Bernhard A Herzog

University of Zurich, Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland

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Publications (60)329.58 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background Echocardiographic quantification of mitral regurgitation (MR) can be challenging if the valve geometry is significantly altered. Our aim was to compare the quantification of MR by the recently developed real time three-dimensional (3D) volume color flow Doppler (RT-VCFD) method to the conventional two-dimensional (2D) echocardiographic methods during the MitraClip procedure.Methods Twenty-seven patients (mean age 76 ± 8 years, 56% male) were prospectively enrolled and severity of MR was assessed before and after the MitraClip procedure in the operating room by 3 different methods: (1) by integrative visual approach by transesophageal echocardiography, (2) by transthoracic 2D pulsed-wave Doppler–based calculation of aortic stroke volumes (SV) and mitral inflow allowing calculation of regurgitant volume, and (3) by transthoracic 3D RT-VCFD–based calculation of regurgitant volume.ResultsWe found moderate agreement between the integrative visual approach and the 3D RT-VCFD method for assessment of MR severity before (κ = 0.4, P < 0.05) and after MitraClip (κ = 0.5, P < 0.05). Relevant MR (3+ and 4+) was detected by visual approach in 27/27 and by 3D-VCFD method in 24/27 patients before and in 1 patient by both methods after the MitraClip procedure. In contrast, MR quantification by 2D SV method did not agree with the integrative visual approach or with the 3D RT-VCFD method.Conclusions Quantification of MR before and after percutaneous MV repair by 3D RT-VCFD is comparable to the integrative visual assessment and more reliable than the 2D SV method in this small study population. Further automation of 3D RT-VCFD is needed to improve the accuracy of peri-interventional MR quantification.
    Echocardiography 10/2014; · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Long term follow-up of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is scarce. The aim of the present study was to assess the prognostic value of CCTA over a follow-up period of more than 6 years. 218 Patients were included undergoing 64-slice CCTA. Images were analysed with regard to the presence of nonobstructive (<50 %) or obstructive (50 % stenosis) coronary artery disease (CAD). Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were defined as death, nonfatal myocardial infarction or urgent coronary revascularization. CCTA revealed normal coronaries in 49, nonobstructive lesions in 94, and obstructive CAD in 75 patients. During a median follow-up period of 6.9 years, MACE occurred in 45 patients (21 %). Annual MACE rates were 0.3, 2.7, and 6.0 % (p = 0.001), for patients with normal CCTA, nonobstructive, and obstructive CAD, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified the number of segments with plaques [hazard ratio (HR) 1.18, p = 0.002] as well as the presence of obstructive lesions (HR 2.28, p = 0.036) as independent predictors of MACE. The present study extends the predictive value of CCTA over more than 6 years. Patients with normal coronary arteries of CCTA continue to have an excellent cardiac prognosis, while outcome is progressively worse in patients with nonobstructive and obstructive CAD.
    The international journal of cardiovascular imaging 04/2014; · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the feasibility and image quality of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) acquisition with a submillisievert fraction of effective radiation dose using model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) for noise reduction. In 42 patients undergoing standard low-dose (100-120 kV; 450-700 mA) and additional ultra-low-dose CCTA (80-100 kV; 150-210 mA) reconstructed with MBIR, segmental image quality was graded on a four-point scale [(i): non-evaluative, (ii): good, (iii): adequate, and (iv): excellent]. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was calculated dividing left main artery (LMA) and right coronary artery (RCA) attenuation by the aortic root noise. Over a wide range of body mass index (18-40 kg/m(2)), the estimated median radiation dose exposure was 1.19 mSv [interquartile range (IQR): 1.07-1.30 mSv] for standard and 0.21 mSv (IQR: 0.18-0.23 mSv) for ultra-low-dose CCTA (P < 0.001). The median image quality score per segment was 3.5 (IQR: 3.0-4.0) in standard CCTA vs. 3.5 (IQR: 2.5-4.0) in ultra-low dose with MBIR (P = 0.29). Diagnostic image quality (scores 2-4) was found in 98.7 vs. 97.8% coronary segments (P = 0.36). Introduction of MBIR for ultra-low-dose CCTA resulted in a significant increase in SNR (P < 0.001) for LMA (from 15 ± 5 to 29 ± 7) and RCA (from 14 ± 4 to 27 ± 6) despite 82% dose reduction. Coronary computed tomography angiography acquisition with diagnostic image quality is feasible at an ultra-low radiation dose of 0.21 mSv, e.g. in the range reported for a postero-anterior and lateral chest X-ray.
    European Heart Journal 02/2014; · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: -Quantification of the mitral valve area (MVA) is important to guide percutaneous mitral valve repair using the MitraClip(TM) system. However, little is known how to best assess MVA in this specific situation. -Immediately pre and post MitraClip implantation, comprehensive three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D TEE) data were acquired for MVA assessment by pressure half-time method (MVAPHT) and by two 3D quantification methods (mitral valve quantification software (MVAMVQ) and 3D quantification software (MVA3DQ)). In addition, transmitral gradients by continuous-wave Doppler (dPmeanCW) were measured to indirectly assess MVA. Data are given as median (interquartile range). 33 patients (39% women) with a median age of 77.1 (12.4) years were studied. Pre intervention, the median MVA by PHT, MVQ and 3DQ were 4.4 (2.0) cm(2), 4.7 (2.4) cm(2) and 6.2 (2.4) cm(2), respectively (p <.001). Post intervention the MVA was reduced to 1.9 (0.7) cm(2), 2.1 (1.1) cm(2) and 2.8 (1.1) cm(2), respectively (p =.001). The median values for dPmeanCW pre and post intervention were 1.0 (1.0) and 3.0 (3.0) mmHg (p <.001). At discharge, the median dPmeanCW was 4.0 (3.0) mmHg. In multivariate regression analyses including body surface area, the three different MVA methods and dPmeanCW, a post dPmeanCW ≥ 5mmHg was the best independent predictor of an elevated transmitral gradient at discharge. -Transmitral gradients by continuous-wave Doppler are quick, feasible in all patients and superior to direct peri-interventional assessment of MVA. A post-interventional transmitral gradient by continuous-wave Doppler of ≥ 5mmHg best predicted elevated transmitral gradients at discharge.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Imaging 10/2013; · 5.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives It remains still unclear whether the use of modern noninvasive diagnostic modalities for evaluation of coronary artery disease (computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA), nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI)) were able to change the “diagnostic yield” of invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Methods The total number of ICA in the years 2000–2009 was related to the number of percutaneous interventions (PCIs) and we assessed whether there was a significant trend over time using time series analyses. We compared these data with the number of patients undergoing CTCA and nuclear MPI in the same time period. ResultsDuring the 10-year observational period, 23,397 ICA were performed. The proportion of purely diagnostic ICA (without PCI) remained stable over the whole study period (tau = −0.111, P = 0.721). A CTCA program was initiated in 2005 and 1,407 examinations were performed until 2009. Similarly, the number of nuclear MPI increased from 2,284 in the years 2000–2004 to 5,260 in the years 2005–2009 (P = 0.009). Conclusion Despite increasing availability, noninvasive testing modalities did not significantly alter the rate of purely diagnostic ICA, and still are underused as gatekeeper to ICA. Further effort is needed to optimize the use of noninvasive imaging modalities in the work-up process for coronary artery disease.
    Journal of Interventional Cardiology 10/2013; · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the impact of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) on coronary plaque volume and composition analysis as well as on stenosis quantification in high definition coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). We included 50 plaques in 29 consecutive patients who were referred for the assessment of known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) with contrast-enhanced CCTA on a 64-slice high definition CT scanner (Discovery HD 750, GE Healthcare). CCTA scans were reconstructed with standard filtered back projection (FBP) with no ASIR (0 %) or with increasing contributions of ASIR, i.e. 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 % (no FBP). Plaque analysis (volume, components and stenosis degree) was performed using a previously validated automated software. Mean values for minimal diameter and minimal area as well as degree of stenosis did not change significantly using different ASIR reconstructions. There was virtually no impact of reconstruction algorithms on mean plaque volume or plaque composition (e.g. soft, intermediate and calcified component). However, with increasing ASIR contribution, the percentage of plaque volume component between 401 and 500 HU decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Modern image reconstruction algorithms such as ASIR, which has been developed for noise reduction in latest high resolution CCTA scans, can be used reliably without interfering with the plaque analysis and stenosis severity assessment.
    The international journal of cardiovascular imaging 10/2012; · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Assessment of coronary artery calcification is increasingly used for cardiovascular risk stratification. We evaluated the reliability of calcium-scoring results using a novel iterative reconstruction algorithm (ASIR) on a high-definition 64-slice CT scanner, as such data is lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 50 consecutive patients Agatston scores, calcium mass and volume score were assessed. Comparisons were performed between groups using filtered back projection (FBP) and 20-100% ASIR algorithms. Calcium score was measured in the coronary arteries, signal and noise were measured in the aortic root and left ventricle. In comparison with FBP, use of 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% ASIR resulted in reduced image noise between groups (7.7%, 18.8%, 27.9%, 39.86%, and 48.56%, respectively; p<0.001) without difference in signal (p=0.60). With ASIR algorithms Agatston coronary calcium scoring significantly decreased compared with FBP algorithms (837.3±130.3; 802.2±124.9, 771.5±120.7; 744.7±116.8, 724.5±114.2, and 709.2±112.3 for 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% ASIR, respectively, p<0.001). Volumetric score decreased in a similar manner (p<0.001) while calcium mass remained unchanged. Mean effective radiation dose was 0.81±0.08mSv. CONCLUSION: ASIR results in image noise reduction. However, ASIR image reconstruction techniques for HDCT scans decrease Agatston coronary calcium scores. Thus, one needs to be aware of significant changes of the scoring results caused by different reconstruction methods.
    International journal of cardiology 09/2012; · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have evaluated the impact of increased body mass on the quality of myocardial perfusion imaging using a latest-generation γ-camera with cadmium-zinc-telluride semiconductor detectors in patients with high (≥40 kg/m(2)) or very high (≥45 kg/m(2)) body mass index (BMI). We enrolled 81 patients, including 18 with no obesity (BMI < 30 kg/m(2)), 17 in World Health Organization obese class I (BMI, 30-34.9 kg/m(2)), 15 in class II (BMI, 35-39.9 kg/m(2)), and 31 in class III (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2)), including 15 with BMI ≥ 45 kg/m(2). Image quality was scored as poor (1), moderate (2), good (3), or excellent (4). Patients with BMI ≥ 45 kg/m(2) and nondiagnostic image quality (≤2) were rescanned after repositioning to better center the heart in the field of view. Receiver-operating-curve analysis was applied to determine the BMI cutoff required to obtain diagnostic image quality (≥3). Receiver-operating-curve analysis resulted in a cutoff BMI of 39 kg/m(2) (P < 0.001) for diagnostic image quality. In patients with BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2), image quality was nondiagnostic in 81%; after CT-based attenuation correction this decreased to 55%. Repositioning further improved image quality. Rescanning on a conventional SPECT camera resulted in diagnostic image quality in all patients with BMI ≥ 45 kg/m(2). Patients with BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2) should be scheduled for myocardial perfusion imaging on a conventional SPECT camera, as it is difficult to obtain diagnostic image quality on a cadmium-zinc-telluride camera.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 06/2012; 53(9):1401-6. · 5.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ability to obtain quantitative values of flow and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) has been perceived as an important advantage of PET over conventional nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). We evaluated the added diagnostic value of MFR over MPI alone as assessed with (13)N-ammonia and PET/CT to predict angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD). Seventy-three patients underwent 1-d adenosine stress-rest (13)N-ammonia PET/CT MPI, and MFR was calculated. The added value of MFR as an adjunct to MPI for predicting CAD (luminal narrowing ≥ 50%) was evaluated using invasive coronary angiography as a standard of reference. Per patient, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of MPI for detecting significant CAD were 79%, 80%, 91%, 59%, and 79%, respectively. Adding a cutoff of less than 2.0 for global MFR to MPI findings improved the values to 96% (P < 0.005), 80%, 93%, 89% (P < 0.005), and 92% (P < 0.005), respectively. The quantification of MFR in (13)N-ammonia PET/CT MPI provides a substantial added diagnostic value for detection of CAD. Particularly in patients with normal MPI results, quantification of MFR helps to unmask clinically significant CAD.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 06/2012; 53(8):1230-4. · 5.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to assess the long-term predictive value of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with (13)N-ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with suspected myocardial perfusion abnormality. At present, outcome data on the predictive value of MPI in (13)N-ammonia PET exist only for rather small patient populations. METHODS: Cardiac perfusion was assessed in 943 consecutive patients using (13)N-ammonia PET, and follow-up was obtained in 698 (74%). 77 patients who underwent early revascularization (<60days) were excluded and 621 patients were assigned to normal versus abnormal perfusion for outcome analysis. Hard events (cardiac death and non-fatal myocardial infarction) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE; hard events, hospitalization for cardiac reasons and late revascularization) were investigated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Independent predictors for various cardiac events were identified using Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. RESULTS: During follow-up (5.7±2.5years), 275 patients had at least 1 cardiac event, including 102 cardiac deaths and 33 non-fatal myocardial infarction. Abnormal perfusion (n=469) was associated with a higher incidence of MACE (P<0.001) and hard events (P<0.001) throughout the 10-year follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac perfusion findings in (13)N-ammonia PET are strong predictors of long-term outcome.
    International journal of cardiology 04/2012; · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Low yield of invasive coronary angiography and unnecessary coronary interventions have been identified as key cost drivers in cardiology for evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD). This has fuelled the search for noninvasive techniques providing comprehensive functional and anatomical information on coronary lesions. We have evaluated the impact of implementation of a novel hybrid cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT)/64-slice CT camera into the daily clinical routine on downstream resource utilization. Sixty-two patients with known or suspected CAD were referred for same-day single-session hybrid evaluation with CZT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and coronary CT angiography (CCTA). Hybrid MPI/CCTA images from the integrated CZT/CT camera served for decision-making towards conservative versus invasive management. Based on the hybrid images patients were classified into those with and those without matched findings. Matched findings were defined as the combination of MPI defect with a stenosis by CCTA in the coronary artery subtending the respective territory. All patients with normal MPI and CCTA as well as those with isolated MPI or CCTA finding or combined but unmatched findings were categorized as "no match". All 23 patients with a matched finding underwent invasive coronary angiography and 21 (91%) were revascularized. Of the 39 patients with no match, 5 (13%, p < 0.001 vs matched) underwent catheterization and 3 (8%, p < 0.001 vs matched) were revascularized. Cardiac hybrid imaging in CAD evaluation has a profound impact on patient management and may contribute to optimal downstream resource utilization.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 12/2011; 39(3):430-6. · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ischemic coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause for morbidity and mortality resulting in a continuously increasing number of diagnostic interventions. We have validated a new hybrid imaging method using minimized radiation dose for rapid non-invasive prediction of invasive coronary angiography (CA) findings with regard to coronary lesion detection and revascularization. Forty patients referred for elective invasive coronary angiography (CA) due to suspected CAD were prospectively enrolled to undergo a low-dose CTCA with prospective ECG-triggering and a stress-only SPECT-MPI scan administering half of the standard low-dose stress (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin activity. The latter was acquired immediately after adenosine stress (omitting the standard 30-60 min waiting time). After fusing CTCA and SPECT-MPI decisions towards conservative management versus revascularization strategy based on hybrid images were compared to the decisions taken by the interventional operator in the catheterization laboratory based on CA. The latter served as standard of reference. Hybrid images yielded sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy of 100%, 96.0%, 100%, 93.8% and 97.5% for predicting coronary revascularization. The estimated mean effective radiation doses were significantly lower for hybrid imaging (4.7 ± 1.0 mSv) than for invasive CA (8.7 ± 4.2 mSv; P<0.001 vs. hybrid). Total non-invasive protocol time was below 60 min, comparing favourably to standard SPECT protocols. Rapid cardiac hybrid imaging allows accurate prediction of invasive CA findings and of treatment decision despite minimized radiation dose and protocol time.
    International journal of cardiology 11/2011; 153(1):10-3. · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the potential age- and gender-specific differences in the incidence and prognostic value of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients undergoing CT coronary angiography (CTA). In this multicentre prospective registry study, 2432 patients (mean age 57 ± 12, 56% male) underwent CTA for suspected CAD. Patients were stratified into four groups according to age <60 or ≥60 years and, male or female gender. A composite end point of cardiac death and non-fatal myocardial infarction. CTA results were normal in 991 (41%) patients, showed non-significant CAD in 761 (31%) patients and significant CAD in the remaining 680 (28%) patients. During follow-up (median 819 days, 25-75th centile 482-1142) a cardiovascular event occurred in 59 (2.4%) patients. The annualised event rate was 1.1% in the total population (men=1.3% and women=0.9%). In patients aged <60 years, the annualised event rate of male and female patients was 0.6% and 0.5%, respectively. Among patients aged ≥60 years the annualised event rate was 1.9% in male and 1.1% in female patients. Observations on CTA predicted events in male patients, both age <60 and ≥60 years and in female patients age ≥60 years (log-rank test in all groups, p<0.01). However, CTA provided limited prognostic value in female patients aged <60 years (log-rank test, p=0.45). After age and gender stratification, CTA findings were shown to be of limited predictive value in female patients aged <60 years as compared with male patients at any age and female patients aged ≥60 years.
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 09/2011; 98(3):232-7. · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim was to prospectively characterise the effect of the level of breath-hold on heart rate in CT coronary angiography (CTCA) with prospective electrocardiogram (ECG) triggering and its impact on coronary artery attenuation. 260 patients (86 women; mean age 59 ± 11 years) underwent 64-slice CTCA using prospective ECG triggering. Prior to CTCA, heart rates were recorded during 15 s of breath-hold at three different levels of inspiration (normal, intermediate and deep). The inspiration level with the lowest heart rate was chosen for actual CTCA scanning. Coronary artery attenuation was measured, and the presence of backflow of contrast material into the inferior vena cava (as an indicator of increased intrathoracic pressure) was recorded. The mean heart rate at breath-hold was significantly different for the three inspiration levels (normal, 60 ± 8 bpm; intermediate, 59 ± 8 bpm; deep, 57 ± 7 bpm; p<0.001). The maximum heart rate reduction in each patient at breath-hold averaged 5.3 ± 5.1 bpm, and was observed at a normal inspiration depth in 23 (9%) patients, at an intermediate inspiration depth in 102 (39%) patients and at deep inspiration in 135 (52%) patients. Overall, there was no association between the level of breath-hold and coronary vessel attenuation (p-value was not significant). However, the backflow of contrast material into the inferior vena cava (n = 26) was found predominantly at deep inspiration levels (p<0.001), and, when it occurred, it was associated with reduced coronary attenuation compared with patients with no backflow (p<0.05). The breath-hold level to best reduce heart rate for CTCA should be individually assessed prior to scanning because a mean heart rate reduction of 5 bpm can be achieved.
    The British journal of radiology 09/2011; 84(1005):790-5. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors with linear counting rate response enable count subtraction in sequential scanning. We evaluated whether count subtraction eliminated the need for higher activity doses in the second part of the 1-d stress-rest myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) protocol. For 50 patients (mean age ± SD, 66 ± 12 y) with visually abnormal (n = 42) or equivocal (n = 8) adenosine-stress MPI (320 MBq of (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin) on a CZT camera, rest MPI was performed with a low dose (320 MBq) and repeated after injection of an additional 640 MBq of (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin to achieve a standard 3-fold increased dose at rest (960 MBq), compared with stress (320 MBq). Low-dose rest myocardial perfusion images were reconstructed after subtracting the background activity of the preceding stress scan. Segmental percentage tracer uptake of the 2 rest myocardial perfusion images (320 vs. 960 MBq) was compared using intraclass correlation and Bland-Altman limits of agreement. Patient- and coronary territory-based clinical agreement was assessed. The standard protocol revealed ischemia in 34 (68%) and a fixed defect in 8 (16%) patients, of whom 33 (97%) and 8 (100%) were correctly identified by low-dose MPI (clinical agreement, 98%). Segmental uptake correlated well between low- and standard-dose rest scans (r = 0.94, P < 0.001; Bland-Altman limits of agreement, -11 to +11%). Defect extent was 14.4% (low-dose) versus 13.1% (standard-dose) at rest (P = not statistically significant) and 26.6% at stress (P < 0.001 vs. rest scans). These promising results suggest that accurate assessment of ischemic myocardial disease is feasible with a low-dose-low-dose 1-d SPECT MPI protocol using a CZT device.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 08/2011; 52(8):1204-9. · 5.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac hybrid imaging by fusing single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging with coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) provides important complementary diagnostic information for coronary artery disease (CAD) assessment. We aimed at assessing the impact of cardiac hybrid imaging on the choice of treatment strategy selection for CAD. Three hundred and eighteen consecutive patients underwent a 1 day stress/rest (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT and a CCTA on a separate scanner for evaluation of CAD. Patients were divided into one of the following three groups according to findings in the hybrid images obtained by fusing SPECT and CCTA: (i) matched finding of stenosis by CCTA and corresponding reversible SPECT defect; (ii) unmatched CCTA and SPECT finding; (iii) normal finding by both CCTA and SPECT. Follow-up was confined to the first 60 days after hybrid imaging as this allows best to assess treatment strategy decisions including the revascularization procedure triggered by its findings. Hybrid images revealed matched, unmatched, and normal findings in 51, 74, and 193 patients. The revascularization rate within 60 days was 41, 11, and 0% for matched, unmatched, and normal findings, respectively (P< 0.001 for all inter-group comparisons). Cardiac hybrid imaging with SPECT and CCTA provides an added clinical value for decision making with regard to treatment strategy for CAD.
    European Heart Journal 07/2011; 32(22):2824-9. · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with cardiovascular (CV) events caused by advanced atherosclerosis. Computed tomographic coronary angiography (CTA) can accurately diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD) and predict CV outcomes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether moderate CKD provides prognostic information for CV events in patients undergoing CTA. In total 885 patients with suspected CAD underwent CTA and were stratified to moderate CKD (85 patients) or no CKD (770 patients) based on a cut-off estimated glomerular filtration rate of 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2). After 896 days of follow-up, 42 patients developed CV events. Annualized CV event rates were 1.2% in patients with no CKD and no CAD, 2.5% in patients with moderate CKD alone, 2.5% in patients with obstructive CAD alone, and 3.7% in those with moderate CKD and obstructive CAD. Multivariate models demonstrated that moderate CKD (hazard ratio 2.39, confidence interval 1.09 to 5.21, p = 0.03) and obstructive CAD (hazard ratio 2.76, confidence interval 1.40 to 5.44, p <0.01) were independent predictors of CV events. Importantly, moderate CKD provided incremental prognostic information in addition to clinical characteristics and obstructive CAD (chi-square 49.4, p = 0.04). In conclusion, moderate CKD was associated with CV events and provided incremental prognostic information.
    The American journal of cardiology 07/2011; 108(7):968-72. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To establish the value of the main pulmonary artery (MPA) diameter assessed from unenhanced computer tomography (CT) scans used for attenuation correction (AC) of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) to predict pulmonary hypertension (PHT). In contrast-enhanced chest CT scans an MPA diameter of 29 mm or greater is an established predictor of PHT. However, it is unknown, whether measurements from an unenhanced CT scan for AC may be used as predictor of PHT. 100 patients underwent SPECT MPI for assessment of coronary artery disease. PHT was defined as a right ventriculo-atrial gradient of 30 mm Hg or greater by Doppler echocardiography. We compared MPA diameter from CT to SPECT findings (right ventricular hypertrophy/enlargement, septal wall motion abnormality/perfusion defect, and D-shape) to determine the best predictor of PHT. PHT was found in 37 patients. An MPA diameter of 30 mm or greater yielded a sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive, and negative predictive value of 78%, 91%, 86%, 83%, and 88%, respectively. This yielded an area under the ROC curve of 0.85. MPA diameter from low-dose unenhanced multi-slice CT reliably predicts PHT, providing an important added clinical value from AC for SPECT MPI.
    Journal of Nuclear Cardiology 06/2011; 18(4):634-41. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The outcome of patients with severe ischaemic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is determined by the extent of myocardial viability and the presence of LV dyssynchrony. We aimed at assessing both parameters from the same imaging method, i.e. gated positron emission tomography (PET) F18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) scans. Phase analysis from Emory Cardiac Toolbox was applied on gated PET-FDG scans to assess histogram bandwidth and standard deviation (SD) as a measure of LV dyssynchrony in 30 heart failure patients (mean ejection fraction: 30.2% ± 13.8%) referred for the evaluation of myocardial viability. Cut-off values from single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI) best predicting cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) response served as standard of reference (bandwidth < 135°; phase SD < 43°). Severe LV dyssynchrony was diagnosed if both SPECT-MPI values were above these limits. Intraclass correlation and clinical agreement in detection of severe LV dyssynchrony by PET vs SPECT were assessed. There was a significant correlation between PET-FDG and SPECT-MPI for bandwidth (r = 0.88, P < .001) and phase SD (r = 0.88, P < .001) resulting in an excellent clinical agreement between the two methods of 93%. Accurate LV dyssynchrony assessment by phase analysis of gated PET-FDG scans is feasible, allowing assessing myocardial viability and severe LV dyssynchrony in one scan.
    Journal of Nuclear Cardiology 06/2011; 18(5):920-5. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the clinical impact of a very high coronary artery calcium score (CAC >1000) in patients with no known coronary artery disease (CAD) and normal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). The secondary aim was to evaluate whether triple vessel disease would support the notion of balanced ischaemia as an underlying mechanism of false negative SPECT MPI in patients with very high CAC. No data exist on the clinical value of high CAC in patients with normal SPECT MPI. 50 patients with suspected CAD and normal stress/rest SPECT MPI and CAC >1000 prospectively underwent invasive coronary angiography as the standard of reference. Coronary lesions with ≥50% luminal diameter narrowing on invasive coronary angiography were considered to represent significant stenosis. The median total CAC was 1975 (range 1018-8046). In 37/50 (74%) patients, coronary angiography revealed one-vessel disease (1-VD) (n=15), 2-VD (n=10) or 3-VD (n=12). Twenty-six revascularisations (percutaneous coronary intervention/coronary artery bypass grafting) were performed in seven (6/1), seven (6/1) and 12 (7/5) patients with 1-VD, 2-VD and 3-VD, respectively. In patients with normal SPECT MPI, a CAC >1000 confers a high diagnostic added value for detecting CAD. This is not solely based on unmasking balanced ischaemia due to epicardial 3-VD, as it occurred predominantly in patients with 1-VD and 2-VD.
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 06/2011; 97(12):998-1003. · 5.01 Impact Factor