Bruce R Lindgren

University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN, United States

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Publications (96)288.89 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Use of cross matching or HLA matching for donor selection is the basis of managing patients refractory to platelet (PLT) transfusion. Because of changes in patient care, we evaluated the effect of cross matching and HLA matching in patients refractory to PLT transfusion.
    Transfusion 06/2014; · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The blood recall process is intended to remove from use products that may be harmful, but characteristics of recalls nationally have not been reported.Study Design and Methods We analyzed recalls of all blood products for 2010 and categorized the reason for the recall, the organizations producing the recalled products, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) district in which the blood was collected.ResultsDuring 2010, there were 2468 recalls involving 8278 blood products. None of the recalls was considered to have a reasonable probability of causing serious adverse health consequences or death (FDA Class I). The most common reasons for recalls were donation and donor qualification (73%) and finished product quality control (14%). The FDA class of recalls varied by recall reason, month of the year, FDA district, number of units of blood collected per FDA district, and number of units of blood collected by the blood center. The number of recalls per 100,000 units of blood and the reason for recall varied by FDA district and blood centers collecting smaller numbers of units had more recalls.Conclusion The absence of Class I recalls suggests a high level of quality and safety in the US blood supply. Organizations that collected larger numbers of units of blood had fewer recalls and there may be some FDA influences since the number and reason for the recalls varied by FDA district.
    Transfusion 06/2014; · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tobacco smoking by pregnant women is a major public health hazard with both short- and long-term effects on offspring. This study describes the presence and level of the nicotine metabolite cotinine in newborn dried blood spots (DBS) and compares it with the reported maternal smoking recorded on state birth registries. We hypothesize that cotinine in DBS may be a useful measure of newborn in utero tobacco exposure. An observational, cross-sectional study of 1414 DBS obtained from California, Michigan, New York, and Washington newborn screening programs was carried out. Cotinine levels in DBS were quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis and compared with maternal smoking as reported in vital statistics data. Cotinine ≥0.3 ng/g was detected in 35% of newborn DBS, including DBS of 29% of newborns whose mothers reportedly did not smoke cigarettes during pregnancy, some of whom were presumably exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Twelve percent of the newborn DBS had cotinine levels that were ≥9.0 ng/g (equivalent to 6 ng/mL plasma, a level that indicates active smoking of the mother), although 41% of the mothers of these infants reportedly did not smoke. These data confirm that reported smoking during pregnancy is an imperfect measure of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure. Cotinine assessment in newborns may improve surveillance of tobacco use during pregnancy.
    PEDIATRICS 05/2014; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation are pathways of leukemia resistance. We investigated the tolerability and efficacy of decitabine and vorinostat plus chemotherapy in relapse/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Decitabine (15mg/m2 iv) and vorinostat (230mg/m2 PO div BID) were given days 1-4 followed by vincristine, prednisone, PEG-asparaginase and doxorubicin. Genome wide methylation profiles were performed in 8 matched patient bone marrow (BM) samples taken at day 0 and day 5 (post-decitabine). The median age was 16 (range, 3–54) years. All patients had a prior BM relapse, with five relapsing after allogeneic transplant. The most common non-hematological toxicities possibly related to decitabine or vorinostat were infection with neutropenia (grade 3; n=4) and fever/neutropenia (grade 3, n=4; grade 4, n=1). Of the 13 eligible patients, four achieved complete remission without platelet recovery (CRp), two partial response (PR), one stable disease (SD), one progressive disease (PD), two deaths on study and three patients who did not have end of therapy disease evaluations for an overall response rate of 46.2% (CRp + PR). Following decitabine, significant genome-wide hypo-methylation was observed. Comparison of clinical responders with non-responders identified methylation profiles of clinical and biological relevance. Decitabine and vorinostat followed by re-Induction chemotherapy was tolerable and demonstrated clinical benefit in relapsed patients with ALL. Methylation differences were identified between responders and non-responders indicating inter-patient variation, which could impact clinical outcome. This study was registered at as NCT00882206.
    American Journal of Hematology 05/2014; · 4.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although social support is an integral element in smoking cessation, the literature presents mixed findings regarding the type(s) of social support that are most helpful. The Partner Interaction Questionnaire (PIQ) is commonly used to measure social support in this context. We explored the possibility that more nuanced distinctions between items on the PIQ than what is customarily used could improve the prediction of cessation. Baseline PIQ responses of smokers enrolled in a cessation program was submitted to an exploratory factor analysis. Emergent factors were used to predict cessation at several time points. Four factors emerged, which differed from the two subscales that are typically used. The four-factor version predicted cessation; the two-factor version did not. Identifying the types of social support that predict smoking cessation depend on our ability to measure social support. More nuanced measures will likely clarify the role of social support in cessation.
    Annals of Behavioral Medicine 11/2013; · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. We assessed tobacco smoke exposure (TSE), defined according to detection of cotinine, in dried blood spots collected from children for lead screening. Methods. We analyzed dried blood spots collected from a national sample of 1541 Black and White children and submitted to a commercial laboratory for lead analysis. We used an anonymous administrative data set including information on children's characteristics in conducting our analyses. Results. Cotinine was detected in 61% of dried blood spots; 17% of samples had cotinine levels above 3 nanograms per gram. Median cotinine levels were significantly higher among Black than White children (0.66 ng/g vs 0.30 ng/g) and among Medicaid recipients (0.94 ng/g vs < 0.3 ng/g). In multivariate analyses, significant increases in cotinine levels were associated with Black (vs White) race, older age, Medicaid coverage, higher state smoking rate, and higher average winter temperature. Detectable cotinine levels were significantly associated with higher lead levels. Conclusions. TSE is highly prevalent among children undergoing lead screening, and exposure levels are greater among Black children and children on Medicaid. TSE may contribute to lead exposure. Concurrent lead screening and biological screening for TSE may be a feasible approach to increasing childhood TSE detection. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 17, 2013: e1-e6. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301315).
    American Journal of Public Health 10/2013; · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Lung transplantation is now a standard intervention for patients with advanced lung disease. Home monitoring of pulmonary function and symptoms has been used to follow the progress of lung transplant recipients in an effort to improve care and clinical status. The study objective was to determine the relative performance of a computer-based Bayesian algorithm compared with a manual nurse decision process for triaging clinical intervention in lung transplant recipients participating in a home monitoring program. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled trial had 65 lung transplant recipients assigned to either the Bayesian or nurse triage study arm. Subjects monitored and transmitted spirometry and respiratory symptoms daily to the data center using an electronic spirometer/diary device. Subjects completed the Short Form-36 (SF-36) survey at baseline and after 1 year. End points were change from baseline after 1 year in forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1) and quality of life (SF-36 scales) within and between each study arm. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between groups in FEV1 or SF-36 scales at baseline or after 1 year.: Results were comparable between nurse and Bayesian system for detecting changes in spirometry and symptoms, providing support for using computer-based triage support systems as remote monitoring triage programs become more widely available. Conclusions: The feasibility of monitoring critical patient data with a computer-based decision system is especially important given the likely economic constraints on the growth in the nurse workforce capable of providing these early detection triage services.
    Telemedicine and e-Health 10/2013; · 1.40 Impact Factor
  • American Journal of Hematology 06/2013; · 4.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Many head and neck surgeons believe that young patients with head and neck cancer (HNCA) have poorer outcomes than older patients, whereas the evidence in the literature is mixed. We sought to review our HNCA population to evaluate for survival differences between young and older patients. STUDY DESIGN: Matched pair retrospective cohort study. METHODS: A matched pair retrospective cohort study was completed of mucosal HNCA patients at our academic center (2003-2008). Patients aged 45 or less when diagnosed were identified as cases and matched one-to-one to controls by site of tumor, stage of disease, and gender. Risk factors, disease and treatment variables, and survival outcomes were compared between groups. In addition, a subset survival analysis was completed with oropharyngeal cancer patients and nonoropharyngeal cancer patients. RESULTS: There were 87 cases matched to 87 controls. Despite no difference in T and N stage between groups, cases more frequently underwent neck dissection. On Kaplan-Meier and multivariate analysis, overall survival was marginally better for all young patients, whereas disease-free survival was significantly better. Within the subgroup analysis, the statistically significant disease-free survival advantage was lost for young patients with oropharyngeal cancer but maintained for all other sites. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, young HNCA patients had mildly improved overall survival but statistically greater disease-free survival. There was no statistically significant survival difference between young and older patients with oropharyngeal cancer, potentially secondary to a human papillomavirus effect. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2b. Laryngoscope, 2013.
    The Laryngoscope 05/2013; · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tobacco use is the major preventable cause of premature death in the United States. Second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure also contributes to a number of premature deaths as well as other negative health outcomes. An accurate assessment of tobacco smoke exposure is critical to understanding these disease processes. The plasma concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, is widely accepted as a quantitative measure of tobacco and SHS exposure. However, it is not always feasible to collect plasma. Dried blood spots (DBS), which are collected routinely from newborns and often from young children for lead screening, provide an alternative sampling method. We have developed a quantitative high throughput liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of cotinine in DBS. The limit of quantitation was 0.3 ng/g (∼ 0.2 ng/ml plasma). Cotinine levels in DBS from 83 smokers and 99 non-smokers exposed to SHS were determined. Plasma cotinine concentrations in these subjects ranged from <0.02 to 443 ng/ml. Cotinine was detected in DBS from 157 subjects, and the correlation between cotinine in plasma and DBS was excellent, 0.992 (P<0.001). We also determined the ratio of trans 3'-hydroxycotinine to cotinine, a measure of nicotine metabolism, in DBS from smokers. This ratio in DBS was well correlated with the ratio in plasma, 0.94 (P<0.001). In a small study, we confirmed the feasibility of using extant DBS collected for lead screening to assess SHS exposure in children.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 27 February 2013; doi:10.1038/jes.2013.7.
    Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 02/2013; · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: We examined the characteristics, attitudes, beliefs, and exposure to tobacco products in a cohort of rural dwelling Alaska Native (AN) people. METHODS: We conducted a study of 400 of AN adult tobacco users and nonusers living in Southwestern Alaska. Questionnaires covered variables such as demographics, tobacco-use history, current tobacco use and dependence scales, general health status, attitudes and beliefs about tobacco, and quitting history. RESULTS: The study population smoked 7.8 cigarettes per day compared with 16.8 on average for the U.S. population: a significant proportion of the population engaged in dual use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products. Over one third (40.9%), first tried tobacco at age 11 or younger. The mean measures of tobacco addiction (e.g., Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, Severson Scale of Smokeless Tobacco Dependence) scores were lower compared with other U.S. populations.Conclusions:Very high tobacco-use prevalence, dual product use, and early tobacco use are observed in Southwestern AN people. Unexpectedly these did not appear to be correlated with heavier individual tobacco use or higher levels of addiction in this population.
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 09/2012; · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Factors leading patients with head and neck cancer (HNCA) to seek radiation or chemoradiation in an academic center versus the community are incompletely understood, as are the effects of site of treatment on treatment completion and survival.Study DesignHistorical cohort study.SettingTertiary academic center, community practices.MethodsA historical cohort study was completed of patients with mucosal HNCA identified by International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes receiving consultation at the authors' institution from 2003 to 2008. Patients who received primary and adjuvant radiation at an academic center or in the community were included. The authors compared treatment completion rates and performed univariate and multivariate analyses of treatment outcomes.ResultsOf 388 patients, 210 completed treatment at an academic center and 145 at a community center (33 excluded, location unknown). Patients with HNCA undergoing radiation at an academic site had more advanced disease (P = .024) and were more likely to receive concurrent chemotherapy. Academic hospitals had a higher percentage of noncurrent smokers, higher median income, and higher percentage of oropharyngeal tumors. There was no significant difference in the rate of planned treatment completion between community and academic centers (93.7% vs 94.7%, P > .81) or rate of treatment breaks (22.4% vs 28.4%, P > .28). On Kaplan-Meier analysis, the 5-year survival rate was 53.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 45.3%-61.1%) for academic centers and 32.8% (95% CI, 22.0%-43.6%) for community hospitals (P < .001).Conclusion In this cohort, although treatment completion and treatment breaks were similar between academic and community centers, survival rates were higher in patients treated in an academic setting.
    Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 08/2012; · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: For patients with thrombocytopenia without bleeding risk factors, a platelet transfusion trigger of 10 × 10(9) /L is recommended. No studies have evaluated the clinicians' decision-making process leading to trigger changes. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We report on the evaluation of trigger changes and the relation with bleeding. Eighty patients previously enrolled in the SPRINT trial represent the patient population for the current analysis. RESULTS: Seventy-four patients had a starting trigger of 10 × 10(9) /L. Only a minority of patients treated with chemotherapy alone (3/12, 25%) and autologous transplant (6/15, 40%) had a change in their trigger in contrast to the majority of allogeneic transplant (37/47, 79%; p = 0.001 and p = 0.009, respectively, when compared to allogeneic transplant group). Bleeding was the main reason reported by clinicians for a trigger change, but the occurrence of significant bleeding (Grade 2-4) was similar in patients with or without a trigger change (51 and 54%, p = 1.00). Clinicians were influenced by the bleeding system: Grade 1 mucocutaneous bleeding leading to a trigger change was overrepresented (71% of cases), as was Grade 2 genitourinary bleeding not leading to a trigger change (57% of cases). CONCLUSION: A universal trigger of 10 × 10(9) /L may not be maintained in a diverse population of patients with their respective bleeding risk factors. Because the trigger is changed often, it may not be as effective as previously believed.
    Transfusion 06/2012; · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of tobacco use, both cigarette smoking and smokeless, including iqmik (homemade smokeless tobacco prepared with dried tobacco leaves mixed with alkaline ash), and of tobacco-related cancer is high in Alaskan Native people (AN). To investigate possible mechanisms of increased cancer risk we studied levels of nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) in tobacco products and biomarkers of tobacco toxicant exposure in Southwestern AN people. Participants included 163 cigarette smokers, 76 commercial smokeless tobacco, 20 iqmik, 31 dual cigarette smokers and smokeless tobacco, and 110 nontobacco users. Tobacco use history, samples of tobacco products used, and blood and urine samples were collected. Nicotine concentrations were highest in cigarette tobacco and TSNAs highest in commercial smokeless tobacco products. The AN participants smoked on average 7.8 cigarettes per day. Nicotine exposure, assessed by several biomarker measures, was highest in iqmik users, and similar in smokeless tobacco and cigarette smokers. TSNA exposure was highest in smokeless tobacco users, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure was highest in cigarette smokers. Despite smoking fewer cigarettes per day, AN cigarette smokers had similar daily intake of nicotine compared to the general U.S. population. Nicotine exposure was greatest from iqmik, likely related to its high pH due to preparation with ash, suggesting high addiction potential compared to other smokeless tobacco products. TSNA exposure was much higher with smokeless tobacco than other product use, possibly contributing to the high rates of oral cancer. Impact: Our data contribute to an understanding of the high addiction risk of iqmik use and of the cancer-causing potential of various forms of tobacco use among AN people.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 04/2012; 21(6):934-42. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pre-menopausal women with cancer are at risk of therapy-associated infertility, premature menopause, and sexual dysfunction. However, it is unknown whether oncologists adequately address these risks during treatment planning. We conducted a study to evaluate physician-patient discussions addressing the impact of cancer treatment and actual treatment effects on fertility, menopause status, and general sexual health. A questionnaire was administered in four oncology clinics specializing in breast, gynecologic, general hematology-oncology, and blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) cancer care at a single institution. Eligible participants were pre-menopausal at the time of diagnosis and either actively receiving or within 24 months from completion of treatment. Participants completed the questionnaire at enrollment and at 1-year follow-up. Of the 104 eligible women, a majority were satisfied with the quality (68%) and length (66%) of reproductive health discussions, with the highest satisfaction levels in the gynecologic cancer clinic (85%) and the lowest levels in the BMT clinic (53%). Fertility preservation was desired by 20% of women, including some >40 years old. Women were more interested in discussing treatment impact on menopause status and sexual health than fertility. Rates of discussions on treatment impact on sexual health were low despite 77% of women reporting severe sexual dysfunction at 1-year follow-up. One-third of women are dissatisfied with the quality and length of discussions regarding the impact of cancer treatment on reproductive health. There is notably inadequate counseling on the effect of treatment on fertility in women > 40 and on sexual function in all women. Oncologists must offer better resources and improve communication on the effect of treatment on reproductive health to pre-menopausal women with cancer.
    Journal of Cancer. 01/2012; 3:217-25.
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    ABSTRACT: Tobacco dependence disorder is a chronic relapsing condition, yet treatment is delivered in discrete episodes of care that yield disappointing long-term quit rates. We conducted a randomized controlled trial from June 1, 2004, through May 31, 2009, to compare telephone-based chronic disease management (1 year; longitudinal care [LC]) with evidence-based treatment (8 weeks; usual care [UC]) for tobacco dependence. A total of 443 smokers each received 5 telephone counseling calls and nicotine replacement therapy by mail for 4 weeks. They were then randomized to UC (2 additional calls) or LC (continued counseling and nicotine replacement therapy for an additional 48 weeks). Longitudinal care targeted repeat quit attempts and interim smoking reduction for relapsers. The primary outcome was 6 months of prolonged abstinence measured at 18 months of follow-up. At 18 months, 30.2% of LC participants reported 6 months of abstinence from smoking, compared with 23.5% in UC (unadjusted, P = .13). Multivariate analysis showed that LC (adjusted odds ratio, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.08-2.80), quit attempts in past year (1.75; 1.06-2.89), baseline cigarettes per day (0.95; 0.92-0.99), and smoking in the 14- to 21-day interval post-quit (0.23; 0.14-0.38) predicted prolonged abstinence at 18 months. The LC participants who did not quit reduced smoking more than UC participants (significant only at 12 months). The LC participants received more counseling calls than UC participants (mean, 16.5 vs 5.8 calls; P < .001), longer total duration of counseling (283 vs 117 minutes; P < .001), and more nicotine replacement therapy (4.7 vs 2.4 boxes of patches; P < .001). A chronic disease management approach increases both short- and long-term abstinence from smoking. Identifier: NCT00309296.
    Archives of internal medicine 11/2011; 171(21):1894-900. · 11.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We developed an instrument to measure the satisfaction of lung transplant recipients with home monitoring. The survey comprised 15 items, each scored on a five-point Likert-type scale (from strongly disagree to strongly agree). Three additional free-text items enabled subjects to provide comments. The survey had a scoring range of 15-75. In a test group of 43 patients, the internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was 0.93 overall for all questions. The intra-class correlation for scores from the same 27 patients approximately 2.5 months apart was 0.77 for the total score. The survey was used to evaluate subject satisfaction in a randomized controlled trial of a computerized algorithm for triaging lung transplant recipients. Surveys were mailed to 50 study subjects and were returned by 32 (64% return rate). Ninety percent of respondents were satisfied with the home monitoring programme and would recommend it to other patients.
    Journal of telemedicine and telecare 11/2011; 18(1):42-6. · 0.92 Impact Factor
  • Transfusion 10/2011; 51(10):2257-8. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The emergence and subsequent integration of new technologies precipitate changes in roles and work lives of nurses. The nurses' work with home monitoring technologies within a spirometry-based program that transmits pulmonary function data after lung transplantation has characteristics that are distinct from other types of direct patient care. Nurses' changing roles in such programs after transplantation have not been well described. To describe a time-motion study of 2 research nurses in the context of a home-spirometry study to monitor patients' pulmonary status after lung transplantation. A detailed list of research nurses' 67 routine work-related activities was developed and validated to monitor and record activities of research home monitoring nurses. Two weeks of observations were completed; recordings of a second observer established reliability of observations. In 48.8 hours of observation, 610 tasks related to monitoring of 45 patients were recorded. Task time ranged from brief seconds (eg, data review) to 39 minutes (eg, clinic visits). Between-observer intraclass correlation (r = 0.96) reflected high agreement in observations of the duration of activities. Agreement for category of activity was strong (kappa = 0.82), with high levels of agreement (96%). Computer tasks were the most frequent (118 tasks/week) and most time-intensive activities. Nurses' face-to-face interactions with health professionals were equally time intensive (both 267 minutes/week), but not as frequent. Data review tasks were the second most frequent (49/week), although less time-intensive (47 minutes/week). Findings reveal patterns of effort and time expenditure in nurses' evolving roles in home monitoring of the health status of patients after lung transplantation. These findings highlight the centrality and importance of well-developed data management, computer skills, and interprofessional communication skills of nurses who perform responsibilities in this emerging role in transplantation. Efforts to streamline computerized information access, as through integrated information systems, and methods to enhance efficiency in connecting with patients in the clinic may free up time for nurses to engage in other activities of direct benefit to patients. Strategies to supplement face-to-face meetings among professionals with electronic modalities may reduce the time spent meeting, while maintaining or enhancing communication.
    Progress in transplantation (Aliso Viejo, Calif.) 09/2011; 21(3):190-9. · 0.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As peripheral blood has surpassed bone marrow as a predominant source of stem cells for transplantation, use of the cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) to mobilize peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) is increasing. Issues regarding potential genotoxic effects of even short-term, low-dose G-CSF treatment for the healthy donors have been raised. To address the question of chromosomal instability, we used FISH to evaluate the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 22 PBSC donors and 22 matched controls at 5 time points over a 12-month period. The specimens obtained were a pre-G-CSF, followed by collections at the time of PBSC harvest (days 5-7) and at 2, 6, and 12 months after donation. Eight additional PBSC donors provided a single sample at 12 months. Nine loci (mapped to chromosomes 7, 8, 9, 17, 21, and 22) were evaluated for aneuploidy, including 3 mapped to chromosome 7 because of the specific relevance of monosomy 7. Replication timing was evaluated for chromosome 15 and 17 loci. No evidence was found of G-CSF-induced chromosomal instability. This work supports the epidemiologic data that have demonstrated no increased risk for hematologic malignancies in G-CSF-primed PBSC donors.
    Blood 06/2011; 118(9):2602-8. · 9.06 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
288.89 Total Impact Points


  • 1991–2011
    • University of Minnesota Twin Cities
      • • Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology
      • • Department of Otolaryngology
      • • School of Public Health
      • • College of Veterinary Medicine
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Division of Biostatistics
      Minneapolis, MN, United States
  • 1991–2010
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      • • Medical School
      • • Department of Computer Science
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
  • 2006
    • Saint Catherine University
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
    • University of Minnesota Medical Center, Fairview
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
  • 2002
    • Medical University of South Carolina
      Charleston, South Carolina, United States
  • 1998
    • Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
      • Department of Biostatistics
      Baltimore, MD, United States