographics and social support programs in the two regions. Yamagata spouses reported physical, time and financial constraints, while Maryland spouses reported more emotional distress. In both regions, spousal depression was a significant contributor to caregiver strain. CONCLUSION: Different approaches to reduce caregiver strain will likely be necessary in Yamagata and Maryland since the contributing factors to caregiver strain are influenced by differences in culture and social supports in each country.
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 03/2013; · 4.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipoprotein glomerulopathy (LPG) is a hereditary disease characterized by lipoprotein thrombi in the glomerulus, hyperlipoproteinemia, and a marked increase in serum apolipoprotein E (APOE). More than 12 APOE mutations have been identified as causes of LPG, and APOE-Sendai (Arg145Pro) mutation was frequently detected in patients from the eastern part of Japan including Yamagata prefecture. Recently, effective therapy with intensive lipid-lowering agents was established, and epidemiologic data are required for early diagnosis. We determined the haplotype structure of APOE-Sendai in 13 patients from 9 unrelated families with LPG, and found that the haplotype of all APOE-Sendai mutations was identical, suggesting that APOE-Sendai mutation is common in Japanese patients probably through a founder effect. We also studied the gene frequency of APOE-Sendai in 2023 control subjects and 418 patients receiving hemodialysis in Yamagata prefecture using the TaqMan method, but did not identify any subjects carrying the mutation, indicating that it is very rare in the general population even in the eastern part of Japan. In addition to APOE mutation, other genetic and/or epigenetic factors are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of LPG because of its low penetrance. The patients did not have a common haplotype of the counterpart APOE allele, and some patients had the same haplotype of the counterpart APOE allele as the asymptomatic carriers. These results suggest that the counterpart APOE allele is not likely associated with the onset of LPG. Further study is required to clarify the pathogenesis of LPG.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 14 February 2013; doi:10.1038/jhg.2013.8.
    Journal of Human Genetics 02/2013; · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Skin color mainly reflects pigmentation resulting from melanin. Although many of the detailed molecular mechanisms involved in melanin pigmentation are being revealed, little is understood about the genetic components responsible for variations in skin color within or between human populations. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the contribution of the melanogenesis genes to skin color variation in Japanese population. METHODS: We examined the association between 12 variants of four pigmentation-related genes (TYR, OCA2, SLC45A2, MC1R) and variations in the melanin index of 456 Japanese females using a multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: OCA2 A481T (p=6.18×10(-8)) and, OCA2 H615R (p=5.72×10(-6)) were strongly associated with the melanin index. In addition, our results yielded evidence for a significant association in a combined analysis of males and females (OCA2 A481T p=2.1×10(-11), and OCA2 H615R p=1.0×10(-7)). Then five surviving variants including A481T, H615R, T387M in OCA2, D125Y in TYR, and T500P in SLC45A2, accounted for contribution to about 11% of the melanin index. CONCLUSION: The skin color analysis among Japanese was successfully carried out to determine the association with genetic components by using the melanin index as an objective indicator. We believe that a better understanding of the genetic basis of skin color variation will be valuable for elucidating the correlation of pigmentation phenotype with skin-cancer risk.
    Journal of dermatological science 10/2012; · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Breastfeeding jaundice is a well-known phenomenon, but its pathogenesis is still unclear. Increased production of bilirubin, impaired hepatic uptake and metabolism of bilirubin, and increased enterohepatic circulation of bilirubin account for most cases of pathological neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. We previously reported that 211G>A (G71R) mutation of the UGT1A1 gene is prevalent in East Asians and is associated with the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Recently, significant association of G71R mutation with hyperbilirubinemia in breast-fed neonates was reported. We enrolled 401 full-term Japanese infants, who were exclusively breast-fed without supplementation of formula before developing hyperbilirubinemia, and classified them into two groups based on the degree of maximal body weight loss during the neonatal period. We analyzed the sex, gestational age, delivery mode, body weight at birth, maximal body weight loss and genotypes of G71R and (TA)(7) polymorphic mutations of UGT1A1. Statistical analysis revealed that maximal body weight loss during the neonatal period is the only independent risk factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. The effect of G71R mutation on neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is significant in neonates with 5% or greater maximal body weight loss and its influence increases in parallel with the degree of maximal body weight loss. Our study indicates that G71R mutation is a risk factor for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia only in infants with inadequate breastfeeding and suggests that adequate breastfeeding may overcome the genetic predisposing factor, G71R mutation, for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 27 September 2012; doi:10.1038/jhg.2012.116.
    Journal of Human Genetics 09/2012; · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is an acute inflammatory vesiculobullous reaction of the skin and mucosa, often including the ocular surface, and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) occurs with its progression. Although SJS/TEN is thought to be initiated by certain types of medication coupled with possible infection. In the present study we examined the multiplicative interaction(s) between HLA-A*0206 and 7 Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in patients with SJS/TEN. We analyzed the genotypes for HLA-A and 7 TLR3 SNPs in 110 Japanese SJS/TEN patients with severe ocular complications and 206 healthy volunteers to examine the interactions between the two loci. We found that HLA-A*0206 exhibited a high odds ratio for SJS/TEN (carrier frequency: OR = 5.1; gene frequency: OR = 4.0) and that there was a strong association with TLR3 rs.5743312T/T SNP (OR = 7.4), TLR3 rs.3775296T/T SNP (OR = 5.8), TLR3 rs.6822014G/G SNP (OR = 4.8), TLR3 rs.3775290A/A SNP (OR = 2.9), TLR3 rs.7668666A/A SNP (OR = 2.7), TLR3 rs.4861699G/G SNP (OR = 2.3), and TLR3 rs.11732384G/G SNP (OR = 1.9). There was strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) between rs.3775296 and rs.5743312 and between rs.7668666 and rs.3775290. The results of interaction analysis showed that the pair, HLA-A*0206 and TLR3 SNP rs3775296T/T, which exhibited strong LD with TLR3 rs.5743312, exerted more than additive effects (OR = 47.7). The other pairs, HLA-A*0206 and TLR3 rs.3775290A/A SNP (OR = 11.4) which was in strong LD with TLR3 rs7668666A/A SNP, and TLR3 rs4861699G/G SNP (OR = 7.6) revealed additive effects. Moreover, the combination HLA-A*0206 and TLR3 rs3775296T/T was stronger than the TLR3 rs6822014G/G and TLR3 rs3775290A/A pair, which reflected the interactions within the TLR3 gene alone. By interaction analysis, HLA-A*0206 and TLR3 SNP rs3775296T/T, which were in strong LD with TLR3 SNP rs5743312T/T, manifested more than additive effects that were stronger than the interactions within the TLR3 gene alone. Therefore, multiplicative interactions of HLA-A and TLR3 gene might be required for the onset of SJS/TEN with ocular complications.
    PLoS ONE 08/2012; 7(8):e43650. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: TATA-box binding protein associated factor 1 (TAF1) protein is the largest and the essential component of the TFIID complex in the pathway of RNA polymerase II-mediated gene transcription, and it regulates transcription of a large number of genes related to cell division. The neuron-specific isoform of the TAF1 gene (N-TAF1), which we reported previously, may have an essential role in neurons through transcriptional regulation of many neuron-specific genes. In the present study, we cloned the full-length cDNA that encodes the mouse homologue of N-TAF1 (N-Taf1) protein. By carrying out of real time RT-PCR, we investigated the expression analysis of the N-Taf1 mRNA in mouse tissues and cell lines. As well as the human N-TAF1, the N-Taf1 showed limited expression in the brain and neuroblastoma, whereas Taf1 expressed elsewhere. Furthermore, in mouse embryo head or mouse brain, mRNA expression of TAF1 changes dramatically during development but N-Taf1 showed sustained expression. Our result suggests that the N-Taf1 gene has an important role in non-dividing neuronal cell rather than in cell division and proliferation during neurogenesis.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 07/2012; 425(2):273-7. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    Masao Ueki, Gen Tamiya
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Genome-wide gene-gene interaction analysis using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is an attractive way for identification of genetic components that confers susceptibility of human complex diseases. Individual hypothesis testing for SNP-SNP pairs as in common genome-wide association study (GWAS) however involves difficulty in setting overall p-value due to complicated correlation structure, namely, the multiple testing problem that causes unacceptable false negative results. A large number of SNP-SNP pairs than sample size, so-called the large p small n problem, precludes simultaneous analysis using multiple regression. The method that overcomes above issues is thus needed. RESULTS: We adopt an up-to-date method for ultrahigh-dimensional variable selection termed the sure independence screening (SIS) [17] for appropriate handling of numerous number of SNP-SNP interactions by including them as predictor variables in logistic regression. We propose ranking strategy using promising dummy coding methods and following variable selection procedure in the SIS method suitably modified for gene-gene interaction analysis. We also implemented the procedures in a software program, EPISIS, using the cost-effective GPGPU (General-purpose computing on graphics processing units) technology. EPISIS can complete exhaustive search for SNP-SNP interactions in standard GWAS dataset within several hours. The proposed method works successfully in simulation experiments and in application to real WTCCC (Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium) data. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the machine-learning principle, the proposed method gives powerful and flexible genome-wide search for various patterns of gene-gene interaction.
    BMC Bioinformatics 05/2012; 13(1):72. · 2.67 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 03/2012; 129(5):1413-1416.e11. · 12.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The causal gene(s) for familial adult myoclonic epilepsy (FAME) remains undetermined. To identify it, an exome analysis was performed for the proband in a Japanese FAME family. Of the 383 missense/nonsense variants examined, only c.5720G>A mutation (p.Arg1907His) in the UBR5 gene was found in all of the affected individuals in the family, but not in the nonaffected members. Such mutation was not found in any of the 85 healthy individuals in the same community nor in any of the 24 individuals of various ethnicities. The present study demonstrated an FAME-associated mutation in the UBR5 gene, which is located close to the reported locus linked to Japanese FAME families.
    ISRN neurology. 01/2012; 2012:508308.

Publication Stats

2k Citations
465.46 Total Impact Points


  • 2009–2014
    • Yamagata University
      • • Department of Dermatology
      • • School of Medicine
      Ямагата, Yamagata, Japan
  • 2009–2012
    • The University of Tokushima
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Tokusima, Tokushima, Japan
  • 2006–2008
    • Keio University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
    • Murdoch University
      Perth City, Western Australia, Australia
  • 1998–2006
    • Tokai University
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Department of Genetic Information
      Hiratuka, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 2002–2004
    • University of Western Australia
      • School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  • 2003
    • Khon Kaen University
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Khon Kaen, Changwat Khon Kaen, Thailand
    • Osaka City University
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
    • Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1999
    • Shinshu University
      • Department of Legal Medicine
      Shonai, Nagano, Japan
  • 1997–1998
    • Nagoya University
      • Graduate School of Science
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan