Takeshi Imanishi

Osaka University, Suika, Ōsaka, Japan

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Publications (289)553.39 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recently, we demonstrated the utility of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging-based pharmacokinetic evaluation studies for preclinical experiments and microdose clinical trials, mainly focused on low molecular weight compounds. In order to investigate the pharmacokinetics of nucleic acid drugs and their drug delivery systems (DDS) in vivo by using PET imaging, we developed a novel and efficient method for radiolabeling oligodeoxynucleotides with the positron-emitting radionuclide (18)F (stoichiometry-focused Huisgen-type (18)F labeling). By using this method, we succeeded in synthesizing a variety of (18)F-labeled oligodeoxynucleotides with not only phosphodiesters (PO) in natural forms, but also phosphorothioate (PS) and bridged nucleic acid (BNA) in artificial forms, and then performed PET studies and radioactive metabolite analyses of these (18)F-labeled oligodeoxynucleotides. The tissue-distribution and dynamic changes in radioactivity showed significantly different profiles between these antisense oligodeoxynucleotides. The radioactivity of (18)F-labeled PO-DNA and PO-BNA rapidly accumulated in the kidneys and liver and then moved to the renal medulla, ureter, bladder, and intestine. However, the radioactivity of (18)F-labeled PS-DNA and PS-BNA, possessing PS backbone structures, was retained in the blood for relatively long periods and then gradually accumulated in the liver and kidneys. The metabolite analysis showed that (18)F-labeled PO-DNA rapidly degraded by 5min and (18)F-labeled PO-BNA gradually degraded over time by 60min. Conversely, (18)F-labeled PS-DNA and PS-BNA were shown to be much more stable. To demonstrate the usefulness of the PET imaging technique for evaluating the improved targeting potential of the DDS, we designed and synthesized a cholesterol-modified oligodeoxynucleotide, that we developed as an antisense nucleic acid drug against proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) for hypercholesterolemia therapy, and evaluated its pharmacokinetics using PET imaging. As expected, the (18)F-labeled cholesterol-modified PS-BNA-type oligodeoxynucleotide showed much higher and more rapid accumulation in the delivery target organ, that is, the liver, which encourages us to develop this drug. These results suggest that dynamic PET studies using (18)F-incorporated oligodeoxynucleotide synthesized by stoichiometry-focused Huisgen-type labeling is useful for quantitative pharmacokinetic evaluation of nucleic acid drugs and their delivery systems.
    Journal of Controlled Release 02/2014; · 7.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gene knockdowns using oligonucleotide-based approaches are useful for studying gene function in both in vitro cell culture systems and in vivo animal models. We evaluated the efficacy of 2',4'-bridged nucleic acids (BNA)-modified antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) for gene knockdown in zebrafish. We used the tcf7l1a gene as a model for testing the knockdown efficacy of 2',4'-BNA AONs and examined how the target sites/affinity and RNase H induction activity of 2',4'-BNA AONs affect knockdown efficacy. We found that tcf7l1a gene function was knocked down by 2',4'-BNA AONs that target the start codon and induce RNase H activity. Although nonspecific p53-mediated developmental defects were observed at higher doses, the effective dose of the 2',4'-BNA AONs for tcf7l1a is much lower than that of morpholino oligonucleotides. Our data thus show a potential application for 2',4'-BNA AONs in the downregulation of specific genes in zebrafish.
    Nucleic acid therapeutics. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Oligonucleotides containing 2′-deoxyribonucleotides bearing hydroxyphenyl nucleobases or their 2′,4′-BNA-modified analogs were synthesized, and the triplex-forming ability of their oligonucleotides with double-stranded DNA targets was evaluated by UV melting experiments. Results showed that 2′-deoxyribonucleotide bearing 2′-hydroxyphenyl nucleobase could be recognized by a dUA base pair while no affinity to a TA base pair was observed. The ,4′-BNA modification led to a further increase in the binding affinity to a dUA base pair. The ,4′-BNA bearing 3-hydroxyphenyl nucleobase showed moderate binding affinity to a TA base pair, but without selectivity.
    Tetrahedron. 08/2013; 69(31):6381–6391.
  • Yoshiyuki Hari, Satoshi Obika, Takeshi Imanishi
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    ABSTRACT: Triplex formation with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) by oligonucleotides has potential for applications in attractive technologies such as gene therapy and genetic diagnosis. However, triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) can only recognize homopurine strands in homopurine-homopyrimidine regions in dsDNA, either through Hoogsteen or through reverse-Hoogsteen hydrogen bonds. A straightforward and powerful approach to overcoming this sequence limitation is the development of artificial nucleic acids capable of recognizing specific pyrimidine-purine interruptions (i.e., a CG or TA base pair) in triplex formation. This review describes artificial nucleic acids, especially those containing non-natural nucleobases, developed to recognize CG or TA base pairs in dsDNA targets.
    ChemInform 09/2012; 43(37).
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    ABSTRACT: A small molecular model compound for the green fluorescent protein chromophore was readily synthesized by a novel condensation reaction of (thio)imidate with imino-ester via an aziridine intermediate. This compound showed fluorescence in the solid and frozen solution states but not in the solution state. Its fluorescent property was successfully applied in the detection of dsDNA.
    Organic Letters 08/2012; 14(17):4406-9. · 6.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, we reported that the 3,4-epoxypiperidine structure, whose design was based on the active site of DNA alkylating antitumor antibiotics, azinomycins A and B, possesses prominent DNA cleavage activity. In this report, novel caged DNA alkylating agents, which were designed to be activated by UV irradiation, were synthesized by the introduction of four photo-labile protecting groups to a 3,4-epoxypiperidine derivative. The DNA cleavage activity and cytotoxicity of the caged DNA alkylating agents were examined under UV irradiation. Four caged DNA alkylating agents showed various degrees of bioactivity depending on the photosensitivity of the protecting groups.
    Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 05/2012; 10(26):5102-8. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extreme instability of pyrimidine motif triplex DNA at physiological pH severely limits its use in wide variety of potential applications, such as artificial regulation of gene expression, mapping of genomic DNA, and gene-targeted mutagenesis in vivo. Stabilization of pyrimidine motif triplex at physiological pH is, therefore, crucial for improving its potential in various triplex-formation-based strategies in vivo. To this end, we investigated the effect of 3'-amino-2'-O,4'-C-methylene bridged nucleic acid modification of triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO), in which 2'-O and 4'-C of the sugar moiety were bridged with the methylene chain and 3'-O was replaced by 3'-NH, on pyrimidine motif triplex formation at physiological pH. The modification not only significantly increased the thermal stability of the triplex but also increased the binding constant of triplex formation about 15-fold. The increased magnitude of the binding constant was not significantly changed when the number and position of the modification in TFO changed. The consideration of the observed thermodynamic parameters suggested that the increased rigidity of the modified TFO in the free state resulting from the bridging of different positions of the sugar moiety with an alkyl chain and the increased hydration of the modified TFO in the free state caused by the introduction of polar nitrogen atoms may significantly increase the binding constant at physiological pH. The study on the TFO viability in human serum showed that the modification significantly increased the resistance of TFO against nuclease degradation. This study presents an effective approach for designing novel chemically modified TFOs with higher binding affinity of triplex formation at physiological pH and higher nuclease resistance under physiological condition, which may eventually lead to progress in various triplex-formation-based strategies in vivo.
    Biochimie 04/2012; 94(4):1032-40. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The duplex stability with target mRNA and the gene silencing potential of a novel bridged nucleic acid analogue are described. The analogue, 2',4'-BNA(NC) antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) ranging from 10- to 20-nt-long, targeted apolipoprotein B. 2',4'-BNA(NC) was directly compared to its conventional bridged (or locked) nucleic acid (2',4'-BNA/LNA)-based counterparts. Melting temperatures of duplexes formed between 2',4'-BNA(NC)-based antisense oligonucleotides and the target mRNA surpassed those of 2',4'-BNA/LNA-based counterparts at all lengths. An in vitro transfection study revealed that when compared to the identical length 2',4'-BNA/LNA-based counterpart, the corresponding 2',4'-BNA(NC)-based antisense oligonucleotide showed significantly stronger inhibitory activity. This inhibitory activity was more pronounced in shorter (13-, 14-, and 16-mer) oligonucleotides. On the other hand, the 2',4'-BNA(NC)-based 20-mer AON exhibited the highest affinity but the worst IC(50) value, indicating that very high affinity may undermine antisense potency. These results suggest that the potency of AONs requires a balance between reward term and penalty term. Balance of these two parameters would depend on affinity, length, and the specific chemistry of the AON, and fine-tuning of this balance could lead to improved potency. We demonstrate that 2',4'-BNA(NC) may be a better alternative to conventional 2',4'-BNA/LNA, even for "short" antisense oligonucleotides, which are attractive in terms of drug-likeness and cost-effective bulk production.
    Journal of nucleic acids 01/2012; 2012:707323.
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    ABSTRACT: Recent findings in molecular biology implicate the involvement of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) protein regulation. The cholesterol-lowering potential of anti-PCSK9 antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) modified with bridged nucleic acids (BNA-AONs) including 2',4'-BNA (also called as locked nucleic acid (LNA)) and 2',4'-BNA(NC) chemistries were demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. An in vitro transfection study revealed that all of the BNA-AONs induce dose-dependent reductions in PCSK9 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels concomitantly with increases in LDLR protein levels. BNA-AONs were administered to atherogenic diet-fed C57BL/6J mice twice weekly for 6 weeks; 2',4'-BNA-AON that targeted murine PCSK9 induced a dose-dependent reduction in hepatic PCSK9 mRNA and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C); the 43% reduction of serum LDL-C was achieved at a dose of 20 mg/kg/injection with only moderate increases in toxicological indicators. In addition, the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels increased. These results support antisense inhibition of PCSK9 as a potential therapeutic approach. When compared with 2',4'-BNA-AON, 2',4'-BNA(NC)-AON showed an earlier LDL-C-lowering effect and was more tolerable in mice. Our results validate the optimization of 2',4'-BNA(NC)-based anti-PCSK9 antisense molecules to produce a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
    Molecular therapy. Nucleic acids. 01/2012; 1:e22.
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    ABSTRACT: Due to the instability of pyrimidine motif triplex DNA at physiological pH, triplex stabilization at physiological pH is crucial in improving its potential in various triplex-formation-based strategies in vivo, such as gene expression regulation, genomic DNA mapping, and gene-targeted mutagenesis. To this end, we investigated the thermodynamic and kinetic effects of our previously reported chemical modification, 2'-O,4'-C-aminomethylene-bridged nucleic acid (2',4'-BNA(NC)) modification of triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO), on triplex formation at physiological pH. The thermodynamic analyses indicated that the 2',4'-BNA(NC) modification of TFO increased the binding constant of the triplex formation at physiological pH by more than 10-fold. The number and position of the 2',4'-BNA(NC) modification in TFO did not significantly affect the magnitude of the increase in the binding constant. The consideration of the observed thermodynamic parameters suggested that the increased rigidity and the increased degree of hydration of the 2',4'-BNA(NC)-modified TFO in the free state relative to the unmodified TFO may enable the significant increase in the binding constant. Kinetic data demonstrated that the observed increase in the binding constant by the 2',4'-BNA(NC) modification resulted mainly from the considerable decrease in the dissociation rate constant. The TFO stability in human serum showed that the 2',4'-BNA(NC) modification significantly increased the nuclease resistance of TFO. Our results support the idea that the 2',4'-BNA(NC) modification of TFO could be a key chemical modification to achieve higher binding affinity and higher nuclease resistance in the triplex formation under physiological conditions, and may lead to progress in various triplex-formation-based strategies in vivo.
    Chemistry 02/2011; 17(9):2742-51. · 5.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Due to instability of pyrimidine motif triplex DNA at physiological pH, triplex stabilization at physiological pH is crucial in improving its potential in various triplex formation-based strategies in vivo, such as regulation of gene expression, mapping of genomic DNA, and gene-targeted mutagenesis. To this end, we investigated the effect of our previously reported chemical modification, 2'-O,4'-C-aminomethylene bridged nucleic acid (2',4'- BNA(NC)) modification, introduced into interrupted and continuous positions of triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) on pyrimidine motif triplex formation at physiological pH. The interrupted 2',4'-BNA(NC) modifications of TFO increased the binding constant of the triplex formation at physiological pH by more than 10-fold, and significantly increased the nuclease resistance of TFO. On the other hand, the continuous 2',4'-BNA(NC) modification of TFO showed lower ability to promote the triplex formation at physiological pH than the interrupted 2',4'-BNA(NC) modifications of TFO, and did not significantly change the nuclease resistance of TFO. Selection of the interruptedly 2',4'-BNA(NC)-modified positions in TFO was more favorable for achieving the higher binding affinity of the pyrimidine motif triplex formation at physiological pH and the higher nuclease resistance of TFO than that of the continuously 2',4'-BNA(NC)-modified positions in TFO. We conclude that the interrupted 2',4'-BNA(NC) modification of TFO could be a key chemical modification to enhance pyrimidine motif triplex-forming ability and nuclease resistance under physiological condition, and may eventually lead to progress in various triplex formation-based strategies in vivo.
    Nucleosides Nucleotides &amp Nucleic Acids 01/2011; 30(1):63-81. · 0.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The synthesis of 2'-O,4'-C-methyleneoxymethylene bridged nucleoside (2',4'-BNA(COC)) phosphoramidites and oligonucleotides containing 2',4'-BNA(COC) are described. 2',4'-BNA(COC) phosphoramidites bearing natural nucleobases, such as thymine, cytosine, 5-methylcytosine, adenine, and guanine were synthesized. Moreover, fully or partially 2',4'-BNA(COC)-modified oligonucleotides can be prepared by using a standard protocol except for a prolonged coupling time on an automated DNA synthesizer.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2011; 764:31-57. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) templates can hybridize to and accelerate cleavage of oligonucleotides containing a P3'→N5' phosphoramidate (P-N) linkage. This dsDNA-templated cleavage of P-N linkages could be due to conformational strain placed on the linkage upon triplex formation. To determine whether duplex formation also induced conformational strain, we examined the reactivity of the oligonucleotides with a P-N linkage in the presence of single-stranded templates, and compared these reactions to those with dsDNA templates. P-N oligonucleotides that are cleaved upon duplex formation could be used as probes to detect single-stranded nucleic acids.
    Molecules 01/2011; 16(12):10695-708. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel method for (18)F-radiolabeling of oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) by a Cu-catalyzed Huisgen reaction has been developed by using the lowest possible amount of the precursor biomolecule for the realization of stoichiometry-oriented PET (positron emission tomography) chemistry. Under the optimized cyclization conditions of p- or m-azido([(18)F]fluoromethyl)benzene and alkyne-substituted ODN (20nmol) at 40°C for 15min in the presence of CuSO(4), TBTA [tris((1-benzyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl)amine], and sodium ascorbate (2:1:2), the synthesis of (18)F-labeled ODNs with sufficiently high radioactivities of 2.1-2.5GBq and specific radioactivities of 1800-2400GBq/μmol have been accomplished for use in animal and human PET studies.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 01/2011; 19(1):249-55. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel nucleoside analog with a disulfide bridge structure at the sugar moiety, which shows redox-responsive reversibility of the sugar conformation due to formation and scission of the disulfide bond, was designed and synthesized.
    Chemical Communications 11/2010; 46(42):8058-60. · 6.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We recently reported double-stranded DNA-templated cleavage of oligonucleotides as a sequence-specific DNA-detecting method. In this method, triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) modified with 5'-amino-2',4'-BNA were used as a DNA-detecting probe. This modification introduced a P3'→N5' linkage (P-N linkage) in the backbone of the TFO, which was quickly cleaved under acidic conditions when it formed a triplex. The prompt fission of the P-N linkage was assumed to be driven by a conformational strain placed on the linkage upon triplex formation. Therefore, chemical modifications around the P-N linkage should change the reactivity by altering the microenvironment. We synthesized 5'-aminomethyl type nucleic acids, and incorporated them into TFOs instead of 5'-amino-2',4'-BNA to investigate the effect of 5'-elongation. In addition, 2',4'-BNA/LNA or 2',5'-linked DNA were introduced at the 3'- and/or 5'-neighboring residues of 5'-amino-2',4'-BNA to reveal neighboring residual effects. We evaluated the triplex stability and reaction properties of these TFOs, and found out that chemical modifications around the P-N linkage greatly affected their reaction properties. Notably, 2',5'-linked DNA at the 3' position flanking 5'-amino-2',4'-BNA brought significantly higher reactivity, and we succeeded in indicating that a TFO with this modification is promising as a DNA analysis tool.
    Nucleic Acids Research 11/2010; 38(20):7332-42. · 8.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    ChemInform 10/2010; 25(43).
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    ABSTRACT: We succeeded in the synthesis of triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) that contain a deoxyribonucleotide (Py) bearing a 2-pyridine nucleobase or the 2',4'-BNA congener (Py(B)). By UV melting experiments, it was found that 2-pyridine was a very promising nucleobase for the sequence-selective recognition of a CG base pair within double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in a parallel motif triplex. Moreover, Py(B) in TFOs showed stronger affinity to a CG base pair than Py with further increase in the selectivity. Using TFO including multiple Py(B) units, triplex formation with dsDNA containing three CG base pairs was observed.
    Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 09/2010; 8(18):4176-80. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel bridged nucleic acid bearing cyclic urea structure was successfully synthesized and introduced into oligonucleotide, displaying attractive characteristics of highly RNA selective hybridization ability and excellent resistance towards nuclease degradation.
    Chemical Communications 08/2010; 46(29):5283-5. · 6.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, a number of 2',4'-BNA- and 2',4'-BNA(NC)-modified siRNAs were designed and synthesized. Their thermal stability, nuclease resistance and gene silencing properties against cultured mammalian cells were evaluated and compared with those of natural siRNAs. The 2',4'-BNA- and 2',4'-BNA(NC)-modified siRNAs (named siBNA and siBNA(NC), respectively) showed very high T(m) values, were remarkably stable in serum sample and showed promising RNAi properties equal to those exhibited by natural siRNAs. Thermally stable siBNAs composed of slightly modified sense and antisense strands were capable of suppressing gene expression equal to that of natural siRNA. A number of modifications on the sense strand by 2',4'-BNA or 2',4'-BNA(NC), either consecutively or separated by natural RNA nucleotides, is tolerable in RNAi machinery. Modifications at the Argonauate (Ago2) cleavage site of the sense strand (9-11th positions from the 5'-end of the sense strand) produced variable results depending on siRNA composition. Mostly, modification at the 10th position diminished siRNA activity. In moderately modified siRNAs, modification at the 11th position displayed usual RNAi activity, while modification at the 9th position showed variable results depending on siRNA composition.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 05/2010; 18(10):3474-80. · 2.82 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
553.39 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1990–2014
    • Osaka University
      • • Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      • • School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      • • Division of Molecular Pharmaceutical Science
      Suika, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2012
    • National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2003–2012
    • Tokyo University of Science
      • Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 2008–2010
    • Gunma University
      • Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology
      Maebashi-shi, Gunma-ken, Japan
    • Osaka Ohtani University
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 1997–2002
    • Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2000–2001
    • Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan